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This book examines reconstruction and resilience of historic cities and societies from multiple disciplinary and complementary perspectives and, by doing so, it helps researchers and practitioners alike, among them reconstruction managers, urban governance and professionals. The book builds on carefully selected and updated papers accepted for the 2019 Silk Cities international conference on ‘reconstruction, recovery and resilience of historic cities and societies’, the third Silk Cities conference held in L’Aquila, Italy, 10-12 July 2019, working with University of L’Aquila and UCL.

This multi-scale, and multidisciplinary book offers cross-sectoral and complimentary voices from multiple stakeholders, including academia, urban governance, NGOs and local populations. It examines post-disaster reconstruction strategies and case studies from Europe, Asia and Latin America that provide a valuable collection for anyone who would like to get a global overview on the subject matter. It thereby enables a deeper understanding of challenges, opportunities and approaches in dealing with historic cities facing disasters at various geographical scales. Additionally, it brings together historical approaches to the reconstruction of historical cities and those of more recent times. Thus, it can be used as a reference book for global understanding of the subject matter.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction: Towards Multi-perspective and Multidisciplinary Approaches

InMultidisciplinary approaches a post-disaster situation, whether because of destructive natural or human-induced hazards, the interrelations of historic urban contexts, social, psychological and economic factors present a highly complex scenario for decision makers, practitioners and affected communities and individuals. This chapter makes the case and offers an entry point to this book, historic citiesHistoric cities in the face of disasters. Examining historical and contemporary cases of dealing with disasters in historic landscapes, especially the historic built environment reconstructionReconstruction, provides the opportunity for self-reflection of the part of the global community regarding the past and where theory, policy and practice stand today, to help for directions for a better future. Shockingly, there is extensive evidence that historical experiences have not led to organisational learning in many cases. There is a need to apply a multi-perspective and multidisciplinary examination of this complex subject matter, and this is a phenomenon that occurs as a global challenge which this book aims to explore. Focusing on the bigger picture, the chapter also reflects on views and approaches in different cases discussed in the book and examines their communalities and contrasts to pose a number of key questions and food for thought that can be traced back and in the book. It highlights the everlasting dilemma when thinking about reconstructionReconstruction in historic landscape, when the obsession with a fixed moment of the past versus updating damaged historic urban fabricHistoric urban fabric; the question of if heritage can be used as an excuse for non-participatory reconstructionReconstruction approaches and potentials and conditionalities of the application of new and smart technologies for reconstructionReconstruction of historic citiesHistoric cities and their enhanced resilienceResilience. Multi-scale examinations offer multidisciplinary, cross-sectoral and complimentary voices from multiple stakeholders. Many chapters adopted different standpoints and tapped on the body of knowledge belonging to a broad range of disciplines and push boundaries of the intersection of urban, disaster and heritage discourses.

Fatemeh Farnaz Arefian, Judith Ryser, Andrew Hopkins, Jamie Mackee

Heritage and Collective Memory

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Thinking About Post-disaster Reconstruction in Europe: Functionalist and Identity Approaches

This chapter analyses reconstructions of historic centres in selected European cities damaged by earthquakesEarthquake and wars. The latest Italian reconstructionsItalian reconstructions have sparked renewed interest within the scientific community of the issue of the preservation of historic centres. Beginning briefly with significant examples of post-disaster reconstruction in EuropeEurope spanning a period of almost three centuries, the focus then shifts to emblematic cases of reconstruction that have been significant for the development of urban approaches. Although important examples of reconstructions such as LisbonLisbon (Portugal), ThessalonikiThessaloniki (Greece) and MessinaMessina (Italy) are mentioned, the main analysis concentrates on reconstruction post-World War II emphasising recent Italian reconstructionsItalian reconstructions following earthquakesEarthquake during the last decade. A review of the literature on the history of reconstruction allows the key concepts to be traced: those that emerged from urban planning treaties, charters and international conventions, and how they have influenced patterns of reconstruction up to the present day.

Francesca Fiaschi

Chapter 3. Old Souks of Aleppo: A Narrative Approach to Post-conflict Heritage Reconstruction

The ongoing conflictConflict in SyriaSyria has caused major destructionDestruction to its cities especially in AleppoAleppo and its historical urbanUrban fabric. Moreover, the physical destruction of the heritageHeritage has caused the disruption of Aleppo’s cultural and socialSocial practices embodied in its historical city. The current heritage managementHeritage management approach is a top-downTop-down practice reinforced by the Syrian lawSyrian law excluding the engagement of the public in the decision-making process. This researchResearch focuses on the post-conflictPost-conflict reconstructionReconstruction of the destroyed heritageDestroyed heritage sitesSite and the inclusionInclusion of theLocal community local communityCommunity and their cultural and social practices. The research analyses narrativesNarrative (pastPast, presentPresent and future) Future related to the lost heritageLost heritage in Aleppo from both the expertsExperts and non-expertNon-expert groups. Such research helps to raise awareness of heritage’s healing capacityHeritage’s healing capacity, and it is an integral role for recoveryRecovery in the aftermath of a crisisCrisis. The data collection methods incorporated semi-structured interviewsSemi structured interviews and site visitsSite visits of the destroyed heritage in theOld Souks Old Souks of AleppoOld Souks of Aleppo.The results of the research first identified historical, economical and social drivers that underlie the past connections between the heritage and its people. Second, it diagnosed the present traumaTrauma of losing identitiesIdentities and other problems restricting the process of reconstruction. Third, the research assimilated a collection of future suggestionsSuggestions for the recovery of both the built and cultural heritageCultural heritage provided by the participantsParticipants. The chapter shows that the interrelations of the built and cultural heritage, and associated meanings and values, played a dominant role in the continuation and progress of Aleppo. Therefore, it reinforces the leading role heritage can play in rebuildingRebuilding the city and healing society’s conflict wounds. The chapter advocates for an inclusive approach to ultimately guide the recovery processRecovery process in a post-conflict societyPost-conflict society.

Judy Mahfouz

Chapter 4. Photography for the City, Between the Need for Protection, Conservation and Civic Identity

This chapter analyses the potential of photographyPhotography, an extraordinary tool to explore city recovery based on social, psychological, economic and cultural heritageCultural heritage and to link urban resilienceResilience with cultural heritageCultural heritage. PhotographyPhotography reproduces a variety of contexts and events: daily intimate ones such as family photos and public identity-making ones, such as celebrations and religious rites that take place in strategic places within the city, such as squares and churches. With reference to the latter, photographyPhotography stands as a direct witness to unknown settings and transformations, as memory of the lost heritage during restorations and catastrophes, thus assuming great documentary value. The earthquakeEarthquakes which struck L’AquilaL’Aquila in 2009 gave the opportunity to highlight the documentary value of photos. The aim of this chapter is to draw attention to the importance of both analogue and digital photos, by using the example of the earthquakeEarthquakes of 2009. The project of a large historical photographic collection about the cities which were struck by geophysical disastersGeophysical disasters represents the source and the underlying theme for reconstruction and also the occasion for citizens to regain their collective consciousness. It requires civic participation and public commitment since everyone has got photos and can effectively contribute to the project. This leads to a real civic recovery of the heritage and therefore shortens distances between the old and the new generations on the one hand and the cultural heritageCultural heritage on the other hand. The awareness of the importance of heritage and of the broader concept of cultural landscapeCultural landscape are the basis for the rediscovery of a city’s civic identityCivic identity, for the material reconstruction of the city and are also a stimulus to recovery, in terms of social cohesion, psychological well-being and resilienceResilience.

