Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Environmental Management 1/2022

08.03.2022

Historical Urban Tree Canopy Cover Change in Two Post-Industrial Cities

verfasst von: Marc Healy, John Rogan, Lara A. Roman, Sabine Nix, Deborah G. Martin, Nicholas Geron

Erschienen in: Environmental Management | Ausgabe 1/2022

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten
share
TEILEN

Abstract

Present-day spatial patterns of urban tree canopy (UTC) are created by complex interactions between various human and biophysical drivers; thus, urban forests represent legacies of past processes. Understanding these legacies can inform municipal tree planting and canopy cover goals while also addressing urban sustainability and inequity. We examined historical UTC cover patterns and the processes that formed them in the cities of Chelsea and Holyoke, Massachusetts using a mixed methods approach. Combining assessments of delineated UTC from aerial photos with historical archival data, we show how biophysical factors and cycles of governance and urban development and decay have influenced the spatiotemporal dynamics of UTC. The spatially explicit UTC layers generated from this research track historical geographic tree distribution and dynamic change over a 62-year period (1952–2014). An inverse relationship was found between UTC and economic prosperity: while canopy gains occurred in depressed economic periods, canopy losses occurred in strong economic periods. A sustainable increase of UTC is needed to offset ongoing losses and overcome historical legacies that have suppressed UTC across decades. These findings will inform future research on residential canopy formation and stability, but most importantly, they reveal how historical drivers can be used to inform multi-decadal UTC assessments and the creation of targeted, feasible UTC goals at neighborhood and city scales. Such analyses can help urban natural resource managers to better understand how to protect and expand their cities’ UTC over time for the benefit of all who live in and among the shade of urban forests.
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Baily B, Inkpen R (2013) Assessing historical saltmarsh change; an investigation into the reliability of historical saltmarsh mapping using contemporaneous aerial photography and cartographic data. J Coast Conserv 17(3):503–514 CrossRef Baily B, Inkpen R (2013) Assessing historical saltmarsh change; an investigation into the reliability of historical saltmarsh mapping using contemporaneous aerial photography and cartographic data. J Coast Conserv 17(3):503–514 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Berland A, Schwarz K, Herrmann DL, Hopton ME (2015) How environmental justice patterns are shaped by place: terrain and tree canopy in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Cities Environ 8(1):1 Berland A, Schwarz K, Herrmann DL, Hopton ME (2015) How environmental justice patterns are shaped by place: terrain and tree canopy in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. Cities Environ 8(1):1
Zurück zum Zitat Berland A, Locke DH, Herrmann DL, Schwarz K (2020) Beauty or Blight? AbuNdant Vegetation In The Presence Of Disinvestment Across Residential Parcels And Neighborhoods in Toledo, OH. Front Ecol Evol 8:334 CrossRef Berland A, Locke DH, Herrmann DL, Schwarz K (2020) Beauty or Blight? AbuNdant Vegetation In The Presence Of Disinvestment Across Residential Parcels And Neighborhoods in Toledo, OH. Front Ecol Evol 8:334 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bonney MT, He Y (2019) Attributing drivers to spatio-temporal changes in tree density across a suburbanizing landscape since 1944. Landsc Urban Plan 192:103652 CrossRef Bonney MT, He Y (2019) Attributing drivers to spatio-temporal changes in tree density across a suburbanizing landscape since 1944. Landsc Urban Plan 192:103652 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Borges-Méndez RF (2007) The Latinization of Lawrence: Migration, settlement, and incorporation of Latinos in a small town of Massachusetts. Montero-Sieburth Melendez 2007a:228–253 Borges-Méndez RF (2007) The Latinization of Lawrence: Migration, settlement, and incorporation of Latinos in a small town of Massachusetts. Montero-Sieburth Melendez 2007a:228–253
