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Über dieses Buch

This book takes up a wide variety of human security challenges beyond the dimension of human conflict, and looks at both natural and human disasters that the East Asian region faces or is attempting to resolve. While discussing various human security issues, the case studies offer practical lessons to address serious human security challenges in the framework of the ASEAN Plus Three and beyond. Against the backdrop of multifaceted globalization and parochial reactions thereto, this book is a powerful contribution to universal human security.



Chapter 1. Human Security in East Asia: Beyond Crises

In this globalized world, we face multiple threats to human security, a powerful supplement to national security. The introduction to this book provides both a history and a definition of human security. Enhanced connectivity in East Asia not only gives rise to serious threats but also provides the means for ensuring people’s security and opportunities for mutual learning. After explaining the three research questions that are aimed at evaluating the practice of human security—sovereignty, coordination and empowerment—the introductory chapter goes on to provide summaries of the following chapters.
Carolina G. Hernandez, Eun Mee Kim, Yoichi Mine, Ren Xiao

Chapter 2. Toward a Theory of Human Security

This chapter offers a theoretical introduction to the book. It provides an interdisciplinary theoretical framework in which the key aspects of human security are systematically laid out: types of threats from physical, living and social systems; causal structures that produce threats to human security; instruments to deal with these threats; and issues of agency to protect human security. Stressing the importance of responsible sovereign states as crucial agents to protect human security, this paper also argues that, given the global and interconnected nature of human security threats, cooperation among various stakeholders is essential.
Akihiko Tanaka

Chapter 3. Sovereignty Issues in a Humanitarian Emergency: The 2008 Sichuan Earthquake

China’s political decision to accept foreign humanitarian aid and workers during the Sichuan Earthquake was occasioned by its greater political and economic capacity and national confidence. The Chinese government was confident in its political and economic capacities; the country had seen economic development owing to the reforms and open policies that had taken place since 1978, and the consolidation of the party-state system and improved political legitimacy. At the same time, Beijing was concerned about the possibility that some anti-regime forces might take advantage of the foreign presence during chaotic disaster situations. This political logic revolves around the issue of sovereignty and has important implications for human security in disaster situations.
Wooyeal Paik

Chapter 4. Human Security After the Great East Japan Earthquake: Rethinking the Role of External Assistance

As the experiences of the Great East Japan Earthquake showed, conventional aid such as sending relief goods and rescue teams may be less useful, and sometimes burdensome. Was the Japanese government’s decision to accommodate all types of offers of external assistance the best possible option from a human security viewpoint? Declining such conventional relief aid should not be denounced but understood. Non-conventional aid such as special skills to deal with the nuclear accident appeared more useful in this case, although these forms of aid require coordination and preparation in peacetime. Forging grass-roots solidarity is effective in the longer term.
Oscar A. Gómez

Chapter 5. Colliding Disasters: Conflict and Tsunami in the Context of Human Security in Aceh, Indonesia

Two grave disasters, violent conflict and a tsunami, coincided in Aceh. The people faced chronic vulnerability because past conflicts have exacerbated and complicated the impacts of natural disasters. With the ‘opening’ of the area, the Indonesian military was suspicious about a foreign invasion under the pretext of humanitarian aid. There were different coordination problems during both the emergency period and the reconstruction period. The author’s anthropological research reveals that Gampong, the smallest unit of the community, has been effective in empowering the people. The emphasis of this chapter will be on the tsunami tragedy and people’s experiences in dealing with issues of sovereignty, disaster relief coordination and empowerment under the context of human security.
Vidhyandika Djati Perkasa

Chapter 6. Cyclone Nargis in Myanmar: The Perfect Storm?

The case of Cyclone Nargis revealed sharp tensions between Myanmar’s state sovereignty and its human security needs. This chapter looks at the human security challenges posed by Cyclone Nargis, as well as governance shortcomings at both national and international level. It then examines competing interpretations of the rights and duties of the sovereign state and the international community as they played out in this instance. There seems to be comparative advantages in Asian approaches to human security and diplomatic engagement rather than intervention. The disaster also exposed dramatic disconnects between the military authorities and civil society. The need to build community resilience is also emphasized.
Brendan Howe

