APEC has launched an important deepening process for the past few years. In 1994 the Bogor Declaration set the ambitious target of ‘achieving free and open trade in the region by 2010 and 2020’. In 1995 Osaka Action Agenda (OAA) provided a guideline for implementing policy measures to achieve this target. It set two major tracks, Trade and Investment Liberalization and Facilitation (TILF) and Economic and Technical Cooperation (Ecotec). It adopted a unique modality for TILF, Concerted Unilateral Liberalization (CUL) in which individual members announce their liberalization plans (Individual Action Plans, IAPs) unilaterally and other members will watch their implementation so as to encourage all members to achieve the Bogor target in the set deadline. In 1996 APEC leaders adopted Manila Action Plans for APEC (MAPA) in which all APEC members submitted their IAPs and implemented from 1997. As regards broadening, APEC admitted three new members, Vietnam, Peru, and Russia, to join as full members from November 1998.
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- How Can APEC Help Asia to Get Over the Economic Crisis?
- Palgrave Macmillan UK
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