Zurück zum Zitat Brook BW, Bowman DM (2006) Postcards from the past: charting the landscape-scale conversion of tropical Australian savanna to closed forest during the 20th century. Landsc Ecol 21(8):1253–1266 CrossRef Brook BW, Bowman DM (2006) Postcards from the past: charting the landscape-scale conversion of tropical Australian savanna to closed forest during the 20th century. Landsc Ecol 21(8):1253–1266 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Brownlow A (2006) An archaeology of fear and environmental change in Philadelphia. Geoforum 37(2):227–245 CrossRef Brownlow A (2006) An archaeology of fear and environmental change in Philadelphia. Geoforum 37(2):227–245 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Brunner J, Cozens P (2013) ‘Where have all the trees gone?’ Urban consolidation and the demise of urban vegetation: a case study from Western Australia. Plan Pract Res 28(2):231–255 CrossRef Brunner J, Cozens P (2013) ‘Where have all the trees gone?’ Urban consolidation and the demise of urban vegetation: a case study from Western Australia. Plan Pract Res 28(2):231–255 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Chojnacky DC, Smith-McKenna EK, Johnson LY, McGee JA, Chojnacky CC (2020) Evaluating urban canopy cover before and after housing redevelopment in Falls Church, Virginia, USA. Arboriculture Urban Forestry 46(1):12–26 CrossRef Chojnacky DC, Smith-McKenna EK, Johnson LY, McGee JA, Chojnacky CC (2020) Evaluating urban canopy cover before and after housing redevelopment in Falls Church, Virginia, USA. Arboriculture Urban Forestry 46(1):12–26 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat City of Chelsea (2005) Design Guidelines for the Residential 3 (R3), Retail Business 2 (BR2), and Light Industrial/Office 2 (LI2) Districts, Revised 2013. City of Chelsea, pp. 1–4. www.​chelseama.​gov City of Chelsea (2005) Design Guidelines for the Residential 3 (R3), Retail Business 2 (BR2), and Light Industrial/Office 2 (LI2) Districts, Revised 2013. City of Chelsea, pp. 1–4. www.​chelseama.​gov
Zurück zum Zitat City of Holyoke (1920–1963) Municipal Register of the City of Holyoke. The Holyoke City Hall Collection, Wistariahurst Museum, Collection L2011.028, Wistariahurst Museum, Holyoke, MA City of Holyoke (1920–1963) Municipal Register of the City of Holyoke. The Holyoke City Hall Collection, Wistariahurst Museum, Collection L2011.028, Wistariahurst Museum, Holyoke, MA
Zurück zum Zitat Curran MP (1960) A case history in zoning: the Holyoke, Massachusetts experience. ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst Curran MP (1960) A case history in zoning: the Holyoke, Massachusetts experience. ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst
Zurück zum Zitat Eisenman TS, Flanders T, Harper RW, Hauer RJ, Lieberknecht K (2021) Traits of a bloom: a nationwide survey of US urban tree planting initiatives (TPIs). Urban Forestry Urban Green 61:127006 CrossRef Eisenman TS, Flanders T, Harper RW, Hauer RJ, Lieberknecht K (2021) Traits of a bloom: a nationwide survey of US urban tree planting initiatives (TPIs). Urban Forestry Urban Green 61:127006 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Gillespie TW, Pincetl S, Brossard S, Smith J, Saatchi S, Pataki D, Saphores JD (2012) A time series of urban forestry in Los Angeles. Urban Ecosyst 15(1):233–246 CrossRef Gillespie TW, Pincetl S, Brossard S, Smith J, Saatchi S, Pataki D, Saphores JD (2012) A time series of urban forestry in Los Angeles. Urban Ecosyst 15(1):233–246 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Gillespie CB (1898) Souvenir Edition of the Chelsea Gazette Issued by Request of the Board of Trade and Entitled The City of Chelsea, Massachusetts: Her History, Her Achievements, Her Opportunities. Chelsea Gazette Gillespie CB (1898) Souvenir Edition of the Chelsea Gazette Issued by Request of the Board of Trade and Entitled The City of Chelsea, Massachusetts: Her History, Her Achievements, Her Opportunities. Chelsea Gazette
Zurück zum Zitat Haaland C, van Den Bosch CK (2015) Challenges and strategies for urban green-space planning in cities undergoing densification: A review. Urban Forestry Urban Green 14(4):760–771 CrossRef Haaland C, van Den Bosch CK (2015) Challenges and strategies for urban green-space planning in cities undergoing densification: A review. Urban Forestry Urban Green 14(4):760–771 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Haase D, Haase A, Rink D (2014) Conceptualizing the nexus between urban shrinkage and ecosystem services. Landsc Urban Plan 132:159–169 CrossRef Haase D, Haase A, Rink D (2014) Conceptualizing the nexus between urban shrinkage and ecosystem services. Landsc Urban Plan 132:159–169 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Hardy-Fanta C, Gerson J (2002) Latino politics in Massachusetts: struggles, strategies, and prospects (Vol. 4). Routledge Hardy-Fanta C, Gerson J (2002) Latino politics in Massachusetts: struggles, strategies, and prospects (Vol. 4). Routledge
