Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
This chapter introduces São Paulo’s housing movements and their tactic of high-profile building occupations. It analyses how the movements link adequate housing to full or ‘substantive’ citizenship and discusses this conceptualization in light of a critical rereading of T.H. Marshall’s seminal work on social citizenship. The chapter discusses the concept of the right to the city: how it has been interpreted and deployed by housing movements, and its influence on the City Statute that enshrines the right to the city in Brazilian law. The chapter concludes by setting out the dichotomy around which the book is based: the use of legal process (rights discourse, litigation, legislation) and of formal, participatory channels for interaction with the state, compared with extra-legal activities such as building occupations.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Interview with Tristana, social movement leader and member of UMM’s executive committee, 26.03.07.
Interview with Benjamin, social movement leader and member of UMM executive committee, 05.06.07.
This seems to be the case in Leach and Scoones’s ( 2007) discussion of global citizenship, where the simple act of engaging in international lobbying seems to qualify the individual for global citizenship; this despite the inexistence of any global government that can uphold rights.
For example, a wealthy patient could pay for a private room in a public hospital, but he or she would receive the same quality of care and from the same doctors treating other poorer patients.
Holston ( 2008) describes grileiros as swindlers involved in scams whereby they pretend to have legitimate title to the land they are selling by producing an array of documents, which are either forgeries or have been fraudulently acquired.
Extract from the author’s research diary, 04.06.07.
Citations from The Right to the City and Space and Politics are from the 1996 English translation of these works, published together by Kofman and Lebas under the title Writings on Cities.
Presentation at the UN-Habitat World Urban Forum, Rio de Janeiro, 25.03.10.
For a technical discussion of the challenges of implementing the City Statue in practice, see Abigail Friendly’s study of Niteroi (Friendly 2013).
From Lefebvre’s The Right to the City ( 1996: 179).
At the time of the original fieldwork for this study, the UMM’s internal structure incorporated six ‘macro-regions’ within the municipality of São Paulo: North, East, Southeast, South, West/Northwest and Centre, and a further three in São Paulo state.
There are also pastoral units organized around health, education, children and young people.
Levy ( 2005) also claims that the UMM was formed as a response to the emergence of other umbrella organizations linked to the Partido dos Trabalhadores—the Workers’ Party, or PT—and the unions, particularly the forerunner to today’s Central de Movimentos Populares (CMP) or Centre for Popular Movements.
The Cities Ministry was established at the start of Lula’s first term in office and brings together all governmental departments working on urban issues, including housing, that had previously been scattered across a number of different ministries.
Amaral, A. (2002). Habitação na cidade de São Paulo. São Paulo: Instituto Pólis.
Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined communities: Reflections on the origins and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.
Barbalet, J. (1988). Citizenship. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
Bergamim, G. (2014, November 25). Invasões de sem-teto quase triplicam durante gestão Haddad. Folha de São Paulo.
Bonduki, N. (2000). Habitar São Paulo. Reflexões sobre a gestão urbana. São Paulo: Estação Liberdade.
Brandford, S., & Rocha, J. (2002). Cutting the wire: The story of the landless movement in Brazil. London: Latin America Bureau.
Brown, A., & Kristiansen, A. (2009). Urban policies and the right to the city. Rights, responsibilities and citizenship. Paris: UNESCO.
Caldeira, T. (2000). City of walls: Crime, segregation and citizenship in São Paulo. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Caricari, A. M., & Kohara, L. (Eds.). (2006). Cortiços em São Paulo. Soluções viáveis para habitação social no centro da cidade e legislação de proteção à moradia. São Paulo: Centro Gaspar Garcia/Mídia Alternativa.
Cavalcanti, G. V. (2006). Uma Concessão ao Passado: Trajetórias da União dos Movimentos de Moradia de São Paulo. Masters thesis, Departamento de Sociologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.
