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Über dieses Buch

The answers to the questions of why and how people live where they live as well as how they maintain and integrate with one another are fundamental human settlement issues rooted in history and culture. Human settlements are historically linked to resource availability, fortification, and the mythos of civilizations. Cities play a central role in redefining the interface between human beings and nature. They have revolutionized the human experience by taming natural surroundings and building environments that are human-centric—often narrowing human life outside the experience of wilderness or the untamed. This book is divided into three parts, it examines urban development trends, explores perspectives in energy efficiency and agriculture security, and considers policy development and future scenarios in human-nature relations. It is a compendium of multidisciplinary work that challenges the directions of modernity and offers reference to alternatives. Authors come from a diverse background and international context to address common overarching theories facing current geography-specific problems. An interconnected overtone of the book attempts to link accelerated urbanization and settlement location to how societies are maintained and integrated. Human settlements are shaped by human ecology and the relationship between humans and their interaction with their environment. Two sectors central to human survival are specifically explored: energy and agriculture. Cutting-edge, smart development looks at the latest findings that reflect the on-going debate facing these sectors. A human settlement metric is envisioned in terms of the past, present, and future. This book is a unique attempt to combine a rethinking about human settlements for scientists, policy-makers, public officials, and people committed to improving urban life, society-wide. Possible agents to resolving human settlement problems include international cooperation and various mechanisms that interlace the international community. Methodological and applied aspects of sustainable management focus on topics such as adaptive knowledge sharing, renewable energy, climate change, agricultural planning, and policy development. An emphasis on scientific and technological advancement, from a bottom-up mapping of society, elucidates a better understanding of the role of knowledgeable societies in which need is considered alongside how such need can be sustained—advancing towards a more promising future.



Urban Development Trends


Human Settlements: Urban Challenges and Future Development

Human settlements are comprehensive, i.e., shaped by human ecology and the relationship between humans as a social being and biological organisms and their interaction with their environments. This chapter explores urban morphology and landscape ecology as a pretext to a wider examination of the vast scholarship of why humans settle where they settle—with the focus on cities. The movement away from rural to urban is considered in conjunction with urban energy use, agriculture and food security, and sustainability. Maladaptation to climate change is considered in the context to urban environmental pollution, human health and well-being, and quality of life. Cities have a unique opportunity to advance policies that ensure the energy supply and food production are reliable, affordable, and environmentally sustainable. In terms of energy research, direct effects on people, communities, and countries in terms of economic growth, health, safety, the environment, education, and employment are investigated. Agricultural data is presented from a global perspective with specific land use and land cover specificities. Food security, food health, and food production are interfaced with regional populations and agricultural land use. An overview of cities from the Global North versus the Global South is assessed in terms developmental parameters—including city-to-city climate action. These city variances, specific to developed and developing countries, indicate megacities in the North have relatively high affluent and stable populations while those in the South have rapid expanding and overcrowded ones. Case-specific research into the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on informal settlements is looked at in terms of direct and indirect impacts. The complexity of these issues signposts different types of human settlements and conditions and veers toward piecing together the urban challenges and future development of the twenty-first century.
Giuseppe T. Cirella, Samuel Mwangi, Katerina Streltsova, Solomon T. Abebe, Alessio Russo

Adaptive Knowledge Sharing in Turbulent Times: Urban Disaster Risk and Knowledge Management

Knowledge management in development discourse has been largely shaped by the emergence and complexity of modern times. The increasing number and intensity of catastrophes as a result of a changing climate render a new social order with high complexity, uncertainty, and ambiguity. Designing knowledge sharing strategies can be informed by complexity theory and its application to organizational environments in enabling a framework for strengthening institutional adaptive capacity. This chapter investigates adaptive knowledge sharing and interlinks urban disaster risk reduction and management in the context of case research from Typhoon Ketsana that hit Marikina City, Metro Manila, the Philippines in 2009. An in-depth examination of knowledge sharing in terms of complexity—channels, behavior and locality, and multiplicity—is looked at with reference to social networks and strategies to effectively mitigate risk and strengthen community disaster resilience. Using social network analysis, four linkages are identified: disaster prevention and hazard mitigation, disaster preparedness, disaster response, and recovery and rehabilitation. Categorical findings on adaptive knowledge sharing are presented.
Bryan Joel S. Mariano, Winifredo Dagli, Giuseppe T. Cirella