Zurück zum Zitat Hoffman JS, Shandas V, Pendleton N (2020) The effects of historical housing policies on resident exposure to intra-urban heat: a study of 108 US urban areas. Climate 8(1):12 CrossRef Hoffman JS, Shandas V, Pendleton N (2020) The effects of historical housing policies on resident exposure to intra-urban heat: a study of 108 US urban areas. Climate 8(1):12 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Hughes ML, McDowell PF, Marcus WA (2006) Accuracy assessment of georectified aerial photographs: implications for measuring lateral channel movement in a GIS. Geomorphology 74(1-4):1–16 CrossRef Hughes ML, McDowell PF, Marcus WA (2006) Accuracy assessment of georectified aerial photographs: implications for measuring lateral channel movement in a GIS. Geomorphology 74(1-4):1–16 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Jacobson-Hardy M, Weir RE (1992) Faces, machines, and voices: the fading landscape of papermaking in Holyoke, Massachusetts. Mass Rev 33(3):361–384 Jacobson-Hardy M, Weir RE (1992) Faces, machines, and voices: the fading landscape of papermaking in Holyoke, Massachusetts. Mass Rev 33(3):361–384
Zurück zum Zitat Jim CY (2004) Green-space preservation and allocation for sustainable greening of compact cities. Cities 21(4):311–320 CrossRef Jim CY (2004) Green-space preservation and allocation for sustainable greening of compact cities. Cities 21(4):311–320 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Kane K, Connors JP, Galletti CS (2014) Beyond fragmentation at the fringe: A path-dependent, high-resolution analysis of urban land cover in Phoenix, Arizona Appl Geogr 52:123–134 CrossRef Kane K, Connors JP, Galletti CS (2014) Beyond fragmentation at the fringe: A path-dependent, high-resolution analysis of urban land cover in Phoenix, Arizona Appl Geogr 52:123–134 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Locke DH, Landry SM, Grove JM, Roy Chowdhury R (2016) Whatas scale got to do with it? Models for urban tree canopy. J Urban Ecol 2(1):1–16 CrossRef Locke DH, Landry SM, Grove JM, Roy Chowdhury R (2016) Whatas scale got to do with it? Models for urban tree canopy. J Urban Ecol 2(1):1–16 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Locke DH, Romolini M, Galvin M, O’Neil-Dunne JP, Strauss EG (2017) Tree canopy change in coastal Los Angeles, 2009-2014. Cities Environ (CATE) 10(2):3 Locke DH, Romolini M, Galvin M, O’Neil-Dunne JP, Strauss EG (2017) Tree canopy change in coastal Los Angeles, 2009-2014. Cities Environ (CATE) 10(2):3
Zurück zum Zitat Locke DH, Hall B, Grove JM, Pickett ST, Ogden LA, Aoki C, Boone CG, O’Neil-Dunne JP (2021) Residential housing segregation and urban tree canopy in 37 US Cities. npj Urban Sustain 1(1):1–9 CrossRef Locke DH, Hall B, Grove JM, Pickett ST, Ogden LA, Aoki C, Boone CG, O’Neil-Dunne JP (2021) Residential housing segregation and urban tree canopy in 37 US Cities. npj Urban Sustain 1(1):1–9 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat MassLive (2011) $14.5 million project to renovate Holyoke Public Library scheduled to begin in December. MassLive, 17 November 2011 MassLive (2011) $14.5 million project to renovate Holyoke Public Library scheduled to begin in December. MassLive, 17 November 2011
Zurück zum Zitat MassLive (2012) Holyoke community field to reopen after $3.1 million renovation. MassLive, 01 June 2012 MassLive (2012) Holyoke community field to reopen after $3.1 million renovation. MassLive, 01 June 2012
Zurück zum Zitat MassLive (2014) Holyoke wastewater treatment plant: millions of gallons daily get high-tech cleaning, but deficit likely to yield higher bills. MassLive, 02 July 2014 MassLive (2014) Holyoke wastewater treatment plant: millions of gallons daily get high-tech cleaning, but deficit likely to yield higher bills. MassLive, 02 July 2014
Zurück zum Zitat McPherson EG, Luttinger N (1998) From nature to nurture: the history of Sacramento’s urban forest. J Arboriculture 24(2):72–88 McPherson EG, Luttinger N (1998) From nature to nurture: the history of Sacramento’s urban forest. J Arboriculture 24(2):72–88
Zurück zum Zitat Merry K, Siry J, Bettinger P, Bowker JM (2014) Urban tree cover change in Detroit and Atlanta, USA, 1951–2010. Cities 41:123–131 CrossRef Merry K, Siry J, Bettinger P, Bowker JM (2014) Urban tree cover change in Detroit and Atlanta, USA, 1951–2010. Cities 41:123–131 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Merse CL, Buckley GL, Boone CG (2009) Street trees and urban renewal: a Baltimore case study. Geographical Bull 50(2):65–81 Merse CL, Buckley GL, Boone CG (2009) Street trees and urban renewal: a Baltimore case study. Geographical Bull 50(2):65–81