Simona Manzoli

Chapter 5. Cultural Heritage as Stones of Memory: The Recovery of Archives in the Marche Crater Area

The seismic events of Central Italy in 2016 and 2017 interrupted the lifeblood of many territories between the MarcheMarche, Italy, UmbriaUmbria, Italy, LazioLazio, Italy and AbruzzoAbruzzo, Italy. The most affected zone included the area of the Sibillini Mountains and the upper Tronto valley. Even if the emergency state is now over, there are still many interventions to be undertaken. Unsurprisingly, the first allocation of funds was directed to the physical reconstruction of the territories, but it is also essential to deal with the recuperation of social recollection and identity. For this reason, an integrated reading of cultural heritageCultural heritage (archivesArchives, libraries and museums) was essential to guarantee the survival of the memoriesMemory of those communities that were significantly damaged or even completely destroyed. Hence, the need to create a scientific project shared between territories and stakeholders aimed at preserving the vast documentary heritage that remains in highly precarious conditions. A first phase of the project was dedicated to the recovery, description, reorganisation and cataloguing of selected archivesArchives; subsequently, a second phase of the project will be aimed at reconstructing the identity of the communities damaged by seismic events through a narrative path and an educational strand, so that citizens can fully understand how the possible loss of archivesArchives is also the equivalent of a loss of memoryMemory itself. Stones of memoryMemory is a project dedicated to cultural heritageCultural heritage so as to avoid losing the material and immaterial value that the institutes and places of culture preserve as the principal aim of their mission. This chapter examines the methodological principles and the actions related to this project dedicated to the recovery of archivesArchives in the area of the MarcheMarche, Italy crater. This contribution presents the planning phases of the first two projects begun in the municipalities of Urbisaglia and UssitaUssita, Italy. Furthermore, it analyses a case of musealizationMusealization (SI) and the recovery of local memoryMemory.

Giorgia Di Marcantonio, Pamela Galeazzi, Caterina Paparello

Chapter 6. Intangible Heritage and Resilience in Managing Disaster Shelters: Case Study in Japan

The Great East Japan EarthquakeGreat East Japan Earthquake has taught Japan many valuable lessons, one of which is the importance of preparation for disasters that can occur unpredictably and overwhelm all defences built within the limits of an anticipated threat. In the case of an excessive challenge, unexpected resources might be required. This chapter investigates one such type of resource in the context of a small town in Iwate PrefectureIwate Prefecture. Intangible heritage encompasses several types of traditional culture, including speech, rituals and movements, such as forms of interaction and festivals, beliefs and ceremonies and dance. These forms of intangible heritage are greater than just an inheritance, similarly, functioning as the foundation of a sense of community. Focusing on three disaster shelters in three districts of the coastal town of Otsuchi, the study examined links between establishing and managing disaster shelters and intangible cultural heritage resources in communities. It was found that of the three, one lacked a connection to the intangible cultural heritageIntangible cultural heritage related to the given district, whereas the other two had connections. Managing the shelter in the district without heritage binding the community did not go well, with an absence of desire to take responsibility or make decisions. Contrastingly, in the other shelters the interviewees often mentioned their surprise at how well everything had gone in the wake of the disaster. As the chapter argues, the continuation of traditional culture, such as local dances and festivals, may well be the key to preparing for disasters. The case studies in this study can adapt to communities around the world—cultural preservation and sustainable community disaster management plans realised by carrying on the culture and disaster management practices.

Miwako Kitamura

Chapter 7. Water Gives, Water Takes Away. Memory, Agency and Resilience in ENSO—Vulnerable Historic Landscapes in Peru

The valleys of the north coastNorth coast of PeruPeru compriseAgency aResilience richPeru cultural landscape that over many centuries facilitated the development of complex societies, due to a year-round temperate climate, abundant natural resources and fertile soils. This area is also vulnerable to episodic ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation)ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) events, in which elevated sea temperatures and changes in wind patterns lead to intense rains, floodingFlooding, droughtsDrought and disruptions in the coastal food chain. Historically, El NiñoEl Niño events have varied significantly in intensity, frequency and location, so that while some communities experienced devastation, others benefited from an increase in waterWater, the expansion of green areas and vegetation and the creation of new ecosystems. The societies of the pre-Hispanic periodPrehispanic period like the Moche, SicánSican (prehispanic society) and Chimú were skilled at understanding, adapting and transforming these diverse territories and in adjusting to the ebbs and flows of waterWater through technological, managerial, religious and performance-based approaches. In times of environmental stressEnvironmental stress, human sacrificesSacrifice were a way for people, usually leaders and elites, to commune with their deities to give thanks and ask for relief, while also serving to negotiate and consolidate political and symbolic power, prestige and privilege. These narratives and experiences of the pastExperiences of the past have the potential to offer modern-day rural and urban communities valuable lessons in rethinking how to live with waterWater and increase resilienceResilience, especially in the face of more frequent ENSOENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) events, climate change and urban expansion. Learning from the pastThe past in order to ensure a better future, however, also requires consideration of failure, fear and perplexing perceptions of risk. Finally, it is valuable to understand how some markers of social complexity, like deep economic and symbolic ties to a place, and the desire for stability, can hinder flexibility and lead to responsesResponses to ENSO/El Nino events that ultimately increase vulnerabilityVulnerability to El NiñoEl Niño events.

Rosabella Alvarez-Calderón, Silva-Santisteban

Chapter 8. Intangible Cultural Economy, a Mould for Tangible Urban Built Fabric—The Case of Shahjahanabad, India

Historic Silk Route citiesSilk city have always been known for their trade culture and lifestyles which contribute to generating tangible urban fabric and built character. Residential quarters of such historical cities are often based on trade communities. Usually, they grew organically with time and led towards interdependency between their tangible urban fabric and intangible sociocultural pattern. Such living pockets are known by traditional different native names like “MahallaMahalla”, “KatraKatras”, “Bara”, “Pol” and “Ahata” in different parts of India. This chapter envisions future urbanism for traditional trade-based residential pockets in old cities of India through a revival of their cultural traits, especially the ones which have a direct connection with the Silk Route crossing through India which were important trade centres from the past to the present. These cities have proved to be interesting networks of such trade-based residential pockets which act as a laboratory for the evolution of cultural features based on communities having a direct relationship with trade and trade routes, focusing on India. The chapter illustrates that these traits, based on cultural economyCultural economy, generating richness and diversity in old heritage trade-community-based neighbourhoodsCommunity-based neighbourhoods, are the main key to the cultural heritage in historic old cities which arose as a by-product of trade routes. The research has been restricted to current cultural, social and spatial characteristics, to study the “PurasPuras of ShahjahanabadShahjahanabad” and their intangible heritage in the City of ShahjahanabadCity of Shahjahanabad (Old Delhi). The historical transformation of MahallasMahalla (neighbourhoods) in relation to a city plays an important role in understanding its significance on how an intangible heritage of a trade-based community plays an important role in giving birth to a tangible one in the form of urban built fabric. The research explores the idea of the cultural economyCultural economy in the old city of ShahjahanabadCity of Shahjahanabad in India through a study of the trade-based community neighbourhoods having historic morphological structures and communal intangible traits related to the Silk Route. It helps to understand the qualities of the physical character of such trade-community-based neighbourhoods in old cities, especially when they are in their transition period from historic trade towns to contemporary commercial zones of an expanded city.

