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Über dieses Buch

This volume gathers 19 papers first presented at the 5th International Symposium of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography, which took place at the University of Ghent, Belgium on 2-5 December 2014. The overall conference theme was 'Cartography in Times of War and Peace', but preference was given to papers dealing with the military cartography of the First World War (1914-1918). The papers are classified by period and regional sub-theme, i.e. Military Cartography from the 18th to the 20th century; WW I Cartography in Belgium, Central Europe, etc.



Military Cartography during World War I


Image of Belgium in WWI Through Maps

This contribution focuses on maps of Belgium produced in and outside the country during WWI and intended for the larger public. They have recently been digitized by the Royal library of Belgium and are readily accessible through the Europeana website.
During WWI, the press was very much censored by the occupying forces. Maps are mentioned nowhere in official publications related to censorship, and consequently little or nothing has been written on their production or diffusion in Belgium at the time. Nonetheless, they constituted important sources of information, together with newspapers and magazines. This contribution discusses some examples of these maps against the background of what is known about the Germans’ censorship policy in occupied Belgium.
Wouter Bracke

The Postal Service of the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps (1917–1919): A Time-Step Analysis Using Historical Data Integration in a GIS Environment

This paper aims to discuss the Campaign Postal Service (Serviço Postal de Campanha—SPC) of the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps (Corpo Expedicionário Português—CEP) which served in Flanders during World War I. The Mission of the SPC was to ensure the exchange of correspondence between Portugal and the Portuguese Expeditionary Corps in France, as well as to regulate internal postal communications between the various units and formations. Much has been written about the participation of the Portuguese Army in this conflict, but the vast majority of studies either omit or refer only very briefly to the SPC. Our objective is to describe the implementation by force of circumstances of a civil structure such as the SPC in a military organization, the contribution of which is considered invaluable in the history of the participation of Portugal in the Great War.
The SPC left for France in 1917 under the guidance of Humberto da Cunha Serrão, an officer in the General Administration of Posts and Telegraphs who had been appointed to command and organize this service. Our aim is to describe the organization of the postal communication network in Flanders using cartographic and textual sources as well as a geographic information system (GIS) to compile new maps which can show not only the organization and operation of the service, but also the adversities it had to overcome in order to carry out its function. We also intend to emphasise the importance of establishing institutional cooperation relations for the study and dissemination of historical cartographic sources.
Patrícia Franco Frazão, Sandra Domingues, Jorge Rocha, José Paulo Berger

Position Mapping: Cartography, Intelligence, and the Third Battle of Gaza, 1917

World War I saw numerous innovations in military cartography. In the Palestine theater as elsewhere, the British and Dominion forces leveraged new technologies, including aerial photography and wireless intercepts, to supplement their use of intelligence to map enemy troop positions. The creation and distribution of these position maps by the 7th Field Survey Company for the Third Battle of Gaza in late 1917 represented an innovative process of intelligence-gathering, map production, and knowledge distribution. This paper not only examines the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) along with its subordinate intelligence assets and cartographic organizations as a comprehensive mapping system, but also elaborates upon David Woodward’s cartographic framework to study the creation of the 7th Field Survey Company’s position maps as well as their utility, accuracy, and effectiveness. Woodward’s framework divides the map production process into four phases: information gathering, information processing, document distribution, and document use. Elements of the EEF were involved in each of these phases during the Third Battle of Gaza. This mapping system was cyclical insofar as the operations that these maps helped to facilitate also gathered further information that fed into the next cycle’s product. As the condition of the battlefield and the nature of the operations changed, so too did the value of various modes of intelligence gathering, with varying effects on the accuracy and utility of the position maps. The utility of the position map technique is apparent in its reintroduction prior to the EEF’s final offensive in 1918.
Joel Radunzel

The Eye of the Army: German Aircraft and Aero Cartography in World War I

Early military aviation relied first and foremost on maps for navigational purposes, but was also involved in the compilation, improvement and updating of the map sheets used. Although aeronautics and cartography were entwined, their overlap has remained largely understudied. The following notes are an attempt to close this informational gap with regard to Germany’s participation in WWI with the focus on German military aviation (Luftstreitkräfte). For an additional discussion of the Central Power’s general approach to military mapping in the Great War, please see chapter “A good map is half the battle” (vide pp. xx—xx).
Jürgen Espenhorst

A Good Map Is Half The Battle! The Military Cartography of the Central Powers in World War I