Zurück zum Zitat Morgan JL, Gergel SE, Coops NC (2010) Aerial photography: a rapidly evolving tool for ecological management. BioScience 60(1):47–59 CrossRef Morgan JL, Gergel SE, Coops NC (2010) Aerial photography: a rapidly evolving tool for ecological management. BioScience 60(1):47–59 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Neumann T (2016) Remaking the rust belt: The postindustrial transformation of North America. University of Pennsylvania Press Neumann T (2016) Remaking the rust belt: The postindustrial transformation of North America. University of Pennsylvania Press
Zurück zum Zitat Nguyen VD, Roman LA, Locke DH, Mincey SK, Sanders JR, Fichman ES, Duran-Mitchell M, Tobing SL (2017) Branching out to residential lands: missions and strategies of five tree distribution programs in the US. Urban Forestry Urban Green 22:24–35 CrossRef Nguyen VD, Roman LA, Locke DH, Mincey SK, Sanders JR, Fichman ES, Duran-Mitchell M, Tobing SL (2017) Branching out to residential lands: missions and strategies of five tree distribution programs in the US. Urban Forestry Urban Green 22:24–35 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Nix S, Roman LA, Healy M, Rogan J, Pearsall H (2022) Linking tree cover change to historical management practices in urban parks. Landscape Ecology Nix S, Roman LA, Healy M, Rogan J, Pearsall H (2022) Linking tree cover change to historical management practices in urban parks. Landscape Ecology
Zurück zum Zitat Nowak DJ, Greenfield EJ (2018) Declining urban and community tree cover in the United States. Urban Forestry Urban Green 32:32–55 CrossRef Nowak DJ, Greenfield EJ (2018) Declining urban and community tree cover in the United States. Urban Forestry Urban Green 32:32–55 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Nowak DJ, Greenfield EJ (2020) The increase of impervious cover and decrease of tree cover within urban areas globally (2012–2017). Urban Forestry Urban Green 49:126638 CrossRef Nowak DJ, Greenfield EJ (2020) The increase of impervious cover and decrease of tree cover within urban areas globally (2012–2017). Urban Forestry Urban Green 49:126638 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Nowak DJ, Ellis A, Greenfield EJ (2022) The disparity in tree cover and ecosystem service values among redlining classes in the United States. Landsc Urban Plan 221:104370 CrossRef Nowak DJ, Ellis A, Greenfield EJ (2022) The disparity in tree cover and ecosystem service values among redlining classes in the United States. Landsc Urban Plan 221:104370 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat O’Neil-Dunne JP, MacFaden SW, Royar AR, Pelletier KC (2013) An object-based system for LiDAR data fusion and feature extraction. Geocarto Int 28(3):227–242 CrossRef O’Neil-Dunne JP, MacFaden SW, Royar AR, Pelletier KC (2013) An object-based system for LiDAR data fusion and feature extraction. Geocarto Int 28(3):227–242 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat O’Neil-Dunne J (2017) Tree Canopy in Cambridge, MA: 2009–2014, University of Vermont Spatial Analysis Laboratory. University of Vermont, pp. 1–9 O’Neil-Dunne J (2017) Tree Canopy in Cambridge, MA: 2009–2014, University of Vermont Spatial Analysis Laboratory. University of Vermont, pp. 1–9
Zurück zum Zitat Ogden LA, Aoki C, Grove JM, Sonti NF, Hall W, Locke D, Pickett ST, Avins M, Lautar K, Lagrosa J (2019)Forest ethnography: An approach to study the environmental history and political ecology of urban forests. Urban Ecosyst 22(1):49–63 CrossRef Ogden LA, Aoki C, Grove JM, Sonti NF, Hall W, Locke D, Pickett ST, Avins M, Lautar K, Lagrosa J (2019)Forest ethnography: An approach to study the environmental history and political ecology of urban forests. Urban Ecosyst 22(1):49–63 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Ossola A, Locke D, Lin B, Minor E (2019) Greening in style: urban form, architecture and the structure of front and backyard vegetation. Landsc Urban Plan 185:141–157 CrossRef Ossola A, Locke D, Lin B, Minor E (2019) Greening in style: urban form, architecture and the structure of front and backyard vegetation. Landsc Urban Plan 185:141–157 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Parmehr EG, Amati, M, Fraser CS (2016) Mapping urban tree canopy cover using fused airborne LiDAR and satellite imagery data. ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing & Spatial Information Sciences, 3(7). Parmehr EG, Amati, M, Fraser CS (2016) Mapping urban tree canopy cover using fused airborne LiDAR and satellite imagery data. ISPRS Annals of Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing & Spatial Information Sciences, 3(7).