Abhishek Jain

Chapter 9. The Tree: The Concept of Place After the Earthquake, L’Aquila

A treeThe Tree isConcept of place a vital source for the inhabitants of the forest: it offers a safe home. Then the treeThe Tree gets sick and the animals run away, abandoning it. A place must be place before it is attractive and comfortable. The city of L’AquilaL’Aquila is like that tree. Due to the reconstructionReconstruction as it was and where it wasAs it was and where it was the inhabitants of L’AquilaL’Aquila stopped right before the tragedy and they found themselves in front of fake buildings just like the castlesCastles of Disneyland. The few examples of contemporary architectureModern architecture in the city have been denied by a large portion of the citizens. The city fails to grow in parallel with the reconstructionReconstruction of its historic centre. Over a decade after the earthquakeEarthquake, earthquakes the inhabitants are tired of waiting. They complain about missed opportunities and delays and no longer believe in life inside the city walls. For many years, they have been living an internal conflict suspended between despair and joy. TouristsTourism, tourists, university students and foreigners who move to L’Aquila are affected by the social fervour coexisting with construction sitesConstruction site, the dust and the trucks, which remind locals of the strong identityIdentity that this city communicates. The reconstructionReconstruction is having unexpected implications: it is directed not only to the inhabitants of the place, but to the world. If it is true that a city is made by its people it is also true that without the city, what would people do? A loud voice asks and therefore awaits the return of the historical heritageHeritage to give its life back. L’Aquila, unlike the treeThe Tree has not lost its inhabitants, nor its identityIdentity because the concept of placeConcept of place has never disappeared. The resilienceResilience of L’Aquila is evident in its motto “immota manetImmota Manet” which means to remain deeply rooted in the earth.

Arianna Tanfoni

Historic and Contemporary Reconstructions of Historic Cities

Frontmatter

Chapter 10. Marsica: One Hundred Years on

This chapter revisits reconstruction after the disastrous earthquakeEarthquake Marsica January 1915 in 1915 that devastated many small and medium towns in MarsicaMarsica, Italy. The historical, political and geographical context of the Marsica reconstruction, the premises and diverse ways in which it was tackled, and the outcome of the reclamation, extension or requalification of the urban structure and building typology of its “resurrected” town centres, constitute a reference point in the history of earthquakes and reconstruction policies in Italy. They also portray the background of present-day situations and problems. Such questions concern to the fullest extent the resistance and resilience of the urban centre and its social and historic collective heritage, particularly where the consistency and identity of buildings are also the outcome of reconstruction processes after repeated destructive seismic events, as in the case of MarsicaMarsica, many other areas of Italy and other countries.

Simonetta Ciranna

Chapter 11. Coventry: Shell or Phoenix, City of Tomorrow or Concrete Jumble?

From Reconstruction to the Phoenix Initiative, UK

Coventry is an interesting case to show how the choice to modernise a historic centre devastated by war is a complex and controversial road that starts a much slower and more difficult process of reconstruction than expected, and not always leading to success. On 14 November 1940 Coventry, an important industrial town but also one of better preserved medieval English cities, was almost totally destroyed by an aerial blitz of the LuftwaffeLuftwaffe that sarcastically borrowed the title of MondscheinsonateMondscheinsonate, the sonata of Ludwig van BeethovenVan Beethoven, Ludwig (musician). Among the ruins of the ancient centre only the spier and the perimeter walls of the medieval cathedral of St. MichaelCoventry-St Michael cathedral were still partially standing which focused the need on the first and most immediate reconstruction. The reconstruction explored a modernist and symbolic monumentality, an old-new relationship between “shell” and “phoenix” evoking the theme of Sacrifice and Resurrection, fully expressed by the project of Scottish architect Basil SpenceSpence Basil (architect). Also modernist was the reconstruction of the city, starting by re-launching the pre-war plan drawn up by the English urbanist Donald E. E. Gibson; a reconstruction that contrasted a “Coventry of Tomorrow” to the idea of the historic centre “where it was and how it was”, pursued in other European cities destroyed by bombing like DresdenDresden and WarsawWarsaw. Today, Coventry is still a curious city with a “leopard skin” shape, characterised by medieval traces, concrete buildings and urban voids in the ancient centre, that has tried to regain its identity only from the nineteen-nineties, with the Phoenix InitiativePhoenix Initiative, an intervention for the revival of the alienated historical centre through a path from the past to the future of the city.

Patrizia Montuori

Chapter 12. Post-trauma Recovery of Monumental Buildings in Italy and the US at the Beginning of Twentieth Century

This chapter compares the approaches to post-trauma restoration as pursued in the first years of the twentieth century in Italy and the US. Focusing on specific places hit by destructive disasters, such as earthquakesEarthquakes and floodsFloods, as well as bombardments during World War IWorld War I and IIWorld War II, the research presented here focused on the deployment and insertion of reinforced concreteReinforced concrete elements within existing structures. After the first experiments, this strategic approach was deployed widely in the 1930s because of the significant impact of new international theoriesInternational theories, such as the Athens Charter for the RestorationRestoration of MonumentsAthens’ Charter for the Restoration of Historic Monuments, whose declarations were applied as guidelines in almost all successive interventions. The introduction of different case studies for each area of interest led to the use of reinforced concreteReinforced concrete structures all over the world during this period. Taking as examples here two restoration interventions, undertaken, respectively, in 1936 and 1937: The church of Santa LuciaSanta Lucia, church, in the MarsicaMarsica, Italy and the Franciscan mission of San José y San Miguel AguayoSan Josè y San Miguel de Aguayo, mission, in San AntonioSan Antonio, TX, TexasTexas, United States, these represent two cases in which reinforced concreteReinforced concrete assumed an important role in the re-definition of the lost spaces and not only the replacement of structural elements. Given certain aspects that emerged during research, the conclusions aim to evaluate critically the methodology of these interventions and to provide some potential additional research strategies. The chapter contributes to the global literature on the restoration of monumental buildings.

Marco Felli

Chapter 13. Historical Town Centres and Post-seismic Reconstructions: Between Functional Recovery and Heritage Value Awareness

This chapter compares the reconstruction in progress in Abruzzo after the earthquakes of 2009 and 2016–17 with other experiences carried out in Italy concerning various seismic events over a period of fifty years, namely Belice 1968, Friuli 1976, Irpinia 1980, Umbria and Marche 1997. Such reconstructions—some of them now considered as “models”—are particularly significant in the attempt to understand different approaches to the preservation of historical architecture. During the actual emergency phases, the approaches to secure damaged areas and building heritage varied; even today, many constructions are demolished for security reasons, for example the recent demolitions at Amatrice and other villages damaged by the earthquake of 2016–2017. From a comparison of different situations, it seems that damage and loss of historical architecture are very often caused by post-seismic demolitionsPost-seismic demolition rather than by earthquakes. This loss, which affects subsequent reconstruction methods, derives from different circumstances. They include unawareness of the heritage and architectural values of the structures, as well as a forced choice between the will to reinstate, exemplified by the slogan “where it was and how it was”`’where it was, how it was\” and development expectations, understood only as total renewal. Only when a prior recognition of place values has occurred does reconstruction safeguard historical and cultural identityCultural identity, without jeopardising the authenticity, rebirth and development of damaged places. The seismic history and the historical–architectural heritageHeritage values of Italian cities and landscapes require multidisciplinary considerations in identifying the values to be safeguarded. Sometimes, the vulnerability evaluation of historical heritage is subjected to prejudice against conservationConservation.

