Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Historical pollution is a widespread problem: it is not only an old and unresolved question for many developed countries, but is, or will soon become, a new and complex issue for a number of developing countries. The management and remediation of land and groundwater contaminated by toxic substances released into the environment by past polluting activities thus represents one of the main challenges to which states are, or will be, called upon to give a response in order to protect the environment and human health. Despite this, there is currently no comprehensive strategy at international or EU level for protecting soil and remedying historic environmental damage . In effect, with regard to the remediation of environmental damage, the main binding instrument adopted at supranational level is the European Liability Directive, which cannot, however, be applied retroactively to historic damage; and all attempts to introduce a general instrument on soil protection at international or EU level have been unsuccessful. Furthermore, in accordance with the principle of non-retroactivity, EU Directive 2008/99/EC cannot be applied to past polluting activities carried out before its entry into force. The reluctance of many states to adopt a global strategy for addressing historical pollution has political, economic, legal, and cultural causes. Yet legacy pollution is a common problem for humanity: at stake are the rights of future generations exposed to such pollution. In this regard, the OECD’s recommendations as elaborated in Liability forEnvironmental Damagein Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA): Implementation of Good International Practices, and the Sourcebook of Pollution Management Policy Tools for Growth and Competitiveness drafted by the World Bank Group, offer significant examples of approaches aimed at addressing historical pollution from a legal, technical, and economic perspective. These instruments could form a basis for developing international guidelines on dealing with this category of pollution.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Alogna, I. (2016). The circulation of the model of sustainable development: Tracing the path in a comparative law perspective. In V. Mauerhofer (Ed.), Legal aspects of sustainable development. Horizontal and sectorial policy issues (pp. 13–33). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. CrossRef
Azam, M. M. (2016). Soil contamination and remediation measures: Revisiting the relevant laws and institutions. In H. Hasegawa, I. M. D. Mofizur Rahman & M. A. Rahman (Eds.), Environmental remediation technologies for metal-contaminated soils (pp. 99–124). Tokyo: Springer Japan.
Beck, U. (1992). Risk society: Towards a new modernity. London: Sage Publications.
Bergkamp, L. (2005). Implementation of the environmental liability directive in EU member states. ERA Forum,6(3), 389–400. CrossRef
Bergkamp, L. (2010). Comment on Case C-378/08, 9 March 2010; Joined Cases C-379/08 and 380/08, 9 March 2010; Joined Cases C-478/08 and C-479/08, 9 March 2010. Journal for European Environmental & Planning Law,7(3), 355–361. CrossRef
Bertolini, P. (2010). Il Principio “chi inquina paga” e la responsabilità per danno ambientale nella sentenza della Corte di giustizia 9 marzo 2010—procedimento C-378/08. Rivista italiana di diritto pubblico comunitario,6, 1607–1632.
Boer, B., & Hannam, I. (2015). Developing a global soil regime. International Journal of Rural Law and Policy,1, 1–13.
Boutillon, S. (2002). The precautionary principle: Development of an international standard. Michigan Journal of International Law,23(2), 429–470.
Bowman, M., & Boyle, A. E. (Eds.). (2002). Environmental damage in international and comparative law: Problems of definition and valuation. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.
Brandon, E. (2013). Global approaches to site contamination law. Dordrecht: Springer. CrossRef
Cardwell, P. J., French, D., & Hall, M. (2011). Tackling environmental crime in the European Union: The case of the missing victim? Environmental Law & Management,23(3), 113–121.
Coulter, M. (2014). The Minamata convention on mercury: Past, present, and future environmental health. Sustainable Development Law & Policy,14(3), 12–48.
De Figueiredo, M. A., Reiner, D. M., & Herzog, H. J. (2005). Framing the long-term in situ liability issue for geologic carbon storage in the United States. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change,10(4), 647–657. CrossRef
de La Fayette, L. A. (2010). International liability for damage to the environment. In M. Fitzmaurice, D. M. Ong, & P. Merkouris (Eds.), Research handbook on international environmental law (pp. 320–360). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
de Sadeleer, N. (2002). Environmental principles. From political slogans to legal rules. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
de Sadeleer, N. (2010). The principles of prevention and precaution in international law: Two heads of the same coin? In M. Fitzmaurice, D. M. Ong, & P. Merkouris (Eds.), Research handbook on international environmental law (pp. 182–199). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
de Sadeleer, N. (2015). Preliminary reference on environmental liability and the polluter pays principle: Case C-534/13, Fipa. Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law,24(2), 232–237. CrossRef
DiMento, J. F. C. (2010). The global environment and international law. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Earnhart, D. (2004). Liability for past environmental contamination and privatization. Environmental & Resource Economics,29(1), 97–122. CrossRef
Faure, M. (2010). Effective, proportional and dissuasive penalties in the implementation of the environmental crime and shipsource pollution directives: Questions and challenges. European Energy and Environmental Law Review,19(6), 256–278.