Zurück zum Zitat Pham T, Apparicio P, Landry S, Lewnard J (2017) Disentangling the effects of urban form and socio-demographic context on street tree cover: a multi-level analysis from Montréal. Landsc Urban Plan 157:422–433 CrossRef Pham T, Apparicio P, Landry S, Lewnard J (2017) Disentangling the effects of urban form and socio-demographic context on street tree cover: a multi-level analysis from Montréal. Landsc Urban Plan 157:422–433 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Pontius jr RG, Shusas E, McEachern M (2004) Detecting important categorical land changes while accounting for persistence Agric Ecosys Environ 101(2–3):251–268 CrossRef Pontius jr RG, Shusas E, McEachern M (2004) Detecting important categorical land changes while accounting for persistence Agric Ecosys Environ 101(2–3):251–268 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Presley Associates Inc. (1999) Cultural Landscape Report, Wistariahurst Museum, Holyoke Massachusetts. Presley Associates Inc., pp 1–133 Presley Associates Inc. (1999) Cultural Landscape Report, Wistariahurst Museum, Holyoke Massachusetts. Presley Associates Inc., pp 1–133
Zurück zum Zitat Richardson JJ, Moskal LM (2014) Uncertainty in urban forest canopy assessment: Lessons from Seattle, WA, USA. Urban For Urban Green 13(1):152–157 CrossRef Richardson JJ, Moskal LM (2014) Uncertainty in urban forest canopy assessment: Lessons from Seattle, WA, USA. Urban For Urban Green 13(1):152–157 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Roman LA, Walker LA, Martineau CM, Muffly DJ, MacQueen SA, Harris W (2015) Stewardship matters: case studies in establishment success of urban trees. Urban For Urban Green 14(4):1174–1182 CrossRef Roman LA, Walker LA, Martineau CM, Muffly DJ, MacQueen SA, Harris W (2015) Stewardship matters: case studies in establishment success of urban trees. Urban For Urban Green 14(4):1174–1182 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Roman LA, Catton IJ, Greenfield EJ, Pearsall H, Eisenman TS, Henning JG (2021) Linking urban tree cover change and local history in a post-industrial city. Land 10(4):403 CrossRef Roman LA, Catton IJ, Greenfield EJ, Pearsall H, Eisenman TS, Henning JG (2021) Linking urban tree cover change and local history in a post-industrial city. Land 10(4):403 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Roman LA, Fristensky JP, Eisenman TS, Greenfield EJ, Lundgren RE, Cerwinka CE, Hewitt DA, Welsh CC (2017) Growing canopy on a college campus: understanding urban forest change through archival records and aerial photography. Environ Manag 60(6):1042–1061 CrossRef Roman LA, Fristensky JP, Eisenman TS, Greenfield EJ, Lundgren RE, Cerwinka CE, Hewitt DA, Welsh CC (2017) Growing canopy on a college campus: understanding urban forest change through archival records and aerial photography. Environ Manag 60(6):1042–1061 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Roman LA, Pearsall H, Eisenman TS, Conway TM, Fahey RT, Landry S, Vogt J, van Doorn NS, Grove JM, Locke DH, Bardekjian AC (2018) Human and biophysical legacies shape contemporary urban forests: a literature synthesis. Urban For Urban Green 31:157–168 CrossRef Roman LA, Pearsall H, Eisenman TS, Conway TM, Fahey RT, Landry S, Vogt J, van Doorn NS, Grove JM, Locke DH, Bardekjian AC (2018) Human and biophysical legacies shape contemporary urban forests: a literature synthesis. Urban For Urban Green 31:157–168 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Rothstein R (2017) The color of law: A forgotten history of how our government segregated America. Liveright Publishing Rothstein R (2017) The color of law: A forgotten history of how our government segregated America. Liveright Publishing
