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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the IFIP WG 13.2/13.5 Joint Working Conferences: 6th International Conference on Human-Centered Software Engineering, HCSE 2016, and 8th International Conference on Human Error, Safety, and System Development, HESSD 2016, held in Stockholm, Sweden, in August 2016.
The 11 full papers and 14 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 32 submissions. The papers cover various topics such as integration of software engineering and user-centered design; HCI models and model-driven engineering; incorporating guidelines and principles for designing usable products in the development process; usability engineering; methods for user interface design; patterns in HCI and HCSE; software architectures for user interfaces; user interfaces for special environments; representations for design in the development process; working with iterative and agile process models in HCSE; social and organizational aspects in the software development lifecycle; human-centric software development tools; user profiles and mental models; user requirements and design constraints; and user experience and software design.



Agile and Human-Centered Software Engineering


Responsibilities and Challenges of Product Owners at Spotify - An Exploratory Case Study

In Scrum, the Product Owner (PO) role is crucial for the team to be successful in developing useful and usable software. The PO has many responsibilities and challenges, including being the link between customers, other stakeholders and their development teams. This exploratory case study conducted at the software development company Spotify focuses on POs three responsibilities: (a) Identification of customers, (b) Estimation of value of their teams’ work and c) Forming a vision for the product. Additionally, challenges perceived by the POs are studied. Data was gathered through five interviews and on site observations. Results show that the POs activities are divided between daily work, such as making sure that their teams are functional and long-term activities such as making a vision for the product. The main challenge of the POs is to inspire and encourage team members to collaborate and communicate within the team and with stakeholders.
Sigurhanna Kristinsdottir, Marta Larusdottir, Åsa Cajander

Supporting the HCI Aspect of Agile Software Development by Tool Support for UI-Pattern Transformations

Continuous changing requirements of software are the result of continuously changing reality. This reality can be considered as the context of the software. Agile development methods allow quick adaptations to changing requirements. Initially, agile development methods were focused on the development of the application core only. Recently, process models were discussed that integrate HCI aspects. This paper will discuss ideas to integrate user evaluations into the development process. User interfaces are structured as UI-pattern instances. Tool support is provided that allows the specification of pattern instances as XAML specifications. Additionally, the tool allows the replacement of one pattern instance by another one. In this way, different versions of the same user interface can be generated rapidly without much effort. These different versions can be evaluated with the help of users. Based on these usability tests final decisions for the software design can be made. New requirements can be captured additionally. This will be based on feedback of the users.
Peter Forbrig, Marc Saurin

Human-Centered Software Engineering as a Chance to Ensure Software Quality Within the Digitization of Human Workflows

Nowadays, a technological development boost can be observed within information technology and its application possibilities. This development results in a digitization of economic processes and human workflows, e.g. within the manufacturing industry. Furthermore, the discussion between digital assistance of employees vs. automation of processes leads to an ongoing change of work tasks or employees’ responsibilities. Decision-makers will have to focus on organizational, human as well as on technological aspects to ensure organizational and employee’s acceptance of digital solutions likewise. Despite all efforts, today’s software products still lack of quality with regards to missing or unused functionality and bad usability. Thus, current software engineering methods seem to be insufficient. Therefore, this paper describes an iterative approach combining software engineering paradigms like human-centered design and agility to enable decision-makers within manufacturing industry to build digital tools that are accepted by their employees and are of value for the company itself.
Holger Fischer, Björn Senft

Usability Evaluation and Testing


Usability Problems Experienced by Different Groups of Skilled Internet Users: Gender, Age, and Background

Finding the right test persons to represent the target user group, when conducting a usability evaluation is considered essential by the HCI research community. This paper explores data from a usability evaluation with 41 participants with high IT skills, to examine if age, gender, and job function or educational background, has an impact on the amount and types of usability problems experienced by the users. All usability problems were analysed and categorised through closed coding, to group the test persons differently in relation to gender, age, and job function or educational background. The study found that the usability problems experienced across gender, age group and job function or educational background, are approximately the same. This indicates that the usual characteristics of test persons, might not be as important, and opens up for further research in regards to, if users with different skill levels, in regards to internet usage, might be more applicable.
Jane Billestrup, Anders Bruun, Jan Stage

User-Test Results Injection into Task-Based Design Process for the Assessment and Improvement of Both Usability and User Experience