Carla Bartolomucci

Chapter 14. Integrating Green Solutions into Post-earthquake Recovery of Bam, Iran

The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunamiIndian Ocean tsunami drewIran attention to the need to incorporate environmental and ecosystem safeguards in disaster risk reductionDisaster risk reduction strategies. Shortly after the disaster, several green approachesGreen approach emerged within post-disaster reconstruction policies. These strategies were taken into account one year earlier in BamBam as a response to the 2003 earthquake. Conservation of environment and cultural landscapes was acknowledged as one of the top priorities due to the exceptional urban fabric of the city. In practice, however, it seems that integrating too many complex principles into this multidimensional reconstruction caused a setback in achieving initial prospects such as safeguarding the unique characteristics of the city. This chapter presents the experiences and the adoption of green solutions in the BamBam post-disaster reconstruction with a special focus on the revitalisation of gardens and qanatsQanat (the traditional water system), wastewater treatmentWastewater treatment and reuse of solid waste in the geographical scope of garden-housesGarden-house. This chapter shows that in the newly built houses in BamBam both green solutions and sustainable traditional techniques were overlooked, and only structural measures were adopted, whereas in the vernacular houses of the region, environmental practices can be traced, and it seems that there is an opportunity to integrate further green measures into already existing ecological approaches. This will lead to more resilience and sustainable housingSustainable housing and concurrently ensure the safeguarding of the traditional garden-housesGarden-house. There are potentials to combine environmentally responsible practices with the principles of vernacular architectureVernacular architecture to significantly improve the results in post-disaster housing reconstruction. Accordingly, some strategies for green reconstruction of garden-houses are proposed and elaborated within the chapter.

Ameneh Karimian, Alireza Fallahi, Seyed Hassan Taghvaei

Chapter 15. Reconstruction of Heritage and Spirit: Mending the Scars of Aleppo

Reconstruction processes tend to generate prolonged controversies especially in the aftermath of intercommunal conflictsConflict where complications accumulate due to the sensitivity that the word reconstruction can carry. In this case, the process of post-war reconstruction has the potential either to advance social recoveryRecovery or to hinder it. This concerns every expert and decision-maker, who hope for the sustainability of a fragile peacePeace and of what is to be reconstructed, with fears of failure and relapse. These two possibilities refer to the public reception of the process and the new reality it implies. Therefore, it must be addressed in order for the reconstruction process to transcend from being merely physical to also becoming social. This chapter intends to go through this discussion and investigate the contribution of built heritageHeritage and the restoration of historical centres to social recoveryRecovery and the resilienceResilience of cities. It employs AleppoAleppo as a case study, a divided city that is in a state of precarious peacePeace. Its historical centre, the Old City of AleppoOld Aleppo, Old City of Aleppo, is a World Heritage SiteWorld heritage site that was severely destroyed in the Battle of AleppoBattle of Aleppo (2012–2016). Its reconstruction has been facing numerous challenges, including the lack of coordination and funding, issues of ownershipOwnership and legislations, as well as bureaucratic procrastination. These problems became more evident through the quality of the implemented reconstruction works. In response, questions of what to rebuild and how, of prioritiesPriority and methods, and the valueValue of public participationPublic participation are discussed in this chapter. In addition, a context-specific reconstruction strategy is proposed. It aims to contribute to social recoveryRecovery by addressing the sociocultural and economic issues of the city. The discussion of this chapter, which tackles a contemporary case study, brings new considerations for upcoming reconstruction strategies, in SyriaSyria and elsewhere, that integrate physical and social reconstruction processes.

Mounir Sabeh Affaki

Chapter 16. Beyond the Damage, the Reconstruction of L’Aquila

Twelve years after the earthquakeDamage hit L’AquilaL’Aquila, Italy, it is time to evaluate its reconstructionReconstruction from a qualitative point of view. The case of L’AquilaL’Aquila, Italy demonstrates how the persistence of the physical sense of a place, the numerous episodes of historical–artistic interest and the quality of the built heritageHeritage characterise the historic centreHistoric centre as an irreproducible identityIdentity nucleus, on which to base the material and immaterial reconstructionReconstruction. Particularly, nowadays this identityIdentity is compromised by interventions supported by anachronistic hopes of “recovery of the ancient splendour”, which reveal uncertain cultural assumptions and a misunderstood continuity with the past. With these premises, the research aims to investigate how the actors involved in the reconstructionReconstruction of L’AquilaL’Aquila, Italy have chosen to shape the historic centreHistoric centre as if the earthquakeEarthquakes had never happened. From the analysis of 13 case studies, a selective memoryMemory approach has emerged that aims to remove the painful recollection of the catastrophe as an ordinary attitude in a post-disastrous phase. This approach is of reluctance to the architectural project as a tool of reinterpretation and renewal of the historic architectureArchitecture, while it deals with the seismic vulnerability only through an engineering-oriented approach. A selected past is displayed while liquidating the value of the architectural additionArchitectural addition, thus generating a mere copy of a presumed original city. The plethora of palimpsests is therefore lost—including the earthquakeEarthquakes’s trace—as a result of the human’s secular inability to accept sudden changes. In L’AquilaL’Aquila, Italy, this emerges through the reconstructed monuments managed by the public institutions that have embraced this effortless procedure as a tool to prove their efficiency. On the other hand, one could wonder whether an “architectural absence” would be more meaningful or at least more reversible.

Simona Bravaglieri, Elia Zenoni, Silvia Furioni

Chapter 17. The “Solidere” Effect and the Localisation of Heritage Reconstruction in Post-war Transitions, Libya

In the wake of mass urban conflicts across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the most pressing question has been how reconstructionReconstruction canRecoveryreconstruction be achieved on a large scale. Cities such as BenghaziBenghazi, Aleppo and Mosul have witnessed widespread destruction that will take billions of dollars and decades to repair. With such a momentous task, many governments in the region appear to be looking towards the “SolidereLebanonSolidere” model of reconstruction that was applied in downtown BeirutLebanonBeirut after the Lebanese civil war, a model built around “disaster capitalismDisaster capitalism” in which new laws facilitate the role of private companies to lead the process. While there have been countless criticisms of the effect that this process had in Beirut, the region offers few other examples of successful reconstructionReconstruction projects. Indeed, with the current climate of authoritarian rule, it is the central governments rather than residents themselves who have decision-making power to shape the reconstructed city. These decisions are driven not only by economic opportunities but by socio-political strategy, namely what should be forgotten and what will remain in the post-war city. Within this process, the efforts of citizens and local actors—often the first to initiate reconstructionReconstruction of their neighbourhoods—are often overlooked or ignored. There have been increasing calls for more locally led reconstruction processes that are driven by people rather than profit, within the wider shift towards more participatory processes in urban development. These processes can be seen as more inclusive and sustainable than the “Solidere” model of reconstruction, but there is limited literature regarding how these local mechanisms operate in reconstruction contexts in the MENA regionMENA region, and how they can fit into wider political processes. The aim of this chapter is to investigate local reconstructionReconstruction efforts and how they play out in heritage centres. It focuses specifically on the case of downtown Benghazi’sBenghazi reconstructionReconstruction in Libya after the 2014 civil war. It will conclude by attempting to answer the question of what place local reconstruction should have in national visions of urban redevelopment in cities affected by conflict.

