Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
The literature argues that research spin-offs (RSOs)—enterprises originating from a university or research institute—appear to have higher innovative potential and capabilities than other start-ups, at least in the early stages of their development. Yet, little is known about the innovative performance of these companies at later development phases. Thus, the main goal of this study is to investigate whether there are any differences in research and development (R&D) and innovation behavior between established and/or mature RSOs and otherwise created firms and, if so, to what extent they are driven by networking and cooperation activities as suggested by some scholars. To this end, we employ probit regression analysis and a matching approach using survey data on more than 6,000 East German firms, among which are 179 RSOs. Our first findings suggest that established RSOs engage in R&D and innovation activities more frequently than companies whose genesis was of another type. Nevertheless, the results obtained when accounting for collaboration measures show that the precedence of RSOs in further development stages over otherwise created firms in terms of innovation outputs is related to their higher intensity of cooperation activity and close, face-to-face interactions with universities, and not to type of firm creation. Moreover, our findings reveal that cooperating in various fields may be of different importance for specific inputs and outputs of the innovation activity. Finally, based on our results, we draw some implications for both practicing managers and public policymakers.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Akerlof, G. A. (1970). The market for “lemons”: Quality uncertainty and the market mechanism. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 84(3), 488–500. CrossRef
Aydalot, P., Keeble, D., & Groupe de recherche européen sur les milieux innovateurs. (1989). High technology industry and innovative environments: The European experience. London: Routledge.
Becker, S. O., & Caliendo, M. (2007). Sensitivity analysis for average treatment effects. Stata Journal, 7(1), 71–83.
Bell, E. R. J. (1993). Some current issues in technology transfer and academic-industrial relations: A review. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 5(3), 307–321. CrossRef
Best, M. H. (2001). The new competitive advantage: The renewal of American industry. Oxford: Oxford University Press. CrossRef
Caliendo, M., & Hujer, R. (2006). The microeconometric estimation of treatment effects: An overview. Allgemeines Statistisches Archiv, 90(1), 199–215. CrossRef
Callan, B. (2001). Gererating spin-offs: Evidence from across the OECD. STI Review, 26, 13–56.
Campagni, R. (1991). Local ‘milieu’, uncertainty and innovation networks: Toward a new dynamic theory of economic space. In R. Campagni (Ed.), Innovation networks: Spatial perspectives (pp. 121–142). London: Belhaven.
Cardozo, R. N., & Engleman, R. (2004). University technology and new business opportunities. In S. A. Zahra, C. G. Brush, P. Davidsson, J. Fiet, P. G. Greene, R. T. Harrison, et al. (Eds.), Frontiers of entrepreneurship research. Babson Park, MA: Babson College.
Castillejo, J. A. M., Aznar, R. A., Barrachina, M. E. R., & Llopis, J. A. S. (2005). Productivity and R&D. A non-parametric analysis. Revista De Economía Aplicada, 13(39), 47–86.
Cefis, E. (2003). Is there persistence in innovative activities? International Journal of Industrial Organization, 21(4), 489–515. CrossRef
Clarysse, B., & Moray, N. (2004). A process study of entrepreneurial team formation: The case of a research-based spin-off. Journal of Business Venturing, 19(1), 55–79. CrossRef
Colombo, M. G., Grilli, L., & Piva, E. (2006). In search of complementary assets: The determinants of alliance formation of high-tech start-ups. Research Policy, 35(8), 1166–1199. CrossRef
Cooke, P., Uranga, M. G., & Etxebarria, G. (1997). Regional innovation systems: Institutional and organisational dimensions. Research Policy, 26(4–5), 475–491. CrossRef
Dahlstrand, A. L. (1997). Growth and inventiveness in technology-based spin-off firms. Research Policy, 26(3), 331–344. CrossRef
Dehejia, R. H., & Wahba, S. (2002). Propensity score-matching methods for nonexperimental causal studies. Review of Economics and Statistics, 84(1), 151–161. CrossRef
Dodgson, M. (1992). Technological collaboration: Problems and pitfalls. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 4(1), 83–88. CrossRef
Egeln, J., Gottschalk, S., & Rammer, C. (2004). Location decisions of spin-offs from public research institutions. Industry and Innovation, 11(3), 207–223. CrossRef
Elfring, T., & Hulsink, W. (2003). Networks in entrepreneurship: The case of high-technology firms. Small Business Economics, 21(4), 409–422. CrossRef
Fama, E. F., & French, K. R. (2005). Financing decisions: Who issues stock? Journal of Financial Economics, 76(3), 549–582. CrossRef
Fryxell, G. E. (1990). Multiple outcomes from product R&D: Profitability under different strategic orientations. Journal of Management, 16(3), 633–646. CrossRef
George, G., Zahra, S. A., Wheatley, K. K., & Khan, R. (2001). The effects of alliance portfolio characteristics and absorptive capacity on performance: A study of biotechnology firms. The Journal of High Technology Management Research, 12(2), 205–226. CrossRef
George, G., Zahra, S. A., & Wood, D. R. (2002). The effects of business-university alliances on innovative output and financial performance: A study of publicly traded biotechnology companies. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(6), 577–609. CrossRef
Geroski, P. A., VanReenen, J., & Walters, C. F. (1997). How persistently do firms innovate? Research Policy, 26(1), 33–48. CrossRef
Heckman, J., & Navarro-Lozano, S. (2004). Using matching, instrumental variables, and control functions to estimate economic choice models. Review of Economics and Statistics, 86(1), 30–57. CrossRef
Heirman, A., & Clarysse, B. (2004). How and why do research-based start-ups differ at founding? A resource-based configurational perspective. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 28(3–4), 247–268. CrossRef
Helm, R., & Mauroner, O. (2007). Success of research-based spin-offs: State-of-the-art and guidelines for further research. Review of Managerial Science, 1(3), 237–270. CrossRef
Kazanjian, R. K., & Drazin, R. (1990). A stage-contingent model of design and growth for technology based new ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 5(3), 137–150. CrossRef
Kelley, D. J., Peters, L., & O’Connor, G. C. (2009). Intra-organizational networking for innovation-based corporate entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(3), 221–235. CrossRef
Klepper, S., & Sleeper, S. (2005). Entry by spinoffs. Management Science, 51(8), 1291–1306. CrossRef
Lejpras, A., & Stephan, A. (2011). Locational conditions, cooperation, and innovativeness: Evidence from research and company spin-offs. Annals of Regional Science, 46(3), 543–575. CrossRef
Lerner, J. (1994). The importance of patent scope: An empirical analysis. Rand Journal of Economics, 25(2), 319–333. CrossRef
Liebeskind, J. P., Oliver, A. L., Zucker, L., & Brewer, M. (1996). Social networks, learning, and flexibility: Sourcing scientific knowledge in new biotechnology firms. Organization Science, 7(4), 428–443. CrossRef
Mairesse, J., Hall, B., & Mulkay, B. (1999). Firm-level investment in France and the United States: An exploration of what we have learned in 20 years. Annales d’Economie et de Statistique, 55–56, 27–69.