User Centered Design processes argue for user testing in order to assess and improve the quality of the interactive systems developed. The underlying belief is that the findings from user testing related to usability and user experience will inform the design of the interactive system in a relevant manner. Unfortunately reports from the industrial practice indicate that this is not straightforward and a lot of data gathered during user tests is hard to understand and exploit. This paper claims that injecting results from user-tests in user-tasks descriptions support the exploitation of user test results for designing the n+1 prototype. In order to do so, the paper proposes a set of extensions to current task description techniques and a process for systematically populating task models with data and analysis gathered during user testing. Beyond the already known advantages of task models, these enriched task models provide additional benefits in different phases of the development process. For instance, it is possible to go beyond standard task-model based performance evaluation exploiting real performance data from usability evaluation. Additionally, it also supports task-model based comparisons of two alternative systems. It can also support performance prediction and overall supports identification of usability problems and identifies shortcomings for user experience. The application of such a process is demonstrated on a case study from the interactive television domain.
Regina Bernhaupt, Philippe Palanque, François Manciet, Célia Martinie

Framework for Relative Web Usability Evaluation on Usability Features in MDD

Web usability in business applications is crucial for enhancing productivity and preventing critical user errors. One of the effective methods to enhance the usability is employment of usability features such as auto-complete and input validation. Then, such employment should be designed so as to conform to actual end-users. However, its evaluation forces developers to expend a lot of effort to design an application, to create its Web prototypes, to observe user operations with the prototypes, and to assess the usability of the employed usability features. In this paper, a framework is proposed for evaluating the usability depending on the employment efficiently even if the developers are non-usability-specialists. Our framework has characteristics as follows so that the developers can easily determine the usability with low creation costs. (1) Support for creating Web prototypes, observing user operations, and assessing the usability are integrated centered on a model-driven approach. (2) The usability can be evaluated relatively and quantitatively by recording user operations and analyzing the resulting logs.
Shinpei Ogata, Yugo Goto, Kozo Okano

Testing Prototypes and Final User Interfaces Through an Ontological Perspective for Behavior-Driven Development

In a user-centered development process, prototypes evolve in iterative cycles until they meet users’ requirements and then become the final product. Every cycle gives the opportunity to revise the design and to introduce new requirements which might affect the specification of artifacts that have been set in former development phases. Testing the consistency of multiple artifacts used to develop interactive systems every time that a new requirement is introduced is a cumbersome activity, especially if it is done manually. This paper proposes an approach based on Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) to support the automated assessment of artifacts along the development process of interactive systems. The paper uses an ontology for specifying tests that can run over multiple artifacts sharing similar concepts. A case study testing Prototypes and Final User Interfaces is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in early phases of the design process, providing a continuous quality assurance of requirements, and helping clients and development teams to identify potential problems and inconsistencies before commitments with software implementation.
Thiago Rocha Silva, Jean-Luc Hak, Marco Winckler

Socio-Technical and Ethical Considerations


Communication in Teams - An Expression of Social Conflicts

The more members a team has, the more information needs to be shared with single team members or within the whole team. Sufficient information sharing is difficult to ensure, since a project leader will not be fully aware of all on-going information and communication within the team. In software engineering, information flow is essential for project success. In each part of the process, information like requirements or design decisions needs to be communicated with appropriate persons. Neither missing nor wrong implemented requirements are desirable, since extra working hours or incomplete working results need to be paid. Therefore, the right amount of information sharing is highly desirable. To ensure this, communication is a mandatory requisite. Furthermore, knowing about social conflicts is suitable, since these influence the information flow.
In an experiment with 34 student software projects, we collected data referring to internal team communication and mood. In these projects, we could show a correlation between chosen communication channels, social conflicts and mood. Since social conflicts foster an insufficient information flow, knowing about these helps software developing teams to reach higher quality and a higher customer satisfaction.
Jil Klünder, Kurt Schneider, Fabian Kortum, Julia Straube, Lisa Handke, Simone Kauffeld

Exploring the Requirements and Design of Persuasive Intervention Technology to Combat Digital Addiction