Nada Elfeituri

Chapter 18. Bell Towers Under (Seismic) Attack: Saving a Symbol, Once It Became a Menace

The numerous high and slender bell towersBell towers that characterise the skyline of historical city centres turned out to be particularly vulnerable on the occasion of the 2012 seismic shocks in Northern Italy. The danger that these constructions would collapse, besides representing a technical and structural problem, also had strong social implications, generating fear and uncertainty in the population with the imposition of extensive and clearly demarcated off-limits areas. As a consequence, after the Emilia earthquake,Earthquakes many mayors requested the authorisation for the demolition of these peculiar buildings, because this looked like the most rapid and cheapest option in order to reinstate normal activities in their city centres. However, this solution was more complex than expected, not only operationally, but also from an ethical point of view. The Regional Offices of the Ministry for Cultural Heritage (Direzione Regionale per i Beni Culturali e Paesaggistici dell’Emilia Romagna—Soprintendenza) rejected most of the applications for demolition, redirecting these institutions towards first-aid interventionsFirst-aid interventions. Nevertheless, the lack of adequate knowledge and experience about this type of intervention soon emerged, and the SoprintendenzaSoprintendenza, authority decided to contribute by appointing a commission of experts in restorationRestoration and building techniques from the universities of ParmaParma, Italy, BolognaBologna, Italy andPadova, Italy PadovaPadova, Italy. TheBologna, Italy commission analysed many bell towersBell towers, defining for each case some guidelines for rapid intervention aimed at combining conservation and safetySafety. This chapter analyses some of the most meaningful examples of emergency structural interventions on bell towersBell towers after the 2012Emilia earthquake, 20th 2012 Emilia earthquakeEarthquakes, comparing the indications supplied by the regional SoprintendenzaSoprintendenza, authority with the actual work executed and discussing the implications that these interventions, often carried out during the emergency without time for an adequate reflection, may and did have on the definitive intervention, both in terms of economyEconomy and function.

Eva Coïsson, Lia Ferrari, Federica Ottoni

Chapter 19. Ancient City of the Future: Notes on the Reconstruction of Beirut

The reconstruction of Beirut’s city centre after the Lebanese Civil WarLebanese Civil War (1975–1990) represents a case of the application of neoliberal planning practice on historic urban contexts. The results of this operation have been widely criticised with the once thriving urban core today largely rejected by the city’s inhabitants. This chapter investigates the affective dimension of Beirut’s urban space to understand how design decisions related to the restoration have affected the inhabitants’ emotional response. This study describes some specific characteristics of both the wartime destruction and the post-war reconstruction, observing how they have impacted the lived space of the Lebanese capital’s historic centreBeirut, Historic center.

Federico De Matteis

Society, Governance and Collective Resilience

Frontmatter

Chapter 20. Bonding Between Urban Fabric and Capacity of Collective Resilience: The Case of Talca Historic Centre, Chile

This chapter addresses the relationship between community’s ability to develop mechanisms for collective responses to a catastrophe and the pre-existing settlement model, using as a reference the case study of the historic centreHistoric centre of TalcaTalca, destroyed by the earthquake that hit south-central ChileChile earthquake 2010 in 2010. Before the earthquake, the historic centreHistoric centre of TalcaTalca was the core of the city and was characterised by a certain heterogeneity of artefacts, inhabitants and activities. All around the centre, a series of satellite neighbourhoods began to appear from the 1980s, mainly erected by private enterprise without a clear public design, characterised by strong mono-functionality, clear distinctions by income levels, large commercial buildings and large road infrastructures. Reconstruction after the earthquake has encouraged the development of these new districts, while the centre is being rebuilt in an uneven way, partly to replace destroyed areas and partly by densification interventions. Although the historical nucleus is no longer clearly recognisable today, the liveliness of the centre’s public life has succeeded in resisting, for a while, through the mobilisation of the inhabitants in defence of some symbolic buildings. Of particular interest is the process of citizen mobilisation around the value of a state and comprehensive schools (Escuelas Concentradas) that led the schoolEscuelas Concentrads (Comprehensive schools) buildings to keep the same function and form it had before the earthquake. The results of the study highlight the connection between the settlement pattern and the inherent relationship among the inhabitants towards it; how a process of collective awarenessCollective awareness post-catastrophe is closely linked to the pre-disaster scenario, as amply emphasised in the literature; and how the complexity of daily practices and relationships that develop in the historic city are, at the same time, a tool of mitigating social risk.

Giulia De Cunto

Chapter 21. Pre-disaster Examination as Post-disaster Managerial Thinking Ahead for Hoi An, Vietnam

Post-disaster reconstruction in historic citiesHistoric cities brings together disaster management, urban development and heritage maintenance systemsHeritage maintenance system, representing a great level of multi-faceted complexities to address multiple objectives in the field. Yet, in practice, adding a historical layer to the already complex reconstruction systems adds further expectations from reconstruction activities on “what” to achieve, while the main issue of “how” to achieve remains problematic. Addressing the how, this chapter employs a multi-perspective modelMulti-perspective model for understanding and examining organised activities for post-disaster reconstruction. It offers a pre-disaster examination of practicalities from a managerial point of view for a probable disaster in Hoi AnHoi An in the case it entails large scale post-disaster reconstruction and retrofit. The historic city centre in Hoi An, a world heritage urban core, is located in the disaster-prone central coast of VietnamVietnam which is at the risk of floodsFlood, typhoon and other environmental challenges.

Fatemeh Farnaz Arefian

Chapter 22. Play Street: Experimenting Tactical Urbanism for Urban Resilience in Iran

In recent years, a new approach of intervention in urban spaces, called Tactical Urbanism (TU)Tactical Urbanism (TU), has been introduced to solve current problems of urban areas. The main purpose of this approach is to meet the needs of citizens in urban spaces. This chapter investigates the experience of a TU projectTU projects in form of “play streetPlay street” in a disadvantaged area in District 10, TehranTehran. Held in 2017, the project called “Street in Hands of Children” andStreet in the hands of children attempted to bring a relatively new approach in urban governance that emphasised on greater interactions of various community groups with urban spaces and improve the relations between the public and urban authority. The project was accompanied with a qualitative case studyCase study research with real-time interviews with participants and officials to analyse their feedback and understand potentials for enhanced presence of children in urban spaces and needs of community. This chapter reflects on the formation of the project and examines the event from community resilienceCommunity resilience perspective. It discusses how such an approach can potentially enhance social resilience by improving local knowledgeLocal knowledge and learning capacity, community networksCommunity networks and relationships and organisational capacity and communal assetsCommunal asset. It proposes an approach comprising small-scale provisional measures to respond to the social issues and improving social capital among children and adolescents and offer points of consideration in future TU events, which can be seen as a systematic process for improving the quality of life and community resilience.

Soheila Sadeghzadeh, Azadeh Lak

Chapter 23. The Preservation of Rural Landscapes for Building Resilience in Small Towns: Insights from North Italy

In small towns, rural landscapeRural landscape historically has been closely linked to its urban dimension in shaping relationships, local history, local identities and senses of belonging. Furthermore, landscape can be fully considered as heritage, to the extent to which it refers to the tangible and intangible heritageTangible heritage of rural areas. Nonetheless, rural landscapesRural landscape hitherto have been considered less as a driver of resilienceResilience to recover from or react to disturbancesDisturbances, although the values and relationships incorporated in them can contribute to addressing local communities’ needs in different terms. For these reasons, in this chapter, the potential of rural landscapeRural landscape in terms of promoting resilience against urban and subsequent landscape changes has been tackled. The study site chosen was the area of the Ticino ParkTicino Park (Parco del Ticino) in north ItalyNorthern Italy, where water systems and rural landscapes still play an important socio-cultural and economic role and where, at the same time, a traditional agricultural production technique, the marcita meadowsMarcita meadows, is now at risk of disappearing. Over-industrialisation, overbuilding and a recent project for the construction of a new highwayHighway are at present the latest threats. A qualitative researchQualitative research method was adopted to analyse how institutions and local actors’ represent and engage in the construction and preservation of the historical rural landscapeRural landscape, in face of the potential loss of tangible and intangible heritage linked to the highwayHighway project. The chapter demonstrates how the rural landscape, when acknowledged as component of a landscape system, can be a resilienceResilience resource for the local population if understood and valued in terms of local knowledge, as part of the historical and social system.