Mantel, N., & Haenszel, W. (1959). Statistical aspects of the analysis of data from retrospective studies of disease. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 22(4), 719–748.
Morgan, S. L., & Harding, D. J. (2006). Matching estimators of causal effects: Prospects and pitfalls in theory and practice. Sociological Methods & Research, 35(1), 3–60. CrossRef
Mowery, D. C., & Ziedonis, A. A. (2001). The geographic reach of market and non- market channels of technology transfer: Comparing citations and licenses of university patents. NBER Working Paper.
Mulkay, B., Hall, B., & Mairesse, J. (2001). Firm level investment and R&D in France and the United States: A comparison. Economics Papers 2001-W2, Economics Group: Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
Mustar, P. (1997). Spin-off enterprises. How French academics create hi-tech companies: The conditions for success and failure. Science and Public Policy, 24(1), 37–43.
Mustar, P. (1998). Partnerships, configurations and dynamics in the creation and development of SMEs by researchers. Industry and Higher Education, 12(4), 217–221.
Mustar, P. (2001). Spin-offs from public research: Trends and outlook. STI Review, 26, 165–172.
Mustar, P., Wright, M., & Clarysse, B. (2008). University spin-off firms: Lessons from 10 years of experience in Europe. Science and Public Policy, 35(2), 67–80. CrossRef
OECD. (2001). OECD STI review (Vol. 26). Paris: OECD Publication Service. CrossRef
Peters, B. (2006). Innovation and firm performance: An empirical investigation for German firms. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag.
Porter, M. E. (2000). Locations, clusters and company strategy. In M. P. Feldman, G. L. Clark, & M. S. Gertler (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of economic geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Quinn, R. E., & Cameron, K. (1983). Organizational life cycles and shifting criteria of effectiveness: Some preliminary evidence. Management Science, 29(1), 33–51. CrossRef
Richardson, G. B. (1972). The organization of industry. The Economic Journal, 82, 882–896. CrossRef
Rosenbaum, P. R. (2002). Observational studies (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. CrossRef
Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1983). The central role of the propensity score in observational studies for causal effects. Biometrika, 70(1), 41–55. CrossRef
Rosenbaum, P. R., & Rubin, D. B. (1984). Reducing bias in observational studies using subclassification on the propensity score. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 79(387), 516–524. CrossRef
Rothaermel, F. T., Agung, S. D., & Jiang, L. (2007). University entrepreneurship: A taxonomy of the literature. Industrial and Corporate Change, 16(4), 691–791. CrossRef
Saxenian, A. (1994). Regional advantage: Culture and competition in Silicon Valley and route 128. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Schmelter, A. (2004). Entwicklungsverläufe forschungsnaher Unternehmensgründungen und deren Determinanten: Eine empirische Untersuchung auf Basis organisationsökologischer Konzepte. Die Betriebswirtschaft, 64(4), 471–486.
Shane, S. A. (2004). Academic entrepreneurship: University spinoffs and wealth creation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. CrossRef
Stuart, T. E., Hoang, H., & Hybels, R. C. (1999). Interorganizational endorsements and the performance of entrepreneurial ventures. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 315–349. CrossRef
Teece, D. J., Pisano, G., & Shuen, A. (1997). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management. Strategic Management Journal, 18(7), 509–533. CrossRef
Walter, A., Auer, M., & Ritter, T. (2006). The impact of network capabilities and entrepreneurial orientation on university spin-off performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 21(4), 541–567. CrossRef
Zucker, L. G., Darby, M. R., & Brewer, M. B. (1998). Intellectual human capital and the birth of US biotechnology enterprises. The American Economic Review, 88(1), 290–306.
- How innovative are spin-offs at later stages of development? Comparing innovativeness of established research spin-offs and otherwise created firms
- Springer US
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, digitale Transformation/© Maksym Yemelyanov | Fotolia