Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
This study examines the puzzle of disparities experienced by U.S. teen parents’ young children, whose health and development increasingly lag behind those of peers while their parents are simultaneously experiencing socioeconomic improvements. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007; N ≈ 8,600), we assess four dynamic patterns in socioeconomic resources that might account for these growing developmental and health disparities throughout early childhood and then test them in multilevel growth curve models. Persistently low socioeconomic resources constituted the strongest explanation, given that consistently low income, maternal education, and assets fully or partially account for growth in cognitive, behavioral, and health disparities experienced by teen parents’ children from infancy through kindergarten. That is, although teen parents gained socioeconomic resources over time, those resources remained relatively low, and the duration of exposure to limited resources explains observed growing disparities. Results suggest that policy interventions addressing the time dynamics of low socioeconomic resources in a household, in terms of both duration and developmental timing, are promising for reducing disparities experienced by teen parents’ children.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Aber, J. L., Bennett, N. G., Conley, D. C., & Li, J. (1997). The effects of poverty on child health and development. Annual Review of Public Health, 18, 463–483. CrossRef
Barker, D. J. P., Eriksson, J. G., Forsen, T., & Osmond, C. (2002). Fetal origins of adult disease: Strength of effects and biological basis. International Journal of Epidemiology, 31, 1235–1239. CrossRef
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. CrossRef
Bauman, L. J., Silver, E. J., & Stein, R. E. K. (2006). Cumulative social disadvantage and child health. Pediatrics, 117, 1321–1328. CrossRef
Boardman, J. D., Powers, D. A., Padilla, Y. C., & Hummer, R. A. (2002). Low birth weight, social factors, and developmental outcomes among children in the United States. Demography, 39, 353–368. CrossRef
Brooks-Gunn, J., & Duncan, G. J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. Future of Children, 7(2), 55–71. CrossRef
Brooks-Gunn, J., & Furstenberg, F. F., Jr. (1986). The children of adolescent mothers: Physical, academic, and psychological outcomes. Developmental Review, 6, 224–251. CrossRef
Burkam, D. T., Ready, D. D., Lee, V. E., & LoGerfo, L. F. (2004). Social-class differences in summer learning between kindergarten and first grade: Model specification and estimation. Sociology of Education, 77, 1–31. CrossRef
Case, A., Lubotsky, D., & Paxson, C. (2002). Economic status and health in childhood: The origins of the gradient. American Economic Review, 92, 1308–1334. CrossRef
Chen, X.-K., Wen, S. W., Fleming, N., Demissie, K., Rhoads, G. G., & Walker, M. (2007). Teenage pregnancy and adverse birth outcomes: A large population based retrospective cohort study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 36, 368–373. CrossRef
Conley, D. (2001). Capital for college: Parental assets and postsecondary schooling. Sociology of Education, 74, 59–72. CrossRef
Crosnoe, R. (2006). Health and the education of children from racial/ethnic minority and immigrant families. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 47, 77–93. CrossRef
Dearing, E., McCartney, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2001). Change in family income-to-needs matters more for children with less. Child Development, 72, 1779–1793. CrossRef
DiPrete, T. A., & Eirich, G. M. (2006). Cumulative advantage as a mechanism for inequality: A review of theoretical and empirical developments. Annual Review of Sociology, 32, 271–297. CrossRef
Duncan, G. J., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Klebanov, P. K. (1994). Economic deprivation and early childhood development. Child Development, 65, 296–318. CrossRef
Duncan, G. J., Daly, M. C., McDonough, P., & Williams, D. R. (2002). Optimal indicators of socioeconomic status for health research. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1151–1157. CrossRef
Duncan, G. J., Dowsett, C. J., Claessens, A., Magnuson, K., Huston, A. C., Klebanov, P., . . . Japel, C. (2007a). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43, 1428–1446.
Duncan, G. J., Ludwig, J., & Magnuson, K. A. (2007b). Reducing poverty through preschool interventions. Future of Children, 17(2), 143–160. CrossRef
Duncan, G. J., & Magnuson, K. (2001). Off with Hollingshead: Socioeconomic resources, parenting, and child development. In M. H. Bornstein & R. H. Bradley (Eds.), Socioeconomic status, parenting, and child development (pp. 83–106). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Edin, K., & Kefalas, M. (2005). Promises I can keep: Why poor women put motherhood before marriage. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Elder, G. H., Jr. (1998). The life course as developmental theory. Child Development, 69, 1–12. CrossRef
Entwisle, D. R., Alexander, K. L., & Olson, L. S. (2004). The first-grade transition in life course perspective. In J. T. Mortimer & M. J. Shanahan (Eds.), Handbook of the life course (pp. 229–250). New York, NY: Springer.
Furstenberg, F. F. (2007). Destinies of the disadvantaged: The politics of teenage childbearing. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Geronimus, A. T., & Korenman, S. (1993). Maternal youth or family background? On the health disadvantages of infants with teenage mothers. American Journal of Epidemiology, 137, 213–225.