Faure, M., & Svatikova, K. (2012). Criminal or administrative law to protect the environment? Evidence from Western Europe. Journal of Environmental Law,24(2), 253–286. CrossRef
Feris, L. (2012). The public trust doctrine and liability for historic water pollution in South Africa. Law, Environment and Development Journal,8(1), 1. [iv].
Fiedler, H. (2002). Persistent organic pollutants. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
Fogleman, V. (2015). Landowners’ liability for remediating contaminated land in the EU: EU or national law? Part I: EU law. Environmental Liability—Law, Policy and Practice,23(1), 6–22.
Fogleman, V. (2014). The temporal provisions of the environmental liability directive: The start date, direct effect and retrospectivity. Environmental Liability—Law, Policy and Practice,22(4), 144–155.
Forgotson, E. H. (1964). Liability for long-term latent effects of toxic agents. American Bar Association Journal,50(2), 142–145.
Freestone, D., & Hey, E. (1996). The precautionary principle and international law: The challenge of implementation. The Hague, London, Boston: Kluwer Law International.
Funabashi, H. (2006). Minamata disease and environmental governance. International Journal of Japanese Sociology,15(1), 7–25. CrossRef
Girela, M. A. R. (2006). Risk and reason in the European Union Law. European Food and Feed Law Review,5, 270–285.
Haan-Kamminga, A. (2011). Long-term liability for geological carbon storage in the European Union. Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law,29(3), 309–331. CrossRef
Hannam, I., & Boer, B. (2002). Legal and institutional frameworks for sustainable soils: A preliminary report. IUCN environmental policy and law paper no. 45. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK in collaboration with IUCN Environmental Law Centre, Bonn, Germany.
Heine, G. (2011). Recenti sviluppi e principali questioni del diritto penale dell’ambiente in Europa. Rivista trimestrale diritto penale dell’economia,24(1–2), 105–122.
Hickey Jr., J. E., & Walker, V. R. (1994/1995). Refining the precautionary principle in international environmental law. Virginia Environmental Law Journal, 14(3), 423–454.
Ingelson, A., Kleffner, A., & Nielson, N. (2010). Long-term liability for carbon capture and storage in depleted North American oil and gas reservoirs: A comparative analysis. Energy Law Journal,31(2), 431–470.
Jeffery, M. I., & Zhao, X. (2012). Developing a national contaminated land liability scheme in China: The comprehensive environmental response, compensation, and liability act revisited. Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law,30(4), 423–465. CrossRef
Klip, A. (2015). European criminal law. An integrative approach (3rd ed.). Cambridge, Antwerp, Portland: Intersentia.
Lallas, P. L. (2001). The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. American Journal of International Law,95(3), 692–708. CrossRef
Larson, E. T. (2005). Why environmental liability regimes in the United States, the European Community, and Japan have grown synonymous with the polluter-pays principle. Vand. J. Transnat’l L.,38(2), 541–576.
Larson, R. B. (2013). Orphaned pollution. Arizona State Law Journal,45(3), 991–1032.
Lee, M. (2003). The precautionary principle in the court of first instance. King’s Law Journal,14(1), 86–91.
Luppi, B., Parisi, F., & Rajagopalan, S. (2012). The rise and fall of the polluter-pays Principle in developing countries. International Review of Law and Economics,32(1), 135–144. CrossRef
Mamutse, B., & Fogleman, V. M. (2013). Environmental claims and insolvent companies: The contrasting approaches of the United Kingdom and the United States. British Journal of American Legal Studies,2(2), 579–633.
Martin, T. J. (1985). Long-term liability for hazardous waste induced injury in Missouri: Latent harm sufferers beware. Wash. UJ Urb. & Contemp. L.,28, 299–343.
Mattei, U. (2008). Circolazione dei modelli giuridici. In Enciclopedia del diritto, Annali I. Milano: Giuffrè.
McIntyre, O. (2005). The all-consuming definition of ‘waste’ and the end of the ‘contaminated land’ debate? Journal of Environmental Law,17(1), 109–127. CrossRef
Mégret, F. (2011). The problem of an international criminal law of the environment. Columbia Journal of Environmental Law,36(2), 195–254.
Milhollin, G. (1979). Long-term liability for environmental harm. University of Pittsburgh Law Review,41(1), 1–26.
Ministry of the Environment, Japan. (2011). Lessons from Minamata disease and mercury management in Japan, January 2011, Available at https://www.env.go.jp/en/focus/docs/files/20110101-39.pdf
Mitsilegas, V., Fitzmaurice, M., & Fasoli, E. (2016). The relationship between EU criminal law and environmental law. In V. Mitsilegas, M. Bergström, & T. Konstadinides (Eds.), Research handbook on EU Criminal Law (pp. 272–293). Cheltenham, Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing. CrossRef
Monti, A. (2002). Environmental risks and insurance. A comparative analysis of the role of insurance in the management of environment-related risks. Paris: OECD Report.
Munir, M. (2013). History and evolution of the polluter pays principle: How an economic idea became a legal principle?. Available at SSRN 2322485.
Neyret, L. (2014). Pour la reconnaissance du crime d’écocide. Revue juridique de l’environnement,39(HS01), 177–193.