Chapter 7. The Haiyan Crisis: Empowering the Local, Engaging the Global

Typhoon Haiyan devastated large parts of the Philippines and posed significant threats to human security in multiple ways. This chapter illuminates both the strength and weakness of local communities through bottom-up research including focus group discussions. This study sees natural disasters as a crisis that presents threat not only to environmental security but also to other dimensions of human security. In particular, it examines Tacloban city and Palo municipality in Leyte—two hardest hit areas of devastation in the Philippine Eastern Visayas region—that demonstrated very different disaster responses. The chapter shows that local communities went through contrasting experiences in different municipalities. The chapter also sheds light on the government’s disaster preparedness.
Perlita M. Frago-Marasigan

Chapter 8. China in the Fight Against the Ebola Crisis: Human Security Perspectives

The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa became one of the worst disease-driven humanitarian crises in modern history. The crisis turned the global securitization of health issues into unprecedented levels, at the same time, aligned closely with human security frameworks and thus has significant impacts on national foreign and aid policies. China has played a significant role in the global fight against Ebola, indicating important changes in its foreign policy orientations. Based on the lessons drawn from China’s operation in Africa, it is argued that states must transcend their narrow national interest and seriously consider the dignity and well-being of vulnerable people.
Shunji Cui

Chapter 9. Human Insecurity Scourge: The Land Grabbing Crisis in Cambodia

In Cambodia, land-grabbing has become a crisis of enormous proportions. A great number of people have been robbed of their land in violent circumstances. Across Cambodia, large-scale land disputes in urban and rural areas are widespread, and communities face land tenure insecurity as a result. This chapter chronicles how land grabbing in Cambodia, a serious human security issue, began and why it has continued to grow, and examines three case studies in rural and urban places. Recognizing the primacy of people’s empowerment, the chapter makes a number of recommendations for the state, civil society and international stakeholders.
Pou Sovachana, Paul Chambers

Chapter 10. The Protracted Crisis in Mindanao: Japan’s Cooperation and Human Security

Despite decades of domestic and international efforts to end the protracted conflict in Mindanao, a sustainable resolution has still not been found. Japan has been involved in the peace process in the region, using a new cooperation modality by taking part in the 3D (diplomacy, defense and development) dimensions. The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) also attempted to step out of the traditional modality of its assistance by taking part in a mediation forum. Against the backdrop of local history, this chapter analyzes JICA’s involvement in the peacemaking and coordination efforts beyond its traditional mandate. This is then followed by an examination of grass-roots perceptions of the peace process and JICA’s activities. Development practitioners should experiment and explore peace processes that would fit local realities.
Sachiko Ishikawa, Dennis Quilala

Chapter 11. South Korea’s Refugee Policies: National and Human Security Perspectives

Contrasting human security with national security, this chapter examines South Korea’s policies toward global refugees and North Korean defectors, an effective indicator of regime instability. It is argued that the security and welfare of individual persons, which are the very reason for the existence of a sovereign state, must be prioritized in human security practice. Policy development in this regard is essential for a middle-power nation. Some policy considerations are provided for the examination of refugee responses from the human security perspective, particularly regarding how to make stakeholder support more comprehensive and how to promote bottom-up engagement and empowerment.
Shin-wha Lee

Chapter 12. Trafficking of Fishermen in Southeast Asia: Sovereignty Questions and Regional Challenges

Thousands of fishermen have fallen prey to human traffickers and have been found on distant Indonesian islands. This humanitarian disaster not only uncovered the problem of modern-day slavery but also revealed practices once considered normal but now unsustainable, within the fishing industry. The authors distinguish between three categories of sovereignty and argue that the affected ASEAN countries should compromise some of the sovereignty principle in order to effectively address the international crime of human trafficking. Rehabilitation, justice and public awareness are greatly needed to tackle the issue, and all of these activities should be coordinated by ASEAN.
Surangrut Jumnianpol, Nithi Nuangjamnong, Sompong Srakaew

Chapter 13. Conclusion: Ownership and Collaboration for Human Security in East Asia

This last chapter provides cross-country analysis and draws lessons from each of the case study chapters according to the three research questions: sovereignty, coordination and empowerment. In addition to theoretical and conceptual insights, a set of implications for human security practitioners will be formulated. The themes include the feature of East Asian regionalism, issue-based collaboration in early warning, the dos and don’ts of cross border action, an Asian approach to sovereignty and state building, the role of trust in horizontal collaboration, the nexus of development and human security, and the significance of local knowledge and institutions.
Carolina G. Hernandez, Eun Mee Kim, Yoichi Mine, Ren Xiao, Ako Muto


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