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Über dieses Buch

Human Factors of Stereoscopic Displays provides an overview of all vision-relevant topics and issues that inform stereo display design from a user-centric or human factor, perspective. Although both the basic vision science literature and the applied literature will be reviewed, the strength and originality of this book comes from the emphasis on the basic science literature on human stereo vision and its implications for stereo display design.

The reader will learn how to design stereo displays from a human vision/human factors perspective.

Over the past several years, there has been a growing interest in the development of high-quality displays that present binocular parallax information to the human visual system for inducing the perception of three-dimensional depth. The methods for presenting binocular parallax to an observer vary widely and include three broad categories of display: stereoscopic, holographic and volumetric displays. Because the technology for stereoscopic displays is more developed and more widely used, than those based on holography or volumetric methods, the proposed book addresses those human factors issues involved in the viewing of stereoscopic displays.

Despite the diverse methods for creating stereoscopic displays, which includes stereo spatial multiplexing as well as temporal multiplexing (i.e., field sequential) techniques, there remain common human factor issues that arise when viewing such displays. Human Factors of Stereoscopic Displays will provide a detailed review of these important issues so that they can be considered when designing and using 3D displays. In doing so, the following topics will be covered: interocular cross talk; interocular differences in luminance and contrast; accommodation-vergence mismatch; stereoanomaly; spatio-temporal frequency effects; distance scaling of disparity and high-level cue conflict.




Chapter 1. Introduction to Human Factors of Stereoscopic 3D Displays

This book presents a discussion of some of the fundamental human factors issues related to stereoscopic 3D displays. These issues determine how stereoscopic displays can be designed so they interface well with the human binocular visual system. In presenting this discussion, the idea embraced is that knowledge of the human binocular visual system is important when designing stereo 3D display systems.

Robert Earl Patterson

Background Information


Chapter 2. Basics of Human Binocular Vision

This chapter presents the basics of human binocular vision: the longitudinal horopter, horizontal binocular disparity, binocular disparity gradients, binocular rivalry, spatio-temporal frequency processing, and visual pathways. Vertical disparity will not be discussed; for discussion of vertical disparity, see papers by Tyler (1983) and Tyler and Scott (1979).

Robert Earl Patterson

Chapter 3. Stimulus Arrangements for Creating Stereoscopic Displays

Stereoscopic displays present binocular disparity on a display surface that is used for getting images projected onto the left- and right-eye retinas so that depth perception can be induced. To do so, slightly different images must be presented to the two eyes. There are several ways to present different images to the two eyes. The


approach involves presenting images to the two eyes so that they are spatially interleaved. This can involve simultaneous left-eye and right-eye presentations by using two regions on one 2D display, with each region seen by only one eye, or by using wavelength-multiplexing techniques. The




, or




, approach entails presenting images to the left and right eyes so that they are temporally interleaved. This involves having the left-eye and right-eye presentations on alternate frames of the display. The basics of these two approaches are discussed below; for more thorough discussion, see Lueder (2012).

Robert Earl Patterson

Factors That Affect Stereo Depth Perception in Stereo Displays


Chapter 4. Low-Level Factors

This chapter covers three low-level factors that affect stereo viewing: interocular crosstalk, accommodation-vergence conflict, and Percival’s Zone of Comfort. These factors are considered ‘low level’ because they involve peripheral stages of visual processing: crosstalk entails image leakage on the retina, while accommodation-vergence conflict and Percival’s Zone of Comfort involve oculomotor responding.

Robert Earl Patterson

Chapter 5. Low-Level Factors, Continued

This chapter covers three low-level factors that affect stereo viewing: interocular differences in luminance, interocular differences in contrast, and stereoanomaly. These factors are considered ‘low level’ because they occur at peripheral stages of visual processing: interocular differences in luminance and contrast entail differences in image characteristics, and stereoanomaly is a condition that likely involves a decrease in sensitivity to stereo depth information at a disparity-detection stage of processing.

Robert Earl Patterson

Chapter 6. Contextual Factors

This chapter covers two contextual factors that affect stereo viewing: spatio-temporal frequency, and distance scaling of disparity. These factors are considered ‘contextual’ because they partly define the conditions that exist when someone views a stereo display: spatio-temporal frequency involves the distribution of display luminance, and distance scaling of disparity involves visual information about viewing distance and disparity within a cue integration process.

Robert Earl Patterson

Chapter 7. Contextual Factors, Continued

This chapter covers a unique contextual factor that affects stereo viewing: perceptual constancy. Here, the general concept of perceptual constancy is used to represent a set of three perceptual constancies: size constancy, speed constancy, and depth constancy. These constancies represent stable and veridical perceptions of size, speed, and/or depth when objects in the natural world are seen. Such stable and verdical perceptions occur via a visual cue-integration process that combines information about retinal size, retinal speed, or retinal (binocular) disparity with visual estimates of egocentric viewing distance. Perceptual constancy is a ‘contextual’ factor because it involves the surrounding conditions that exist (e.g., distance cues) when someone views a stereo display.

Robert Earl Patterson

Chapter 8. High-Level Factors

This chapter covers three high-level factors that are related to stereo display viewing: high-level cue conflict, intuitive reasoning, and direct manipulation interfaces. These factors are considered ‘high level’ because they involve cognitive functioning.

Robert Earl Patterson

Chapter 9. High-Level Factors, Continued

This chapter covers three high-level factors that are related to stereo display viewing: hand/arm tracking and proprioception, interactive stereo displays and spatial reasoning, and spatial mental models and working memory. These factors are considered ‘high level’ because, like the factors discussed in Chap.


, they involve cognitive functioning.

Robert Earl Patterson

Recommendations for Stereoscopic Display Design


Chapter 10. Recommendations for Stereoscopic Display Design

We have covered a lot of material in this book, so here is a summary:

Robert Earl Patterson


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