Understanding the Disaster Risk of Human Settlements: Case Research

Risk from natural disasters is no longer defined as the natural occurrence. This chapter aims to understand the risk of such occurrences by analyzing certain socio-political situations in light of historical data via desk research and secondary analysis. The pressure and release model is adopted as a framework to distinguish the progression of vulnerability and safety. To analyze the data, a review of the literature (i.e., scientific journals, newspapers, and policy papers) is conducted. The analysis examined the historical conditions including physical, social, and political situations in two case research areas: Aceh and Haiti. Comparative research is applied to examine for factors in terms of similarities and differences that may have led to higher disaster risk. Moreover, solutions are presented in dealing with the multiple problems in terms of the progression of safety. The findings revealed that the case research areas suffered worsened impacts due to specific historical situations. Additionally, the progression of safety could be implemented as the solution to decrease the impact of disasters by human-related actions. Hence, the findings could have strong contributions for policy-makers to analyze the triggering factors of disasters as well as decrease the impact of disasters altogether.
Ikrom Mustofa, Giuseppe T. Cirella

Research and Development Within Public Transport Systems

In light of designing healthy, efficient, and safe human settlements, this chapter looks at the important aspect of developing a complete solution to public transport systems, i.e., to build them sustainably within the context of transport needs that are accessible, affordable, available, and acceptable. An examination of sustainable transport is reviewed with emphasis on environmental sustainability, stressing some of the current difficulties, i.e., congestion and its related costs via wasted time, impaired reliability, and exacerbated air pollution; environmental impacts, both at the global and local level; and health costs arising from air emissions and noise. Case research from Vietnam and Ukraine is investigated and elucidate public transportation trends as well as important needs facing these countries. Traffic congestion, environmental pollution, energy consumption, and the problem of people in traffic are major concerns that urban transport faces. To minimize the risks of vehicle emissions as well as to build green, clean, and sound settlements, important steps are needed in research and development within public transport systems. This chapter is a knowledge-based effort with recommendations to developing comprehensive public transport strategy and structure.
Tran N. Anh, Ella Kozemko, Giuseppe T. Cirella

Perspectives in Energy Efficiency and Agriculture Security


Energy Transition in Maritime Transport: Solutions and Costs

Modern human settlements rely on shipping and maritime-related services to sustain key provisions of modern life. Energy transition in maritime transport is an important factor in developing sound and healthy delivery of such services. Exploratory research as well as costs are examined in the implementation of hybrid and electric propulsion engines in ships as well as their use of on-shore power. The use of renewable energy sources is considered, and the electrification of sea ports noted as a key piece to the energy transition puzzle. The chapter utilizes a number of example technologies and illustrates a schematic of a typical pure electric ship propulsion system. The capital costs function of hybrid propulsion is illustrated in relation to the change of CO2 emission reduction costs—indicating its unsuitability for long haul shipping. The methods described rear toward reducing the carbon footprint of the entire transshipment service and, thus, developing a cleaner and more energy efficient maritime transport sector.
Ernest Czermański, Giuseppe T. Cirella

Sustainability and Renewable Energy Education: Children of the Next Generation

Creating a clean energy future is a worldwide goal. At present, world energy consumption relies heavily on fossil fuels, which are non-renewable and eventually finite, such as coal, oil, and natural gas. These resources have already become too expensive and too environmentally damaging. The importance of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies is constitutively rising. How should children be taught about renewable energy? What is air pollution and how does harming the natural habitat affect us? Students from the Holon Institute of Technology participate in the course “Green ambassadors” which looks at these questions by integrating practical work. As part of the course requirements, students are asked to conduct lessons within the topic of preserving the environment to fifth and sixth grade pupils in the Arabic elementary school “El Omariya” situated in the city of Ramla. During meetings held within the school, the students taught the pupils, via games and activities, what renewable energy means, how to turn waste into a resource, what energy conversion and renewable energy mean, etc. In order to illustrate the topics studied by the pupils, the students used a moveable laboratory containing demonstrations, experiments and creative activities. Environmental education, with an emphasis on renewables, is the focus of this chapter.
Hen Friman, Yafa Sitbon, Ifaa Banner, Yulia Einav, Giuseppe T. Cirella

Fostering Sustainable Development: Green Energy Policy in the European Union and the United States

