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Über dieses Buch

Human-Centered e-Business focuses on analysis, design and development of human-centered e-business systems. The authors illustrate the benefits of the human-centered approach in intelligent e-sales recruitment application, integrating data mining technology with decision support model for profiling transaction behavior of internet banking customers, user-centered context dependent data organization using XML, knowledge management, and optimizing the search process through human evaluation in an intelligent interactive multimedia application. The applications described in this work, facilitates both e-business analysis from a business professional's perspective, and human-centered system design from a system development perspective. These applications employ a range of internet and soft computing technologies.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Why Human-Centered e-Business?

Abstract
In the last few years the Internet has had an enormous impact on businesses and consumers. Figure1.1 shows a comparison of adoption time of Internet as compared with other technologies like personal computer, radio and television. It has taken only four years for the number of Internet users to grow to 50 million compared to sixteen years for personal computer users and thirty-eight years for the radio. The brick-and-mortar companies have had to adapt not only with the pace of the technological change but also the disruptive affect of the Internet enabled e-commerce and e-business technologies. E-commerce and e-business have changed the way people live their lives and the way businesses operate. Many brick-and-mortar companies are still coming to terms with the pace of technological change and recognizing the true competitive advantage of e-business. However, given the technology-enabled nature of e-business, the e-business applications run a similar or higher risk than traditional business applications of being driven by technology-centeredness rather than human-centeredness or customer-centeredness. The stakes are higher than in traditional business applications because organizations embarking on e-commerce and e-business have been forced to look at ways to model customer or user’s expectations from their businesses more explicitly as compared to the conventional business models in traditional commerce.
Rajiv Khosla, Ernesto Damiani, William Grosky

2. E-Business Concepts and Technologies

Abstract
The applications in this book employ a number of concepts and technologies associated with e-business. The e-business concepts include types of e-business systems, e-business strategies and e-business models. The technologies can be grouped under Internet and web technologies, intelligent technologies, web software engineering (Object-oriented and agents) technologies, and multimedia. E-business strategies and e-business models also provide the context in which e-business technologies are applied by organizations to gain competitive advantage. This chapter introduces the reader to these concepts and technologies.
Rajiv Khosla, Ernesto Damiani, William Grosky

3. Converging Trends Towards Human-Centerednes and Enabling Theories

Abstract
In the past decade human-centeredness has become an important enabling concept in information system development. The fast growth of the Internet and WWW and partial failure of the dot corns has further accelerated development in this area. The need for human-centeredness has been felt in practically all areas of information systems and computer science. These include e-business, intelligent systems (traditional and web-based), software engineering, multimedia data modeling, data mining, enterprise modeling and human-computer interaction. In this chapter we discuss the pragmatic issues leading to human-centeredness in these areas and the enabling theories which are converging towards human-centered system development. These enabling theories include theories in philosophy, cognitive science, psychology and work-oriented design for human-centered e-business system development framework. We conclude the chapter with a discussion section that outlines the foundations of the human-centered system development framework described in the next chapter.
Rajiv Khosla, Ernesto Damiani, William Grosky

4. Human-Centered E-Business System Development Framework

Abstract
This chapter builds on the foundations laid down in the previous chapter. It describes the human-centered e-business system development framework for multi-agent e-business systems based on human-centered criteria outlined in the first chapter and the pragmatic considerations and enabling theories discussed in chapter 3, which contribute towards realization of those criteria. The human-centered framework is described in terms of four components, namely, activity-centered e-business analysis, problem solving ontology, transformation agent, and multimedia interpretation, respectively. The three human-centered criteria are used as guidelines for development of the human-centered framework. The pragmatic considerations and contributing theories are used to develop the structure and content, or knowledge base, of the four components. The structure and content are described at the conceptual and computational (transformation agents) level. We start this chapter by describing the external and internal planes of human interaction which underpin the development of the human-centered framework. We follow it with the description of two components of the human-centered e-business system development framework, namely, activity-centered e-business analysis and problem solving ontology. In the next chapter we continue with the description of the problem solving ontology component and describe two other components, namely, the transformation agent and multimedia interpretation component. These four components have been used to define the external and internal planes of human interaction with the environment.
Rajiv Khosla, Ernesto Damiani, William Grosky

5. Human-Centered Virtual Machine

Abstract
The objective of this chapter is to outline the computational framework of multi-agent e-business systems based on the human-centered approach. The title human-centered virtual machine encapsulates the integration of conceptual components of the human-centered e-business system development framework and the technology based artifacts used to realize the conceptual components at the computational level.
Rajiv Khosla, Ernesto Damiani, William Grosky