Paola Branduini, Fabio Carnelli

Chapter 24. Antigua Guatemala, from History of Disasters to Resilient Future

Disasters have marked the history of Antigua GuatemalaGuatemalaAntigua Guatemala since its foundation. Actually, the current location was the third establishment of Santiago de los Caballeros de Guatemala: the cultural, economic, religious, political and educational centre for the entire region during almost three centuries. The capital lasted until the Santa Marta earthquakes in 1773, when it was transferred again and for good to current Guatemala City. However, despite the destruction and partial abandonment of the city in ruins, some inhabitants remained, rebuilt it and started to refer to it as Antigua (Ancient) Guatemala. The regulations on reconstruction preserved the ruins and the city’s sixteenth-century Renaissance grid pattern as signs of identity of Antigua, being included in the UNESCO World HeritageUNESCO World Heritage n list in 1979. Meanwhile, the action of natural hazards didn’t end in historic times, and the city kept suffering several earthquakes, hurricanes and mudslides. Nowadays, the area is even more vulnerable due to urban growth and tourism development. A new call for attention was launched due to the Volcán de Fuego eruptionGuatemalaVolcan de Fuego eruption on 3 June 2018. Tonnes of ash reached Antigua Guatemala, gathering over the historic cobblestoned streets, squares and buildings. The authorities realised the need to integrate cultural heritageCultural heritage into the recovery plan. The Executive Secretariat of the National Coordinating Office for Disaster Reduction (SE-CONRED) (Secretaría Ejecutiva de la Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres) launched an initiative with the support of the World Bank and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), to work together with the Ministry of Culture on developing a strategy to integrate disaster risk management (DRM)Disaster Risk Management (DRM) for cultural heritageCultural heritage. From the international perspective, while there has been significant progress on both disciplines in recent years, in most countries DRM and cultural heritageCultural heritage are not connected, and there is a lack of communication between specialists. This chapter analyses the benefits of integrating cultural heritage into DRM strategies, and vice-versa, developing DRM plans for heritage sites, and the role of international institutions to support this, through the example of Antigua GuatemalaGuatemalaAntigua Guatemala in connextion with other international initiatives.

Barbara Minguez Garcia

Chapter 25. Emergency Management for the Built Heritage Post-earthquake: Emilia-Romagna and Lombardy, Italy

When an earthquakeEarthquake occurs, after operations to rescue human lives have been completed, it is crucial to implement prompt interventions to secure damaged buildings to avoid further collapses caused by aftershocksAftershock. This urgencyUrgency is particularly true for built cultural heritageBuilt Cultural Heritage since it comprises often old and vulnerable constructions in many cases. The 2012 earthquakeEarthquake in Italy affected several regions with various levels of damage for buildings including the historic ones. The most damaged region was Emilia-Romagna, which was the nearest to the epicentreEpicentre, but also Lombardy suffered severe damages. Just a few months before the 2012 earthquakeEarthquake, a new organisation in Italy had been set up that for the first time offered the opportunity to test the procedure from various perspectives. Therefore, soon after the earthquake,Earthquake a new operative process with specific units for the built heritage was activated during the emergency phase. This chapter revisits new procedures defined to deal with earthquakeEarthquake-damaged built heritage during the emergency phase in Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna. It discusses organisations, procedures and competences developed, aiming to identify advantages and limitations which can be useful for other cases.

Enrica Brusa

Chapter 26. Factors of Educational Poverty and Resilience Responses in L’Aquila’s Young Population

DisastersDisaster destabilise theL’Aquila lives of both individuals and communitiesCommunity, starting from trauma situations and stressful conditions that do not only characterise the first months of an emergencyEmergency. Following the 2009 earthquakeEarthquake in L’Aquila, the problem of not only material but also cultural reconstruction became evident, considering the new social and economic dynamics that have greatly destabilised the quality of life of individuals, groups (families) and educational institutions (schoolsSchool) in the post-emergency. Over the last few years, situations of educational povertyEducational poverty have evidently increased, especially among young people. In this context, several studies showed problems of social and individual fragility. Some educational projects and paths have been activated, aimed at responding to these critical issues and supporting both social and individual resilienceResilience. After over a decade from the seismic event, it is therefore possible to begin to reflect, especially with those individuals affected by the earthquakeEarthquake when they were childrenChildren or teenagers. This chapter presents a study reflecting on the above. The qualitative study included interviews with fifteen girls and boys with the aim of reconstructing their “educational biographiesEducational biographies” in the scenario of the reorganisation of urban, family and schoolSchool life. The intention of the interviews was to search for possible causes of educational successes or failures and understand which forms of resilience—both individual and institutional resilienceResilience—and which vulnerabilityVulnerability factors to conditions of educational povertyEducational poverty are at stake.

Alessandro Vaccarelli, Silvia Nanni, Nicoletta Di Genova

Chapter 27. Dropout, Resilience and Cultural Heritage: A Focus of the ACCESS Project in a Highly Fragile Area

This chapter presents main results of a survey research carried out on the territory of L’AquilaL’Aquila as a highly fragile areaFragile area because of the 2009 earthquakeEarthquake, to deepen the understanding of the relationship between traumatic event and early schoolSchool leavingEarly School Leaving (ESL) and universityUniversity leaving. The question is whether and to what extent the dropoutDropout is related to the catastrophe situation, and how it relates to the lack of certainty caused by the existential displacement linked to it. Based on the emerging evidences of a European scale project (the Erasmus+ project ACCESS-KA2), it explores issues related to the risk of dropout by universityUniversity students and examines the reasons relating to their perseverance to attend schoolSchool or not, to their ability to be able to graduate and to not leave formal education. It emerges of the results as for individuals residing in a highly fragile territory the risk of dropout becomes more pronounced. The territorial positioning of these subjects seems to reinforce the obstacles linked both to the realisation of personal goals and to the ability to work with others to make significant long-term changes. Linking educational dropoutDropout risk factorsFactor with territorial variables, the chapter offers new perspectives on innovative strategiesStrategy. These strategies concern the cultural heritageCultural heritage as an instrument of methodological innovation and disciplinary intersection, capable of contributing to removing some obstacles deriving from “disasters” that become “individual and social catastrophes”.

Antonella Nuzzaci, Iole Marcozzi

Chapter 28. How Can Teachers Promote Resilience in Schools?

This chapter addresses building and enhancing resilience in children experiencing a crisis or facing adversity in the twenty-first century. It reflects on an experimental research project for developing an educational and didactical path in order to promote resilience which could be introduced into teaching practices and to verify the effectiveness of this formative path. The chapter examines the possibility of influencing the connection between learning and the affective, cognitive, and psychological variables, especially when promoting resilience. The teaching contents for the project were chosen in a way to directly connect theory and practice. Resilience was connected to scientific thinking, history, geography, sportSport and storytelling, and the didactical path was structured into learning units in which different methods and instruments were used. The project focused on enhancing social competences, problem-solvingProblem solving, creativityCreativity and humourHumour to recognise resourcesResources at three levels: personal, classroom and environmental. The result makes a case for the need to realise the full potential of school teachers as resilience tutors.