Digital Addiction (DA) is an emerging behavioural phenomenon that denotes an obsessive and problematic usage of digital media. Such usage could meet various criteria of an addictive behaviour such as salience, conflict, tolerance and withdrawal symptoms and, hence, it would raise new challenges and ethical considerations on the way we engineer software. Luckily, software as a medium for such addictive usage could be also a medium for enacting a behaviour change and prevention strategy towards a regulated usage. However, due to the recentness of such software-based interventions, we still need a body of knowledge on how to develop them. In this paper, we conduct empirical research, through a diary study and an online forum content analysis, to understand users’ perception of such emerging systems. The results shed the light on a range of design aspects and risks when building and validating such persuasive intervention technology.
Amen Alrobai, John McAlaney, Huseyin Dogan, Keith Phalp, Raian Ali

Do You Own a Volkswagen? Values as Non-Functional Requirements

Of late, there has been renewed interest in determining the role and relative importance of (moral) values in the design of software and its acceptance. Events such as the Snowden revelations and the more recent case of the Volkswagen “defeat device” software have further emphasised the importance of values and ethics in general. This paper posits a view that values accompanied by an appropriate framework derived from non-functional requirements can be used by designers and developers as means for discourse of ethical concerns of the design of software. The position is based on the Volkswagen “Dieselgate” case study and a qualitative analysis of developers views from Reddit discussion forums. The paper proposes an extension of an existing classification of requirements to include value concerns.
Balbir S. Barn

Human Error and Safety-Critical Systems


A Core Ontology of Safety Risk Concepts

Reconciling Scientific Literature with Standards for Automotive and Railway
Safety is a major concern for both automobiles and railway vehicles. The related standards provide definitions of the same concepts such as Risk, Harm, Hazard, etc., which we consider here as the core concepts. However, related conceptual models existing in the scientific literature either are inconsistent or do not cover the core concepts comprehensively.
We modeled the core of these safety concepts ourselves both in meetings and with tool support, based on the definitions given in the related standards. As a result, this paper presents a small core ontology of safety risk concepts for reconciling the scientific literature with standards. Since it matches the terminology of the related standards, it may serve as a reference model in the future. In fact, we already used it ourselves for systematically studying where human error may compromise safety.
Hermann Kaindl, Thomas Rathfux, Bernhard Hulin, Roland Beckert, Edin Arnautovic, Roman Popp

Complementary Tools and Techniques for Supporting Fitness-for-Purpose of Interactive Critical Systems

Sound design of complex, interactive, safety critical systems is very important, yet difficult. A particular challenge in the design of safety-critical systems is a typical lack of access to large numbers of testers and an inability to test early designs with traditional usability assessment tools. This inability leads to reduced information available to guide design, a phenomenon referred to as the Collingridge dilemma. Our research proposes to address parts of this problem with the development of tools and techniques for generating useful information and assessing developing designs early, to minimize the need for late change. More generally, we describe a set of three tools and techniques to support the process of ensuring fitness-for-purpose of complex interactive systems, helping designers focus on interaction across different functions of an overall system. These different tools and techniques support different parts of the overall design and evaluation process, but are focused on improving the coverage and effectiveness of evaluating interaction.
Dorrit Billman, Camille Fayollas, Michael Feary, Célia Martinie, Philippe Palanque

Demon Hunt - The Role of Endsley’s Demons of Situation Awareness in Maritime Accidents

Human Error is the cause of most maritime accidents. In a majority of the cases the source of the Human Error is a lack of Situation Awareness. Endsley et al. have identified eight causes that corrupt the Situation Awareness of human operators, the so-called Demons of Situation Awareness (SA Demons). We analyzed over five-hundred maritime accident reports for each of the eight SA Demons to provide a ranking of the causes and to identify the most prominent ones. Addressing these SA Demons enables maritime system designers to enhance the Situation Awareness of maritime operators and thereby improves the safety at sea.
Tim Claudius Stratmann, Susanne Boll

User and Developer Experience


Are Software Developers Just Users of Development Tools? Assessing Developer Experience of a Graphical User Interface Designer

Software developers use software products to design and develop new software products for others to use. Research has introduced a concept of developer experience inspired by the concept of user experience but appreciating also the special characteristics of software development context. It is unclear what the experiential components of developer experience are and how it can be measured. In this paper we address developer experience of Vaadin Designer, a graphical user interface designer tool in terms of user experience, intrinsic motivation, and flow state experience. We surveyed 18 developers using AttrakDiff, flow state scale, intrinsic motivation inventory and our own DEXI scale and compare those responses to developers’ overall user experience assessment using Mann-Whitney U test. We found significant differences in motivational and flow state factors between groups who assessed the overall user experience either bad or good. Based on our results we discuss the factors that construe developer experience.
Kati Kuusinen