6. E-Sales Recruitment

Abstract
The Internet has become a major driving force behind the development of computer based human resource management systems. This chapter describes e-business analysis, design and implementation of e-Sales Recruitment System (e-SRS) for a recruitment company. It illustrates the application of activity-centered e-business analysis component, problem solving ontology component and transformation agent component of the human-centered e-business system development framework. We begin this chapter with a brief description of human resource management e-business systems. It is followed by a brief discussion of motivation for using information technology in the area of sales recruitment, then followed by a detailed e-business analysis of the sales recruitment activity using the activity-centered e-business analysis component of the human-centered e-business system development framework. Finally, the e-business design of the e-SRS is described based on two alternative approaches. The first approach involves integration of a psychology based selling behavior model of artificial intelligence techniques like rule based expert systems. The selling behavior profiling and benchmarking results are outlined based on the artificial intelligence approach. The alternative approach is an adaptive approach, which involves integration of the selling behavior model with soft computing methods like fuzzy k-means clustering. In this incremental learning approach, the behavioral patterns are mined into meaningful selling behavior category clusters.
Rajiv Khosla, Ernesto Damiani, William Grosky

7. Customer Relationship Management and E-Banking

Abstract
Businesses today are using the Internet as a genuine resource for gaining competitive advantage. On-line customization is one useful customer relationship management strategy adopted by e-businesses to add customer value and improve sales of their product and services using the Internet. People are inclined to believe those who have similar interests and living habits. In other words, determining the buying habit of customers on the Internet can benefit both customers and the e-business. From a customer’s point of view, identifying customers with similar e-banking product buying habits may help that customer make their decision about a new product. On the other hand, knowing the buying habit of customers can help e-business practitioners to better package their products in an e-banking (or Internet banking) environment and design personalized services oriented towards each individual customer.
Rajiv Khosla, Ernesto Damiani, William Grosky

8. HCVM Based Context-Dependent Data Organization for E-Commerce

Abstract
Electronic Commerce (EC) can be broadly seen as the application of information technology and telecommunications to create virtual trading networks where goods and services are sold and purchased.
Rajiv Khosla, Ernesto Damiani, William Grosky

9. Human-Centered Knowledge Management

Abstract
It is widely acknowledged that the main barrier to e-business lies in the need for applications to meaningfully share information. The negative impact on e-business of the inherent limitations of traditional approaches to knowledge sharing has been comparable to the Internet’s initial lack of reliability or security. In the past, knowledge sharing and organization efforts nearly always produced document-based Knowledge Management Systems (KMS), i.e. collections of documents internally maintained by organizations and focused on particular domains.
Rajiv Khosla, Ernesto Damiani, William Grosky

10. Hypermedia Information Systems

Abstract
In the last four chapters we have described applications of HCVM in e-sales recruitment, e-banking, e-business data organization and knowledge management. In chapter 5 we also described the multimedia component of the HCVM. In all these chapters multimedia has been looked at in terms of how it can be used for improving the representational efficiency, effectiveness and interpretation of computer-based artifacts and also to some extent how it can be used for perceptual problem solving. In fact, multimedia data (e.g., text, image, video and audio) today is an inherent part of Internet and web-based applications. In that respect, there are interesting research issues and problems associated with management and retrieval of multimedia data from multimedia databases. Queries and operations based on classical approaches (e.g., relational database structures) just won’t do for multimedia data, where browsing is an important paradigm. The importance of this paradigm is illustrated by the fact that multimedia databases are sometimes referred to as hypermedia databases. Standard indexing approaches won’t work for annotation independent, content-based queries over multimedia data. The problem is further compounded by the fact that metadata of different media artifacts cannot be effectively used for modeling user queries involving text, image, video and audio data. Incorporating user semantics is an effective way of dealing with multimedia data indexing and retrieval.
Rajiv Khosla, Ernesto Damiani, William Grosky

11. Human-Centered Intelligent Web Based Missing Person Clothing Identification System

Abstract
In the last chapter we outlined relevance feedback as one of the methods for developing user-centered multimedia applications. On the other hand, researchers in the computational intelligence or soft computing community have been recently trying to develop intelligent applications which humanize computational intelligence technologies (Takagi 2001, 2002). In this chapter we describe an intelligent web multimedia system which employs relevance feedback as a means of assisting an Internet user (relative or friend of a missing person) to interactively identify the clothing of a missing person. The system can be used by the law enforcement authorities, like the police to identify the type, color and design of the shirt worn by a missing person.
Rajiv Khosla, Ernesto Damiani, William Grosky

Backmatter

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