Sara Gabrielli, Cesare Fregola

Bringing the 21st Century into Reconstruction

Frontmatter

Chapter 29. Cities in Transformation: Smarter Reconstruction in Historic City Centres

This chapter analyses potential effects of highly innovative projects on historic centres from the technological point of view. It particularly aims to analyse the effects of the strong acceleration of the urban transformation of reconstructed historic cities after a disaster such as L’AquilaL’Aquila, an instable historic centre of Central ItalyItaly hit by an earthquake in 2009. In this historic centre, there are many innovation-oriented initiatives, that refer to the principles of the smart city, but the local context is incapable to transfer technologies and innovative solutions to create new effective services for citizens. The analysis of the case study of L’Aquila and scientific literature, which presents clear gaps on the subject, made it possible to identify two technologies macro-categories: tangible technologies and intangible technologies. In the context of these two macro-categories and in relation to the general theme of the application of these to changes in the historic centre, the research has highlighted a significant impact on urban design and on society, that it calls into question two concepts that the chapter seeks to reinterpret in a smart key: the conservation and protection of historical values, that direct or constrain the transformations of our cultural heritage (tangible), and new citizenship rights (intangible). It is a remarkable field of experimentation in which, however, scientific urban planning and design insufficiencies are compared, and where above all experimentation clashes with the acceptance of new technologies by local communities. The chapter stresses the need to re-create the concepts of conservation and citizenship rights, activating deep cognitive and mapping processes of local communities.

Donato Di Ludovico

Chapter 30. Evaluating Visitors’ Experiences at St Augustine’s Abbey, Canterbury

ThisVisitors’ experiences chapterSt Augustine’s Abbey discussesCanterbury an ongoing research which evaluates visitors’ experiences at St Augustine’s Abbey before and after in situ projections of reconstructed imageriesReconstructed imageries of non-existent Abbey artefacts. The research is based on the contrasting opinions of Viollet-Le-DucViollet-le-Duc and William MorrisMorris on reconstructionReconstruction and how it should be wrought. It introduces a case study on visitors’ experiences at St Augustine’s Abbey focused on visitors’ views on themes associated with digital reconstructionDigital reconstruction such as authenticityAuthenticity and realismRealism. The results indicate that a considerable number of respondents thought in situ digital reconstructionsDigital reconstruction of the Abbey artefacts would have a positive impact on their visitation experience. Visitors associate authenticityAuthenticity with accuracy and factuality and inauthenticity with not being original. Respondents stated that digital reconstructionsDigital reconstruction are more hyperrealHyperreal than realReal as they create an illusionary vision of reality. The case study also analyses visitors’ perception of the sixteenth-century Virtual RealityVirtual Reality (VR) of the Abbey with emphasis on immersion and quality of the information provided. Lastly, the chapter introduces methods for digital reconstructionDigital reconstruction of non-existent artefacts for future workflows of the research.

Ayda Majd Ardekani, Sophia Labadi, Rocio von Jungenfeld

Chapter 31. Seismic Microzonation: A Preventive Measure for the Conservation of the Built Heritage

SeveralPreventive measure earthquakesEarthquake aroundConservation the world verified the vulnerabilityVulnerability of monumental buildings and the urgent action needed to protect them. This chapter assesses the necessity of performing detailed seismic studies in historical buildings (small-scaleSmall scale), due to the importance of this types of structures that deserve to be protected and conserved or, on the contrary, if the seismic microzonationSeismic Microzonation in the city (large-scale) is enough. The case study is Murcia city and one of its most important historical buildings, the Cathedral of Santa MariaCathedral of Santa Maria. The Murcia Region, located in southeast Spain, is classified as a seismically active zone. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) methodMultichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method was used providing a characterisation of the materials in terms of shear-wave velocity (VsVs), to obtain characterisation of the subsoil structure in historical buildings. The VsVs investigations were carried out at the scale of a historic building and at the seismic microzonationSeismic Microzonation scale in the city. Results evidenced a clear difference in VsVs values obtained under the Cathedral and in the city. The study makes the case that the analysis of the local effect due to the shallow soil conditions in historic buildings, is a fundamental point to address the preventive analysis of the building seismic response, beyond studies of seismic microzonationSeismic Microzonation carried out at city scale.

M. Cristina García-Nieto, Marcos A. Martínez-Segura, Manuel Navarro, Patricia Alarcón

Chapter 32. The Representation of a Resilient City: The Case of Amatrice’s Reconstruction

This chapter presents methodologies of documentation to be used for historical urban landscapesHistorical Urban Landscape, according to the 2011 UNESCO Recommendation on Historic Urban LandscapesLandscape. This study proposes a protocol for the typological and parametric representation of townscapes, also introducing the application of a Building Information ModellingBuilding Information Modelling (BIM) tool for the planned reconstruction. This process aims to promote in-depth knowledge of the site condition: open data collection, typological survey and visualisation of the city’s evolution and conformation prior to the earthquake. A further step is the application of information technology (IT) models to combine adequate technological retrofitting and resilience measures while taking into account the character of the places being reconstructed. As a consequence, it is important to make simulations to visualise typological, aggregativeAggregato and functional solutions with respect to the regeneration of social capital in the places where it is expected by the local community. The strategy presented here proposes that in decision-making processes, project information modelling through Heritage BIMHeritage BIM and the simulation of different reconstruction scenarios is included. Toolkits will be used to visualise and disseminate the recommended building solutions based on architectural repertoires such as pattern booksPattern Book, included in the masterplan. The heritage information modelling system allows simulations that integrate environmental modelling, semantic representation and typological documentation of each settlement. The main outcome is the typological and parametric representation of identity characteristics based on algorithmic simulations and the application of Heritage BIMHeritage BIM architectural libraries and typological models to the reconstruction design. The project also supports the regeneration of AmatriceAmatrice’s local identity through documentation of its urban landscapeLandscape, its material expression as an impulse for the regeneration of memory and the inclusion of the community within the process.

Giuseppe Amoruso, Polina Mironenko

Chapter 33. Evacuation Simulation Considering Tourists’ Attempts to Return Home: A Case of the Kiyomizu-dera Temple Area, Japan

EvacuationEvacuation of large disparate groups of people during the immediate post-disaster event is one of the most critical issues. Particularly crucial is the safe evacuationEvacuation of non-residents of the area such as domestic and foreign touristsTourists. Well-managed and considered evacuationEvacuation immediately after post-disaster enables for the efficient deployment of human resources for rescuing cultural property and initial firefighting efforts, leading to greater resilienceResilience. However, evacuationEvacuation research does not consider the varying needs of domestic or international touristsInternational tourists including their attempts to return home. This chapter explores an evacuationEvacuation simulationSimulation to examine the attempts of touristsTourists to return home using a method combining sampling survey, scene imagination method and agent simulationAgent simulation. Initially, a survey was conducted with 274 domestic touristsDomestic tourists and 107 foreign touristsTourists in JapanJapan. They provided their behavioural intention under various disaster scene scenarios such as guidance, road width, other tourist behaviourTourist Behaviour and route walking experiences. Based on the survey results using decision tree analysisDecision tree analysis, touristsTourists’ evacuationEvacuation behaviour model was built considering Japanese and foreign touristsTourists. Next, the evacuationEvacuation agent simulationAgent simulation and proposed the evacuationEvacuation method applied in the case of the Kiyomizu-dera TempleKiyomizu-dera Temple area, a popular touristTourists destination in KyotoKyoto, JapanJapan. As a result, the study found many touristsTourists would flow out of the Kiyomizu-dera TempleKiyomizu-dera Temple area after disasters because of the location of evacuationEvacuation sites and placement of guides. As mentioned above, this study proposed an evacuationEvacuation simulationSimulation from the viewpoint of touristTourists’s attempts at returning home.