A Conceptual UX-Aware Model of Requirements

User eXperience (UX) is becoming increasingly important for success of software products. Yet, many companies still face various challenges in their work with UX. Part of these challenges relate to inadequate knowledge and awareness of UX and that current UX models are commonly not practical nor well integrated into existing Software Engineering (SE) models and concepts. Therefore, we present a conceptual UX-aware model of requirements for software development practitioners. This layered model shows the interrelation between UX and functional and quality requirements. The model is developed based on current models of UX and software quality characteristics. Through the model we highlight the main differences between various requirement types in particular essentially subjective and accidentally subjective quality requirements. We also present the result of an initial validation of the model through interviews with 12 practitioners and researchers. Our results show that the model can raise practitioners’ knowledge and awareness of UX in particular in relation to requirement and testing activities. It can also facilitate UX-related communication among stakeholders with different backgrounds.
Pariya Kashfi, Robert Feldt, Agneta Nilsson, Richard Berntsson Svensson

Keep the Beat: Audio Guidance for Runner Training

Understanding how to map the feedback by fitness apps into concrete actions during the exercise performance is crucial for their effectiveness, for both inexperienced and advanced users. In this paper we focus on audio feedback for running, describing a beat-rhythm representation of the target cadence for helping the user in keeping it. We designed the feedback system in order to balance two conflicting objectives: its effectiveness in helping the user in reaching the training goal and its intrusiveness with respect to concurrent activities (e.g., listening to the music). We detail how we track the user’s cadence through standard smartphone sensors, how and when we generate the audio messages. Finally, we discuss the results of a user-study, showing effectiveness with respect to the adherence to the exercise goal and the overall usability.
Luca Balvis, Ludovico Boratto, Fabrizio Mulas, Lucio Davide Spano, Salvatore Carta, Gianni Fenu

Models and Methods


The Goals Approach: Enterprise Model-Driven Agile Human-Centered Software Engineering

Business Process Improvement (BPI) is a key issue in the development of the enterprise competitiveness. However, achieving a level of software development performance that matches enterprise BPI needs in terms of producing noticeable results in small amounts of time requires the existence of a comprehensive and also agile Software Development Process (SDP). Quite often, SDPs do not deliver software architectures that can be directly used for in-house development, as specifications are either too close to the user interface design or too close to business rules and application domain modeling, and produce architectures that do not cope with software development concerns. In this paper we present the Goals Approach, which structures business processes to extract requirements, and methodologically details them in order to specify the user interface, the business logic and the database structures for the architecture of a BPI. Our approach aims in-house software development in small and medium enterprises.
Pedro Valente, Thiago Rocha Silva, Marco Winckler, Nuno Jardim Nunes

Engineering Context-Adaptive UIs for Task-Continuous Cross-Channel Applications

The user interfaces (UIs) of interactive systems become increasingly complex since many heterogeneous and dynamically changing contexts of use (platform, user, and environment) have to be supported. Developing UIs for such interactive systems often requires features like UI adaptivity and seamless task-continuity across devices, demanding for sophisticated UI development processes and methods. While existing engineering methods like human-centered design process and model-based UI development approaches serve as a good starting point, an integrated engineering process addressing specific requirements of adaptive UIs supporting task-continuity across different devices is not fully covered. Therefore, we present a model-based engineering approach for building context-adaptive UIs that enable a personalized, flexible and task-continuous usage of cross-channel applications. Our engineering approach supports modeling, transformation and execution of context-adaptive UIs. To show the feasibility of our approach, we present an industrial case study, where we implement context-adaptive UIs for a cross-channel banking application.
Enes Yigitbas, Stefan Sauer

UCProMo—Towards a User-Centred Process Model

The field of Software Engineering has a long tradition of developing sophisticated process models and methods and tools for its support. At the same time in the field of Human-Computer Interaction process models, methods, and tools have been developed and standardised internationally. Approaches from both fields have a lot to offer. However, despite great approaches for joining strengths and advantages of both fields, synergies are not yet fully used. In this paper I present the UCProMo User-Centred Process Model that provides an integrated approach by leveraging on existing process models, methods, and tools from both fields. UCProMo capitalises on clear phases, iteration, and strong involvement and participation of users throughout the whole process, which leads to integrated results and models of technology (esp. software) and ultimately to smooth user journeys through the whole system.
Tom Gross