Fernandes, E. (2007a). Constructing the ‘right to the city’ in Brazil. Social and Legal Studies, 16(2), 201–219. CrossRef
Fernandes, E. (2007b). Implementing the urban reform agenda in Brazil. Environment and Urbanization, 19(1), 177–189. CrossRef
Foweraker, J., & Landman, T. (1997). Citizenship and social movements: A comparative and statistical analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Friendly, A. (2013) The right to the city: theory and practice in Brazil, Planning Theory and Practice 14(2), 158-179.
Friendly, A. (2013). The right to the city: Theory and practice in Brazil. Planning Theory and Practice, 14(2), 158–179. CrossRef
Gilbert, L., & Dikeç, M. (2008). Right to the city: Politics of citizenship. In K. Goonewardena, S. Kipfer, R. Milgrom, & C. Schmid (Eds.), On the production of Henri Lefebvre. Space, difference, everyday life. Reading Henri Lefebvre. New York: Routledge.
Harvey, D. (2003). The right to the city. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 27(4), 939–941. CrossRef
Harvey, D. (2008). The right to the city. New Left Review, 53, 23–39.
Hayes, G. (2007). Collective action and civil disobedience: The anti-GMO campaign of the Faucheurs Volontaires. French Politics, 5, 293–314. CrossRef
Held, D. (1989). Political theory and the modern state: Essays on state, power and democracy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Hochstetler, K. (2000). Democratising pressures from below? Social movements in the new Brazilian democracy. In P. Kingstone & T. Power (Eds.), Democratic Brazil: Actors, institutions and processes. Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Holston, J. (2008). Insurgent citizenship: Disjunctions of democracy and modernity in Brazil. Princeton: Princeton university press.
Holston, J., & Appadurai, A. (1993). Cities and citizenship. In J. Holston (Ed.), Cities and citizenship. Durham: Duke University Press.
Houtzager, P. (2005). The Movement of the Landless (MST) and the juridical field in Brazil, IDS working paper 248. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.
Isin, E. (2000). Democracy, citizenship and the city. In E. Isin (Ed.), Democracy, citizenship and the global city. London: Routledge.
Kipfer, S., Goonewardena, K., Schmid, C., & Milgrom, R. (2008a). On the production of Henri Lefebvre. In K. Goonewardena, S. Kipfer, R. Milgrom, & C. Schmid (Eds.), Space, difference, everyday life. Reading Henri Lefebvre. New York: Routledge.
Kipfer, S., Goonewardena, K., Schmid, C., & Milgrom, R. (2008b). Globalizing Lefebvre? In K. Goonewardena, S. Kipfer, R. Milgrom, & C. Schmid (Eds.), Space, difference, everyday life. Reading Henri Lefebvre. New York: Routledge.
Kofman, E., & Lebas, E. (1996). Lost in transposition – Time, space and the city. In E. Kofman & E. Kebas (Eds.), Writings on cities. Oxford: Blackwell.
Leach, M., & Scoones, I. (2007). Mobilising citizens: Social movements and the politics of knowledge, IDS working paper 276. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.
Lefebvre, H. (1991). The production of space. Oxford: Blackwell.
Lefebvre, H. (1996). Writings on cities (trans: Kofman, E., & Lebas, E.). Oxford: Blackwell.
Levy, C. (2005). The housing movement in the city of São Paulo: Crisis and revival. In M. Duquette (Ed.), Collective action and radicalism in Brazil: Women, urban housing and rural movements. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Lister, R. (1997). Citizenship: Feminist perspectives. Basingstoke: Macmillan. CrossRef
Marcuse, P. (2009). From critical urban theory to the right to the city. City, 13(2), 185–197. CrossRef
Marshall, T. H. (1964). Class, citizenship and social development. New York: Doubleday.
Mayer, M. (2009). The right to the city in the context of shifting mottos of urban social movements. City, 13(2), 362–374. CrossRef
Mendieta, E. (2008). The production of urban space in the age of transnational mega-urbes. City, 12(2), 148–153. CrossRef
Mitchell, D. (2003). The right to the city. Social justice and the fight for public space. New York: Guildford Press.