Neyret, L. (Ed.). (2015). Des écocrimes à l’écocide. Le droit pénal au secours de l’environnement. Paris: Bruylant.
Öberg, J. (2011). Criminal sanctions in the field of EU Environmental Law. New Journal of European Criminal Law,2(4), 402–425. CrossRef
OECD Report. (2012). Liability for environmental damage in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA): Implementation of good international practices. Paris: OECD Publishing.
Pedersen, O. W. (2010). Environmental principles and environmental justice. Environmental Law Review,12(1), 26–49. CrossRef
Percival, R. V., Cooper, K. H., & Gravens, M. M. (2012). CERCLA in a global context. Southwestern Law Review,41(4), 727–772.
Pestana, M. H. D., & Formoso, M. L. L. (2003). Mercury contamination in Lavras do Sul, south Brazil: A legacy from past and recent gold mining. Science of the Total Environment,307(1–3), 125–140. CrossRef
Petersen, M. (2008). European soil protection law after the setback of December 2007–existing law and outlook. European Energy and Environmental Law Review,17(3), 146–155.
Plantamura, V. (2009). Una nuova frontiera europea per il diritto penale. Diritto penale e processo,15(7), 911–921.
Pozzo, B., Vanheusden, B., Bergkamp, L., & Brans, E. (2015). The remediation of contaminated sites and the problem of assessing the liability of the innocent landowner: A comparative law perspective. European Review of Private Law,6(23), 1071–1119.
Prokop, G., Schamann, M., & Edelgaard, I. (2000). Management of contaminated sites in Western Europe (Topic report No 13/1999). Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
Rafaraci, T. (2015). New perspectives for the protection of the victims in the EU. In S. Ruggeri (Ed.), Human rights in European criminal law. New developments in European legislation and case law after the Lisbon Treaty (pp. 215–225). Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
Renna, M. (2012). I principi in materia di tutela dell’ambiente. Rivista quadrimestrale di Diritto dell’Ambiente, 2012(Settembre), 62-83.
Sacco, R. (1991). Legal formants: A dynamic approach to comparative law (Installment II of II). The American Journal of Comparative Law,39(2), 343–401. CrossRef
Sands, P., Peel, J., Fabra, A., & MacKenzie, R. (2012). Principles of international environmental law (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Shelbourn, C. (1994). Historic pollution-Does the polluter pay?. Journal of Planning and Environmental Law, 703–709.
Siracusa, L. (2008). La competenza comunitaria in ambito penale al primo banco di prova: la direttiva europea sulla tutela penale dell’ambiente. Rivista trimestrale di diritto penale dell’economia,21(4), 863–901.
Stallworthy, M. (1996). Historic pollution, the restoration of contaminated land and the regulatory potential of the regime under the Environment Act 1995. Oil & Gas Law & Taxation Review,10, 184–192.
Sunstein, C. R. (2003). Beyond the precautionary principle. University of Pennsylvania Law Review,151(3), 1003–1058. CrossRef
Swartjes, F. A. (2011). Dealing with contaminated sites. From theory towards practical application. Springer, Netherlands: Dordrecht. CrossRef
Upham, F. K. (1979). After Minamata: Current prospects and problems in Japanese environmental litigation. Ecology Law Quarterly,8(2), 213–268.
Vagliasindi, G. M. (2012). The European harmonisation in the sector of protection of the environment through criminal law: The results achieved and further needs for intervention. The New Journal of European Criminal Law,3(3–4), 320–331. CrossRef
Vanheusden, B. (2003). Towards a legal framework in the EU for brownfield redevelopment. European Energy and Environmental Law Review,12(6), 178–186.
Vanheusden, B. (2007). Brownfield redevelopment in the European Union. Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review,34(3), 559–575.
Vanheusden, B. (2009). Recent developments in European policy regarding brownfield remediation. Environmental Practice,11(04), 256–262. CrossRef
Varvaštian, S. (2015). Environmental liability under scrutiny: The margins of applying the EU ‘polluter pays’ principle against the owners of the polluted land who did not contribute to the pollution. Case C-534/13 Ministero dell’Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare and Others v Fipa Group Srl and Others  (ECJ, 4 March 2015) (Fipa Group and Others). Environmental Law Review,17(4), 270–276. CrossRef
Watson, A. (1974). Legal transplants: An approach to comparative law. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press.
World Bank Group (2012). Getting to green—A sourcebook of pollution management policy tools for growth and competitiveness. Washington, DC.
Wyatt, A. M. (2008). The dirt on international environmental law regarding soils: Is the existing regime adequate? Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum,19, 165–207.
Xue, H. (2003). Transboundary damage in international law (Vol. 27). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Zhao, X. (2013). Developing an appropriate contaminated land regime in China. Lessons learned from the US and UK. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. CrossRef
- Historical Pollution and Long-Term Liability: A Global Challenge Needing an International Approach?
- Chapter 14
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, So bewältigen Sie Stress im Fernstudium/© granata68 | stock.adobe.com | AdobeStock, „Immer mehr Mittelständler entdecken Crowdlending“/© Kapilendo