During World War I the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire) were burdened by the heterogeneous structure of their military mapping-facilities. Nevertheless, in the end they produced far more maps than the Allied Powers. The German cartographers, without any overstatement, created the lion’s share because they were present on all the fronts from Flanders via the Balkans to the Near East. This article explores pre-war cartographic efforts, looks at the various types of maps that were produced during the war, and traces the dramatic development of cartographic technology that occurred as a result. The following discussion focuses on maps created for the army. Maps for use by aviation units are discussed in a separate chapter.
Jürgen Espenhorst

Military and Civilian Mapping (ca 1912–1930) of the Great War: A Selective Private Collection (Including Postcards)

Civilian projects or military conflicts will, alongside explanatory texts and statistical tables, initiate graphic sketches – maps/charts – to promote the objectives and to invite comments. The longer a project or conflict lasts the more likely are its source materials to result in a greater quantity and quality, and variety of media and format, adapted for differing ‘audiences’. Information and publicity (propaganda included) on the Russo-Japanese War from February 1904, concluded by the Treaty of Portsmouth (Kittery, Maine, USA) on 5 September 1905, was comparatively limited. In contrast, the Great War (afterwards ‘First World War’), triggered by the unstable undercurrents of the 1912–1913 Balkan Wars, extended over a period of four and one quarter years. Its post-conflict treaties of 28 June 1919 to 10 August 1920 caused reverberations for another dozen years, exemplified by the quadripartite occupation by Belgium, France, Great Britain and USA of the Rhineland and by plebiscites affecting Germany’s peripheries. The period, media and format range in this (mainly British) selective carto-bibliography encompasses military map-reading manuals and training maps, a trench map, ‘stand-alone’ folding maps commissioned from leading map-makers by newspapers, bird’s-eye-view and panorama maps for weekly ‘popular’ magazines, maps in insurance company year-books and in geographical journals, and ephemera – notably map postcards: i.e. items encompassing both civilian and military needs.
Francis Herbert

Maps and the Aftermath of World War I


Mapping, Battlefield Guidebooks, and Remembering the Great War

Though battlefield tourism dates at least to the Battle of Waterloo, the few years after the First World War brought tourists and pilgrims to battlefield sites and cemeteries in unprecedented numbers. Guidebooks to the Western Front appeared in similarly unprecedented numbers, chiefly for British Commonwealth, American, and French readers. Foremost among them were those published by Michelin, which were distinctive from their competitors in their commitment to the private automobile as a means for touring the front. Michelin battlefields guidebooks combined historical narratives of campaigns; dramatic photographs of towns and landscapes during and after the war; and narrative battlefield tours, panoramas, and maps. The itineraries demonstrated a sophisticated understanding of the advantages automobility afforded tourists in the comprehension of battlefield topography, tactics, and chronology. Characterizing battlefield tourism as a form of pilgrimage, they were minimally commercial in approach but patriotic in tone. As such, they were suitable counterparts to the battlefield monuments and cemeteries memorializing the conflict, then under construction. At the same time, the guides and their maps illustrated the ironic ease with which the motor tourists who used these guidebooks could traverse territory so recently mired in bitter conflict notorious for its immobility cannot be overlooked. Michelin’s battlefield guides marked the emergence of an automobile tourism and mapping that emphasized both free-ranging exploration of the countryside and national patriotic education.
James R. Akerman

The Peace Treaty of Versailles: The Role of Maps in Reshaping the Balkans in the Aftermath of WWI

The Paris Peace Conference was a turning point in European history, but also a milestone in the way maps were used in the reshaping of territory and in the forming of new states. Political, administrative, historical, linguistic, and ethnographic maps served as one of the basic sources of information in that process. The American Geographic Society Library (AGS) at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee holds maps that were actually sent to the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, and based on which decisions were made about the new states and their borders. These maps were used by President Woodrow Wilson and the American delegation in the creation of new states. That makes them some of the most important maps of the early twentieth century, giving to cartography a completely new dimension regarding diplomatic activities and foreign affairs. One of the most complex negotiation processes was certainly the creation of the state of the South Slavs—the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later renamed Yugoslavia), which until then had never existed. In this paper we will present the maps used by the American delegation for shaping Yugoslavia’s borders.
Mirela Slukan Altic

The Role of Ethnographical Maps of Hungary and Romania at the Peace Talks After the Great War