Kohei Sakai, Hidehiko Kanegae

Chapter 34. Public Administration Versus Social Media in Emergency Situations

The chapter presents a research examined whether the use of social networks, in particular TwitterTwitter, has led to improvements in the management of emergenciesEmergencies and post-emergencyPost-emergencies situations within public institutions, the Public AdministrationPublic Administration (PA) (Pubblica amministrazione, PAPublic Administration (PA)). Putting aside any analyses aimed exclusively at the political use of TwitterTwitter tool, and instead focusing on the possibility of building up a relationshipRelationships of trust, that is, when this tool can inform citizensCitizen directly, especially so in an emergencyEmergencies context. At the outset, it was found that there is no legislation that requires and regulates this type of use even in normal situations. The PAPublic Administration (PA) regulates the use of tools that use networks such as websites and e-mails, but not the use of social network sitesSocial network sites. Furthermore, it should be noted that the freedom of social networks does not fit well with the rigidity of the PAPublic Administration (PA). At this point, the effort was twofold: to alleviate the rigidity of the PAPublic Administration (PA), while remaining within permitted limits, and to exploit, but not excessively, the anarchy of social network sitesSocial network sites. Many aspects were investigated: reference standards, guidelines, policies; recognised sources of message production; the so-called intruders in the communication process (citizensCitizen and citizen journalismCitizen journalist, agitators and hate speechHate speech; regulation of responses (feedback and hashtagsHashtag). The detection of the use of social network sitesSocial network sites defines elements of advantage and opportunity, both from the point of view of the PAPublic Administration (PA) and towards citizensCitizen who choose to use the TwitterTwitter tool. Yet everything is entrusted to good will and to the sensitivity of the people on the field. There is no systemic view as had been hoped for. TwitterTwitter, in the specific PAPublic Administration (PA) examined, did not create adequate citizenCitizen involvement. Not all the potentialities inherent in an optimal approach to the world of social network sites, including Twitter, were deployed.

Vincenzo Mini

Chapter 35. Social Media and Disaster Management in Iran: Lorestan Floods as Case Study

Social mediaSocial media can reach millions within seconds and is therefore one of the most frequently used communication and trust-building tools in pre-, during and post-disaster activities. In the case study presented in this chapter on the Lorestan floodsLorestan floods in March 2019, public sector decision-makers and ordinary citizens used a wide variety of mobile-based and web-based technologies (SMS and blogs) and different social mediaSocial media platforms for help, mapping and sending status reports, fund raising, donations and mobilisingMobilizing volunteers for assistance. In this context, the research analysed data to examine the role of social mediaSocial media in disaster responseDisaster response, focusing on their ability of strengthening public willingness to donate and to support relief organisations during and after the 2019 floods in the province of Lorestan, Iran. This chapter explores whether collective action via social mediaSocial media could bring about any improvement to post-disaster managementPost-disaster management activities, and how social mediaSocial media operate in such contexts. The floods also caused damages in some of the outstanding historical sites of Lorestan. Findings from the manual monitoring of social mediaSocial media posts by major disaster-related actors in IranIran reveal that the most common functions of social mediaSocial media in this case have been to inform about relief operationsRelief operations during the crisis, to mobilise the public to help during the crisis and finally to organise human resources for relief operationsRelief operations. Moreover, the study highlights three key themes, namely (a) the distrust of state organisations towards social mediaSocial media, (b) political sensitivities surrounding the application or boycott of social mediaSocial media and (c) lack of sufficient media literacy and the need felt by the state for a centralised control over social mediaSocial media as two main challenges associated with the use of social mediaSocial media by state organisations.

Vahide Ebrahimnia, Somayeh Zandieh

Chapter 36. Environmental Issues and Energy Potentials in Post-earthquake Reconstruction

Directive (EU) 2018/844 amending Directive 2010/31/EU on the energy performance of buildings and Directive 2012/27/EU on energy efficiency were to be implemented by European Union member states by March 2020. In particular, an explicit reference to existing historical buildingsHistorical buildings and contexts appeared for the first time in paragraph 18 of the cited Directive 844. This requires member states to encourage research into and the testing of new solutions to improve the energy performance of historical buildingsHistorical buildings and sites, while also safeguarding and preserving cultural heritage. At last, at European level, there is a sense of awareness of the importance of historical buildingsHistorical buildings and contexts that architectural, technical–construction and environmental valuesValues must be protected and preserved. To date, in fact, the current legislation has revealed deep issues over time, which has become extremely evident during the post-earthquake reconstructionPost-earthquake reconstruction. In this context, issues and practices that focus on sustainable process should be embraced. This theoretical position supports the introduction of principles that will allow the use of what technology offers and all the scientific and technical knowledge now widely available. The implementation of sustainability policies must be based on local knowledgeLocal knowledge and conditions that allow the highlighting of environmental issues and energy-efficient possibilities. This chapter presents a methodology applied to the city of L’Aquila that allows for the identification of homogeneous areas with regard to environmental behaviour, in which specific strategies could be implemented. These strategies take into consideration the analysis of the valuesValues, the transformable elements, the new users’ needs, the level of damage as well as the latest technological solutions in the field of environmental sustainabilityEnvironmental sustainability. In this way, compatible design solutions will be identified and developed based on a sensitive case-by-case approach to the repair and reconstruction of historic buildings damaged during a disaster event.

Marianna Rotilio, Valeria Annibaldi

Chapter 37. A Multidisciplinary Approach to Retrofitting Historic Buildings: The Case of the Former San Salvatore Hospital, L’Aquila

EarthquakesEarthquake represent one of the most disastrous natural phenomena for adverse social and urban impacts. The consequent need to recover buildings from a catastrophic event may represent an opportunity for their structural and energy retrofitEnergy retrofit, particularly for listed structures or those representing architectural heritage. However, the various aspects of energy optimisation, seismic protection and cultural heritage preservation of the building stock may be in conflict. For this reason, a multidisciplinary design approach is needed to consider all the aspects involved in the retrofitRetrofit process. This chapter discusses the development and application of an Operative Design Tool (ODTOperative Design Tool (ODT)). This is a tool based on a multidisciplinary approachMultidisciplinary approach and sustainability principle guidelines with standards for seismic and energy retrofitting. The applicability of the proposed approach is examined through the analysis of the former San Salvatore HospitalSan Salvatore Hospital of L’AquilaL’Aquila, a complex city district of buildings of different eras, severely damaged by the 2009 earthquakeEarthquake. The development of ODTOperative Design Tool (ODT) identifies energy improvement best practices that simultaneously allow renovations to address the issues of seismic damage, protection and valorisation of historic buildingsHistoric buildings. Such guidelines for integrating the design of seismic improvement and energy optimisation in historical buildings can help policy makers and designers during renovation processes.

T. de Rubeis, M. De Vita, L. Capannolo, E. Laurini, I. Nardi, D. Ambrosini, D. Paoletti, P. De Berardinis

Backmatter

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