Using and Adopting Tools


Collaborative Task Modelling on the Web

Task modelling is a widely recognized activity when designing interactive applications. In this perspective, it is the meeting point between various stakeholders. However, most of the automatic environments that currently allow task modelling only support single users, thus limiting the possible interactions and discussions amongst them. In this paper we present Collaborative CTT, a new Web-based multi-user tool for specifying task models. The tool allows several users, who may even be physically separated, to work on the same model at the same or different time. Among its features, the tool includes mechanisms specific for this type of HCI modelling in order to support coordination, communication and mutual awareness among participants. We discuss the aspects we have addressed in designing the task modelling tool, its main collaborative features, and also report on user feedback gathered through formative tests.
Marco Manca, Fabio Paternò, Carmen Santoro

Ceiling and Threshold of PaaS Tools: The Role of Learnability in Tool Adoption

Cloud services are changing the software development context and are expected to increase dramatically in the forthcoming years. Within the cloud context, platform-as-a-service tools emerge as an important segment with an expected yearly growth between 25 to 50 % in the next decade. These tools enable businesses to design and deploy new applications easily, thereby reducing operational expenses and time to market. This is increasingly important due to the lack of professional developers and it also raises a long standing issue in computer-aided software engineering: the need for easy to learn (low-threshold), functional (high-ceiling) tools enabling non-experts to create and adapt new cloud services. Despite their importance and impact, no research to date addressed the measurement of tools’ ceiling and threshold. In this paper we describe a first attempt to advance the state of the art in this area through an in-depth usability study of platform-as-a-service tools in terms of their threshold (learnability) and ceiling (functionality). The measured learnability issues evidenced a strong positive correlation with usability defects and a weaker correlation with performance. Remarkably, the fastest and easiest to use and learn tool falls into the low-threshold/low-ceiling pattern.
Rui Alves, Nuno Jardim Nunes

Demos and Posters


User Experience Evaluation Methods: Lessons Learned from an Interactive TV Case-Study

Evaluating user experience (UX) is a complicated endeavour due to the multitude of existing factors, dimensions and concepts that all contribute to UX. We report lessons learned from conducting a user study that was adapted to not only evaluate usability but also several aspects of the user experience. In this study we evaluated some of the most important factors of user experience including aesthetics, emotions, meaning and value as well as naturalness. Based on these experiences we propose a set of possible improvements to enhance existing user study approaches. These improvements aim at incorporating a variety of methods to support the various aspects of user experience including all experiences before, during and after interaction with a product.
Dimitri Drouet, Regina Bernhaupt

Endev: Declarative Prototyping with Data

The trend of Open Data and Internet-of-Things initiatives contribute to the ever growing amount of data available through web APIs. While building web applications has become easier with recent advancement in web development technologies and proliferation of JavaScript frameworks, the access to data from various APIs and data stores still poses certain challenges. It often requires complex setup and advanced programming skills that hinder the rapid prototyping efforts. Therefore, we propose Endev, a declarative framework for prototyping applications that is built on modern web technologies and supports building modern web applications, that utilize the vast amount of available data, without the need for setup or write complex JavaScript code.
Filip Kis, Cristian Bogdan

Collaborative Task Modeling: A First Prototype Integrated in HAMSTERS

Task models are introduced in several use-cases in academia. They are usually created in collaboration between different people and disciplines. There exist many notations and associated graphical editors to create the models. However, these editors do not have integrated functions to support collaborative work. In this work, we propose the integration of collaborative functions in the HAMSTERS task modeling tool.
Marius Koller, Cristian Bogdan, Gerrit Meixner

Accelerated Development for Accessible Apps – Model Driven Development of Transportation Apps for Visually Impaired People

Implementing usable and accessible user interfaces is a challenge, especially for mobile applications. App developers have to include accessibility in an additional step during the implementation, very often they overlook this extra workload.
There are concepts which combine Model Driven Development (MDD) for apps or semi-automatic support to create accessible software. But helpful tools to support accessibility features for apps during the implementation are hardly discussed in literature.
The aim of this paper is a concept of model-based software development for accessible apps. Within the domain of transportation apps, we provide a model to create an app scaffold with the required elements and accessibility features included from the beginning.
Elmar Krainz, Johannes Feiner, Martin Fruhmann


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