The First World War was mostly static, not only in Western Europe, but also in Central and Eastern Europe, leaving the borders of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy unchanged until the end of the war. Hungary was one of the two member countries of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy which was the largest state in Central Europe. Although Hungary opposed the war, she was allowed no independent policy on foreign or military affairs and was compelled to enter the war as part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
Hungary, the country that lost the most territory at the end of the war, had very few military operations conducted on its soil during the war itself. There were however many military operations subsequent to the cease-fire agreement until the signing of the Peace Treaty of Trianon which concluded the war for Hungary. In preparation of the peace conference in Trianon, France, the US president Woodrow Wilson suggested that the new borders should be drawn along ethnic lines. Hungary was a multi-ethnic state, with nearly half its population non-Hungarian. To justify their particular territorial claims, all parties prepared maps showing the ethnic composition in their particular regions. The reader of these maps gets a different picture from each map of the ethnic composition of the same area. This raises the question whether the changes made to national borders were the consequence of military operations, or merely the outcome of the peace negotiations.
János Jeney

Ideological Changes in Ethnic Atlas Mapping of East Central Europe During the Twentieth Century

Ethnic mapping after World War I underwent changes which are not only reflected by a shift of perspective, but eventually also by ideological alterations which strongly affected contested territories, e.g. the new border regions between Germany and Poland. All German and international map depictions prior to World War I display a homogeneous view which is consistent throughout. After 1919 a multitude of new states in Eastern Europe led to many new borders as well as minority areas. Earlier factual mapping was now put in the throes of the political zeitgeist. At first this produced deviations which swerved a neutral viewpoint but which still relied on a factual basis, but later on contained more and more ideologically distorted falsifications, the legitimacy of which primarily during the national socialist period was clearly based on political objectives or even wishful thinking.
Although these changes in German cartography occurred sporadically during World War I, they were not commonplace as yet. They emerged more commonly after the Great War, spread throughout most of the cartographic trade during the later 1920s, and became ubiquitous around 1930. It is clear that this development was indubitably no Nazi creation; after 1933 it merely increased rapidly and left a clear impact upon international cartography—an influence which still holds some sway upon early twenty-first century cartography.
Marcus Greulich

A New Kind of Map for a New Kind of World: 1919, the Peace, and the Rise of Geographical Cartography

The years immediately following the First World War saw an increasingly widespread acceptance of a concept of the geographical understood not as the description of location, but as the study of the earth’s surface conditions. This concept was philosophically unique in several ways. Firstly, representing conditions did not entail representing discrete units or objects with fixed or necessary identities. Conditions were understood as neither purely subjective nor objective but as dynamic phenomena subject to informed interpretation. Secondly, maps were designed and arranged to encourage correlation among such conditions, thus making substantive geographical knowledge of an area possible. This correlation process and the maps it employed did not assume or represent discrete political units, empires, or nations, as essential categories. Arguably, this concept of the geographical effectively constituted a critique of such units, ultimately regarding them as inadequate assumptions for substantive geographical study. I suggest that the timing of the articulation of this “geographical cartography” was no coincidence. A profound dissatisfaction with territorial thinking as a worldview had been a strong intellectual current after the War, as was the appeal of increasingly compelling alternatives. The articulation of geographical cartography and the concomitant rejection of territorial maps in many publications after the War may be considered an example of such dissatisfaction.
Peter Nekola

Military Cartography on Various Fronts


Military Mapping Against All Odds: Topographical Reconnaissance in the United States from the Revolutionary War to the Civil War

Most map collections abound with cartographic items documenting military operations. On closer inspection, however, it becomes evident that the vast majority of these items are post festum drawings of what happened in the actual theatres of war. Much rarer are ante bellum mappings of possible theatres of war in response to the common wisdom that timely preparation does spare a good deal of trouble in time of need. This paper1 explores some aspects of anticipatory and reflective military mapping in the United States during the eight decades between the Revolutionary War (1775–1783) and the Civil War (1861–1865).
Imre Josef Demhardt

The Peninsular War 1808–1814: French and Spanish Cartography of the Guadarrama Pass and El Escorial

Many roads which still cross the Sierra de Guadarrama mountain range to connect the two plateaus in the centre of Spain date back to Roman times. The mountain passes of Somosierra, Navacerrada, La Fuenfría and Guadarrama were consolidated between the Middle Ages and the eighteenth century as necessary stages on the routes from Bayonne (France) to Madrid and Andalusia. In particular, the passes of La Fuenfría and Guadarrama linked the San Lorenzo de El Escorial Monastery and Segovia with the Spanish capital, and were progressively improved by the Bourbon kings, as was reflected in detail in Spanish maps. As strategic passes, they played an important role during the Peninsular War, and consequently they were also mapped by English and French cartographers. Much of the cartography from before, during and after this war comprises a largely unpublished collection of very interesting maps that are held in Spanish archives. The objectives of this research were, firstly, to study and disseminate the maps of these mountain passes produced around the time of the war. Secondly, to analyse the collaboration of Spanish cartographers with their European colleagues, a process which began with Philip V in 1700 and continued throughout the eighteenth century. And, thirdly, to analyse the influence of this cartography on post-war maps.
Pilar Chías, Tomas Abad

