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Weather conditions greatly affect concrete quality. The temperature of the air, humidity level, wind speed, and temperatures of the surface where concrete is to be placed, all play an important role in the quality of concrete and must be taken into consideration.
In general, due to high temperature, the evaporation of water from the mix takes place that results in loss of workability and higher plastic shrinkage. The early setting due to high temperature results in greater difficulty with handling, compacting, and finishing of concrete. On the other hand, the fresh concrete with low temperatures starts freezing due to which the mixing water converts to ice resulting in an increase in the overall volume of the concrete. As no water is then left for chemical reaction, the setting and hardening of concrete are delayed, and concrete produced will be of low strength. Hence proper protections are vital, when concrete is placed in abnormal weather conditions either hot or cold.
This chapter describes concreting procedures in extreme hot and cold weather conditions, their adverse effects, and protective measures to achieve specified concrete strength in light of various international standards of practice.
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ACI 305.1-06, Specification for Hot Weather Concreting. First Print March 2007.
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) A23.1-14 - Concrete materials and methods of concrete construction/Test methods and standard practices for concrete.
ACI 305R-99 (Revised 2010), Hot Weather Concreting.
Project Analysis and Control Systems Co.W.L.L Kuwait, Production, Problems and Protection of Concrete in the Arabian Gulf Region, 1989.
A.M. Neville and J.J. Brooks, Concrete Technology, E.L.B.S. Longman, Singapore, 1993.
Prentis Polhill, Concrete Production in Hot Environments, Concrete Society Journal, CONCRETE, Vol. 34, No. 7, July/August 2000.
ASTM C 94/C 94M-04 (Revised 2017), Standard Specification for Ready-Mixed Concrete.
Ontario Provincial Standard Specification-OPSS. PROV-1350, Material Specifications for Concrete – Materials and Production- November 2013.
Ontario Provincial Standard Specification (OPSS.PROV)-904- Construction Specification for Concrete Structures- 2010
ACI 306R-16, Guide to Cold Weather Concreting.
Ontario Cast-in-place Concrete Development Council (OCCDC)- Reinforced Concrete Reference Guide- Concrete Technical Information, “Cold Weather Concreting” 2009.
ACI 306R-88, Cold Weather Concreting.
Vacker- Authorized Partner of Cryopak, Measuring Temperature of Concrete Using Data Logger or Thermocouple- Email:email@example.com.
- Hot and Cold Weather Concreting
- Chapter 11