Zurück zum Zitat Roy S, Byrne J, Pickering C (2012) A systematic quantitative review of urban tree benefits, costs, and assessment methods across cities in different climatic zones. Urban For Urban Green 11(4):351–363 CrossRef Roy S, Byrne J, Pickering C (2012) A systematic quantitative review of urban tree benefits, costs, and assessment methods across cities in different climatic zones. Urban For Urban Green 11(4):351–363 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Schwarz K, Fragkias M, Boone CG, Zhou W, McHale M, Grove JM, O’Neil-Dunne J, McFadden JP, Buckley GL, Childers D, Ogden L (2015) Trees grow on money: urban tree canopy cover and environmental justice. PloS ONE 10(4):e0122051 CrossRef Schwarz K, Fragkias M, Boone CG, Zhou W, McHale M, Grove JM, O’Neil-Dunne J, McFadden JP, Buckley GL, Childers D, Ogden L (2015) Trees grow on money: urban tree canopy cover and environmental justice. PloS ONE 10(4):e0122051 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat The Berkshire Eagle (1954) Ex-Hurricane Slaps County, Felling Trees and Branches. The Berkshire Eagle, 16 October 1954 The Berkshire Eagle (1954) Ex-Hurricane Slaps County, Felling Trees and Branches. The Berkshire Eagle, 16 October 1954
Zurück zum Zitat The Boston Globe (1974a) Dutch elm disease cure called failure. The Boston Globe, 26 Sep 1974 The Boston Globe (1974a) Dutch elm disease cure called failure. The Boston Globe, 26 Sep 1974
Zurück zum Zitat The Boston Globe (1974b) Naval hospital closes in Chelsea. The Boston Globe, 28 June 1974 The Boston Globe (1974b) Naval hospital closes in Chelsea. The Boston Globe, 28 June 1974
Zurück zum Zitat The Boston Globe (1983) Housing blossoms at Chelsea Naval Hospital. The Boston Globe, 30 July 1983 The Boston Globe (1983) Housing blossoms at Chelsea Naval Hospital. The Boston Globe, 30 July 1983
Zurück zum Zitat The Boston Globe (1991a) A city’s fiscal free fall. The Boston Globe, 7 Sep 1991 The Boston Globe (1991a) A city’s fiscal free fall. The Boston Globe, 7 Sep 1991
Zurück zum Zitat The Boston Globe (1991b) New England is coping with Bob’s legacy. The Boston Globe, 25 Aug 1991 The Boston Globe (1991b) New England is coping with Bob’s legacy. The Boston Globe, 25 Aug 1991
Zurück zum Zitat The Boston Globe (1992) Lesson from Chelsea. The Boston Globe, 27 Feb 1992 The Boston Globe (1992) Lesson from Chelsea. The Boston Globe, 27 Feb 1992
Zurück zum Zitat The Boston Globe (1994) Chelsea looks ahead to life after receivership. The Boston Globe, 12 Mar 1994 The Boston Globe (1994) Chelsea looks ahead to life after receivership. The Boston Globe, 12 Mar 1994
Zurück zum Zitat The Boston Globe (2001) Chelsea gets down to a serious cleanup. The Boston Globe, 18 Feb 2001 The Boston Globe (2001) Chelsea gets down to a serious cleanup. The Boston Globe, 18 Feb 2001
Zurück zum Zitat The Boston Globe (2007) Community Briefing, Chelsea Mystic Mall Proposal. The Boston Globe, 20 May 2007 The Boston Globe (2007) Community Briefing, Chelsea Mystic Mall Proposal. The Boston Globe, 20 May 2007
Zurück zum Zitat The Boston Globe (2012) Power Play. The Boston Globe, 9 July 2012 The Boston Globe (2012) Power Play. The Boston Globe, 9 July 2012
Zurück zum Zitat The Boston Globe (2013) No takers for Forbes Park development at auction. The Boston Globe, 1 Aug 2013 The Boston Globe (2013) No takers for Forbes Park development at auction. The Boston Globe, 1 Aug 2013
Zurück zum Zitat The Boston Globe (2016a) Holyoke aims for long-term revival. The Boston Globe, 3 April 2016 The Boston Globe (2016a) Holyoke aims for long-term revival. The Boston Globe, 3 April 2016