Partisan Cartographers During the Kansas-Missouri Border War, 1854–1861

A precursor to the American Civil War erupted in Kansas in 1854 after the U.S. Congress gave homesteaders in the Kansas Territory, newly opened for settlement, the right to vote whether Kansas would be a free or slave-holding state. Conflict between settlers from adjoining slave-holding Missouri and anti-slavery settlers from New England resulted in the guerrilla-style Kansas-Missouri Border War, 1854–1861. At the same time, the Territory was being surveyed and mapped for settlement according to the Public Land Survey System. Surviving documents reveal how political views and cartographic activities mingled in the lives of three surveyors active in Douglas County, the site of both Lecompton, the early pro-slavery capital of Kansas, and Lawrence, the Free-State headquarters. While surveying and mapping the Kansas Territory, Albert Dwight Searl, Isaac Cooper Stuck, and John Brown not only promoted its settlement but also put their lives on the line in opposition to slavery.
Karen Severud Cook

Mapping for Empire: British Military Mapping in South Africa, 1806–1914

This paper discusses British military mapping in South Africa by initially reviewing the early military cartography based on existing Dutch maps, and the cartography resulting from the shift of the centre of military gravity from Cape Town to the Eastern Frontier. Attention is subsequently given to the cartography which emanated from the various “small wars” or skirmishes which took place in the Orange Free State (1848), Basutoland (1868), Sekhukhuniland (1868), Zululand (1879), Bechuanaland (1885), and the Transvaal (1880–1881) during the half a century it took Britain to decide whether it wanted to be a permanent player in southern Africa. The British Army’s response to the challenge to provide in the huge demand for maps created by the Boer War (1899–1902) is dealt with in some detail and, to conclude, the change in the mapping policy of the War Office towards Britain’s colonies after the War is discussed with reference to the level of mapping in southern Africa south of the Limpopo by 1914.
Elri Liebenberg

From Peninsular War to Coordinated Cadastre: William Light’s Route Maps of Portugal and Spain, and His Founding of Adelaide, the ‘Grand Experiment in the Art of Colonization’

William Light’s appointment as Leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners’ ‘First Expedition’, as first Surveyor-General of the new British Province of South Australia, and his founding of the City of Adelaide in 1837, owes much to his military experiences in the British Royal Navy, and in the British Army where he served as a cavalry reconnaissance officer and Deputy Assistant Quarter Master General during the Peninsular War (1809–1814). In 1813, Light’s mapping and assessment of routes through northern Portugal and Spain assisted in planning of the Vitória campaign and thereafter. For the advance of infantry, cavalry and artillery, he reported on inaccuracies and details omitted in Lopez’s maps, on the condition and practicability of routes through Portugal’s Tras os Montes, Spain’s Castilla y León, and crossings of the Esla and Ebro rivers.
Kelly Henderson

Contours of Conflict: the Highs and Lows of Military Mapping at The National Archives of the United Kingdom

Five centuries of military mapping in arenas around the world are held at The National Archives of the United Kingdom, which is the main official archives of British central government including the military. Earlier maps provide context for the majority of maps, which date from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. They all illustrate ways in which the armed services used maps; for intelligence and planning purposes, reconnaissance, campaigns, ‘going’; to report action and as records for posterity.
This paper uses the theme of relief to explore what light maps from the Archives can shed on the question of how its depiction changed over time, and the extent to which the requirements and challenges of war led to innovations in mapmaking. Examples chosen reflect the response to different military manoeuvres and technical advances, and to the broad spectrum of landscapes encountered by military personnel, from mountains to trenches and desert dunes.
Rose Mitchell

Whose Islands? The Cartographic Politics of the Falklands, 1763–1982

For nearly 250 years a desolate, rocky archipelago between Tierra del Fuego and the Antarctic Peninsula has captivated, inspired, and angered the empires of the Atlantic world. The Falkland Islands have witnessed the clash of cultures and politics, the competing destinies of Britain, France, Spain, Argentina, and even the United States. Although recent tensions between London and Buenos Aires have renewed interest in the Falklands, scholars and commentators alike continue to omit the vital historical and contemporary role cartography plays in this longstanding dispute. This article demonstrates that at significant moments in the Falklands’ past, maps and their makers acted both as potent visual manifestations of national propaganda and imperial interest, as well as important tools of negotiation. Ultimately, Falklands cartography proves to be an invaluable asset of historical knowledge as well as a problematic source of friction and confusion.
Benjamin J Sacks
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