Parker, S. (2004). Urban theory and the urban experience. Encountering the city. London: Routledge.
Parnell, S., & Pieterse, E. (2010). The ‘right to the city’: Institutional imperatives of a developmental state. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34(1), 146–162. CrossRef
Pinder, D. (2005). Visions of the city. Utopianism, power and politics in twentieth-century urbanism. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Presidencia da Republica. (2001). Lei N. 10.257, de 10 de julho de 2001. Brasilia, Casa Civil – Subchefia para assuntos juridicos. www.cidades.gov.br. Accessed 22 Sept 2008.
Purcell, M. (2002). Excavating Lefebvre: The right to the city and its urban politics of the inhabitant. GeoJournal, 58, 99–108. CrossRef
Purcell, M. (2008). Recapturing democracy. Neoliberalization and the struggle for alternative urban futures. New York/London: Routledge.
Rizek, C., Barros, J., & Bergamim, M. (2003). A política de produção habitacional por mutirões autogeridos. Revista brasileira de estudos urbanos e regionais, 5(1).
Roche, M. (1987). Citizenship, social theory and social change. Theory and Society, 16, 363–399. CrossRef
Rolnik, R. (2013). As vozes das ruas: As revoltas de junho e suas interpretações. In Cidades Rebeldes: Passe livre e as manifestações que tomaram as ruas do Brasil. São Paulo: Boitempo Editorial.
Ronneberger, K. (2008). Henri Lefebvre and urban everyday life: In search of the possible. In K. Goonewardena, S. Kipfer, R. Milgrom, & C. Schmid (Eds.), Space, difference, everyday life. Reading Henri Lefebvre. New York: Routledge.
Saad-Filho, A., & Boito, A. (2016). Brazil: The failure of the PT and the rise of the ‘New Right’. Socialist Register, 52, 213–230.
Santos, B. d. S. (1995). Toward a new common sense: Law, science and politics in the paradigmatic transition. London: Routledge.
Scheingold, S. (2004). The politics of rights: Lawyers, public policy and political change. New Haven: Yale University Press. CrossRef
Scott, J. C. (1998). Seeing like a state. How certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Simone, A. (2010). The right to the city. In E. Pieterse (Ed.), Counter currents. Experiments in sustainability in the Cape Town region. Auckland Park: Jacana.
Skinner, Q. (1992). On justice, the common good and the priority of liberty. In C. Mouffe (Ed.), Dimensions of radical democracy: Pluralism, citizenship, community. London: Verso.
Souto, A., Kayano, J. (1996). A cidade e o seu governo: o olhar do cidadão. São Paulo: Instituto Polis. Revista no. 26.
Tarrow, S. (1995). Cycles of collective action: Between moments of madness and the repertoire of contention. In M. Traugott (Ed.), Repertoires and cycles of collective action. Durham/London: Duke University Press.
Taylor, V., & Van Dyke, N. (2004). Get up, stand up: Tactical repertoires of social movements. In D. Snow, S. Soule, & H. Kriesi (Eds.), The Blackwell companion to social movements. Oxford: Blackwell.
Tilly, C. (1995). Contentious repertoires in Great Britain, 1758–1834. In M. Traugott (Ed.), Repertoires and cycles of collective action. Durham/London: Duke University Press.
Turner, B. (1986). Citizenship and capitalism: The debate over reformism. London: Allen & Unwin.
UN-Habitat. (2010). State of the world’s cities 2010/2011: Bridging the urban divide. Earthscan: London/Washington.Walton, J. (1998) Urban Conflict and Social Movements in Poor Countries: Theory and Evidence of Collective Action Volume, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research: 22(3), 460–481.
Walton, J. (1998). Urban conflict and social movements in poor countries: Theory and evidence of collective action volume. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 22(3), 460–481. CrossRef
Woessner, M. (2009). Rescuing the ‘right to the city’. City, 13(4), 474–475. CrossRef
- Housing, Citizenship and the Right to the City
- Chapter 2