Gershoff, E. T., Aber, J. L., Raver, C. C., & Lennon, M. C. (2007). Income is not enough: Incorporating material hardship into models of income associations with parenting and child development. Child Development, 78, 70–95. CrossRef
Green, R. K., & White, M. J. (1997). Measuring the benefits of homeowning: Effects on children. Journal of Urban Economics, 41, 441–461. CrossRef
Guo, G. (1998). The timing of the influences of cumulative poverty on children’s cognitive ability and achievement. Social Forces, 77, 257–287.
Hamilton, B. E., Martin, J. A., & Ventura, S. J. (2010). Births: Preliminary data for 2009 (National Vital Statistics Reports 59(3)). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Hayward, M. D., & Gorman, B. K. (2004). The long arm of childhood: The influence of early-life social conditions on men’s mortality. Demography, 41, 87–107.
Henretta, J. C. (2007). Early childbearing, marital status, and women’s health and mortality after age 50. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 48, 254–266. CrossRef
Hoffman, S. D. (1998). Teenage childbearing is not so bad after all. Or is it? A review of the new literature. Family Planning Perspectives, 30, 236–239, 243.
Kim, Y., & Sherraden, M. (2011). Do parental assets matter for children’s educational attainment?: Evidence from mediation tests. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 969–979. CrossRef
Korenman, S., Miller, J. E., & Sjaastad, J. E. (1995). Long-term poverty and child development in the United States: Results from the NLSY. Children and Youth Services Review, 17, 127–155. CrossRef
Levine, J. A., Pollack, H., & Comfort, M. E. (2001). Academic and behavioral outcomes among the children of young mothers. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 355–369. CrossRef
Mayer, S. E. (1997). What money can’t buy: Family income and children’s life chances. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McLeod, J. D., & Shanahan, M. J. (1993). Poverty, parenting, and children’s mental health. American Sociological Review, 58, 351–366.
Mollborn, S. (2007). Making the best of a bad situation: Material resources and teenage parenthood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69, 92–104. CrossRef
Mollborn, S., & Dennis, J. A. (2012a). Explaining the development and health of young children with young parents. Sociological Forum, 27, 1010–1036. CrossRef
Mollborn, S., & Dennis, J. A. (2012b). Investigating the life situations and development of teenage mothers’ children: Evidence from the ECLS-B. Population Research and Policy Review, 31, 31–66.
Mood, C. (2010). Logistic regression: Why we cannot do what we think we can do, and what we can do about it. European Sociological Review, 26, 67–82. CrossRef
NACCRRA. (2012). Parents and the high cost of child care. Retrieved from http://www.naccrra.org/sites/default/files/default_site_pages/2012/cost_report_2012_final_081012_0.pdf
NICHD Early Child Care Research Network. (2005). Early child care and children’s development in the primary grades: Follow-up results from the NICHD study of early child care. American Educational Research Journal, 42, 537–570. CrossRef
Nord, C., Edwards, B., Andreassen, C., Green, J. L., & Wallner-Allen, K. (2006). Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), User’s manual for the ECLS-B longitudinal 9-month-2-year data file and electronic codebook (NCES 2006-046). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Perper, K., & Manlove, J. (2009). Estimated percentage of females who will become teen mothers: Differences across states (Publication No. 2009-09). Washington, DC: Child Trends.
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Shanks, T. R. W. (2007). The impacts of household wealth on child development. Journal of Poverty, 11, 93–116. CrossRef
SmithBattle, L. (2007). “I wanna have a good future”: Teen mothers’ rise in educational aspirations, competing demands, and limited school support. Youth & Society, 38, 348–371. CrossRef
Snow, K., Derecho, A., Wheeless, S., Lennon, J., Rosen, J., Rogers, J., . . . Einaudi, P. (2009). Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), Kindergarten 2006 and 2007 data file user’s manual. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Taylor, J. L. (2009). Midlife impacts of adolescent parenthood. Journal of Family Issues, 30, 484–510. CrossRef
Turley, R. N. L. (2003). Are children of young mothers disadvantaged because of their mother’s age or family background? Child Development, 74, 465–474.
Upchurch, D. M., & McCarthy, J. (1990). The timing of a first birth and high school completion. American Sociological Review, 55, 224–234. CrossRef
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2007). Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), Longitudinal 9-month/Preschool Restricted-Use Data File (NCES 2008-024). Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.
Wagmiller, R. L., Jr., Lennon, M. C., Kuang, L., Alberti, P. M., & Aber, J. L. (2006). The dynamics of economic disadvantage and children’s life chances. American Sociological Review, 71, 847–866.
Willson, A. E., Shuey, K. M., & Elder, G. H., Jr. (2007). Cumulative advantage processes as mechanisms of inequality in life course health. American Journal of Sociology, 112, 1886–1924. CrossRef
- How Resource Dynamics Explain Accumulating Developmental and Health Disparities for Teen Parents’ Children
- Springer US