Zurück zum Zitat The Boston Globe (2016b) Skate park is a bright spot in Holyoke. The Boston Globe, 10 April 2016 The Boston Globe (2016b) Skate park is a bright spot in Holyoke. The Boston Globe, 10 April 2016
Zurück zum Zitat The North Adams Transcript (1954) Hurricane Carol Tree Damage Costs $270,000. The North Adams Transcript, 14 Oct 1954 The North Adams Transcript (1954) Hurricane Carol Tree Damage Costs $270,000. The North Adams Transcript, 14 Oct 1954
Zurück zum Zitat Del Tredici P (2010) Spontaneous urban vegetation: reflections of change in a globalized world. Nat Cult 5(3):299–315 CrossRef Del Tredici P (2010) Spontaneous urban vegetation: reflections of change in a globalized world. Nat Cult 5(3):299–315 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Vogt J (2018) “Ships that pass in the night”: Does scholarship on the social benefits of urban greening have a disciplinary crosstalk problem? Urban For Urban Green 32:195–199 CrossRef Vogt J (2018) “Ships that pass in the night”: Does scholarship on the social benefits of urban greening have a disciplinary crosstalk problem? Urban For Urban Green 32:195–199 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Wachter SM, Zeuli KA (2013) Revitalizing American Cities. University of Pennsylvania Press Wachter SM, Zeuli KA (2013) Revitalizing American Cities. University of Pennsylvania Press
Zurück zum Zitat Walton JT, Nowak DJ, Greenfield EJ (2008) Assessing urban forest canopy cover using airborne or satellite imagery. Arboriculture Urban For 34(6):334–340 CrossRef Walton JT, Nowak DJ, Greenfield EJ (2008) Assessing urban forest canopy cover using airborne or satellite imagery. Arboriculture Urban For 34(6):334–340 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Watkins SL, Gerrish E (2018) The relationship between urban forests and race: a meta-analysis. J Environ Manag 209:152–168 CrossRef Watkins SL, Gerrish E (2018) The relationship between urban forests and race: a meta-analysis. J Environ Manag 209:152–168 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Young RF (2013) Mainstreaming urban ecosystem services: a national survey of municipal foresters. Urban Ecosyst 16(4):703–722 CrossRef Young RF (2013) Mainstreaming urban ecosystem services: a national survey of municipal foresters. Urban Ecosyst 16(4):703–722 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Zhou W, Huang G, Pickett ST, Cadenasso ML (2011) 90 years of forest cover change in an urbanizing watershed: spatial and temporal dynamics. Landsc Ecol 26(5):645–659 CrossRef Zhou W, Huang G, Pickett ST, Cadenasso ML (2011) 90 years of forest cover change in an urbanizing watershed: spatial and temporal dynamics. Landsc Ecol 26(5):645–659 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Zhou W, Huang G, Pickett ST, Wang J, Cadenasso ML, McPhearson T, Grove JM, Wang J (2021) Urban tree canopy has greater cooling effects in socially vulnerable communities in the US. One Earth 4(12):1764–1775 CrossRef Zhou W, Huang G, Pickett ST, Wang J, Cadenasso ML, McPhearson T, Grove JM, Wang J (2021) Urban tree canopy has greater cooling effects in socially vulnerable communities in the US. One Earth 4(12):1764–1775 CrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Historical Urban Tree Canopy Cover Change in Two Post-Industrial Cities
verfasst von
Marc Healy
John Rogan
Lara A. Roman
Sabine Nix
Deborah G. Martin
Nicholas Geron
Publikationsdatum
08.03.2022
Verlag
Springer US
Erschienen in
Environmental Management / Ausgabe 1/2022
Print ISSN: 0364-152X
Elektronische ISSN: 1432-1009
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-022-01614-x

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 1/2022

Environmental Management 1/2022 Zur Ausgabe