Climate and environmental pollution have a long-term effect on world economics. Evidence has shown that climatic events have had drastic impacts since pre-industrial times. Industrialization has played a key role in pollution-based emissions. Most industrialized countries come from the developed world. Mass industrial and economic development has burdened less developed countries by exposing them to harmful methods of emission development. This chapter examines the need for developed countries to reverse harmful environmental emissions by creating green energy-based policies that, in effect, reduce greenhouse gases and environmental pollution. A focalized breakdown of the European Union and the United States, i.e., two parties that produce substantial amounts of polluting emissions, is assessed by looking at effective green energy policy to foster stronger sustainable development and ecologically friendly human settlements for the timeframe 2005–2011. This historical-environmental perspective is valuable to understand where current green deal policy originates from and recognize the political and economic elements policy-makers should consider for future policy development.
Chelsea R. Spring, Giuseppe T. Cirella

Shelterbelt Planning in Agriculture: Application from Bulgaria

The first attempt to build wind protection belts on the territory of Bulgaria dates back to the mid-twentieth century. At present, plantings are mature and perform to a great extent their function. However, in order to continue their positive role on agricultural landscapes they should be improved, current planned requirements reviewed, and factors that have the greatest impact on their sustainability analyzed. Unstable climate processes are one of the key parameters that change growth conditions, as a result, setting new requirements for these living technical facilities is necessary. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the past experience and create guidelines for planning shelterbelts in accordance with climate change and other modern trends. An examination of the proposed areas examines the construction of wind protection belts, types of green system-based structures, and optimal species composition. Agricultural landscape science structures the arguments for this chapter and aids in piecing together the recommendations.
Veselin M. Shahanov, Giuseppe T. Cirella

Synchronizing Agricultural Trade Regulations: Case Study from Subang Regency

Government agricultural policy in Indonesia in terms of product trade has not reflected perfectly the principles of fairness, i.e., fair play, for the poor. Powerless farmers are strongly affected by inadequate laws, regulations, and bureaucracy. This condition might be complicated by the enactment of decentralization in the country, i.e., stipulated in Article 10 and 11 of Law No. 22 of 1999. Decentralization empowers local governments the ability to regulate and make policies that would be more pro-welfare to farmers as well as to local trading of agricultural commodities at the provincial and regency, i.e., city, level. The national government only facilitates and coordinates national policies which leaves local authorities the power to control and guide local development. In this chapter, secondary data obtained from government sources alongside direct interviews of stakeholders examine how pineapple performs as a cash crop in different parts of Indonesia. The research attempts to synchronize national-provincial-regency level difficulties by considering Indonesia’s legislation in trading agricultural commodities. This chapter suggests the need for better national policies on price stabilization, growth stimulus, legal protection, and prosperity-based strategies for increasing pineapple farmers’ welfare.
Mustika S. Purwanegara, Nurrani Kusumawati, Rini H. Ekawati, Herry Hudrasyah, Giuseppe T. Cirella

Policy Development and Future Scenarios


Environmental Safety in the Sustainable Development Goals: Public Survey

This chapter looks at three aspects of environmental safety: energy preference, air pollution, and climate change. It is divided into two parts: (1) global outlook and (2) case research. First, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, established in 2015 with a fifteen-year objective of implementing them, are broken down and analyzed. Direct and indirect relations are established. Second, empirical case research from Hungary is grouped and stratified sampling is reported upon. Results indicate that renewable energy sources were shown to receive the highest score in terms of energy, while nuclear and fossil fuel power scored the lowest. The worst type of air pollution was emitted by enterprises and everyday CO2 emission in combination with communal waste. In terms of Hungary’s climate change impacts, water-related and agricultural aspects were ranked the highest. Additional energy concerns showed cooling systems as highly consumptive. In terms of environmental safety, tests indicated women were more sensitive to the environment than men. Moreover, people with higher education levels evaluated the risks lower than those who just finished technical college. Evaluation of air pollution monotonically increased with settlement size.
Andrea Farkas, Janos Mika, Giuseppe T. Cirella

Sustainable Development Goals, Conflict, and Fragility: Anglophone Crisis in Cameroon

Good governance is critical in creating a conducive business environment and sustained economic growth. However, the weak governance characterized by social inequality has led to instability, fragility, and conflict in many African countries. Part of instability and fragility is deeply rooted in colonialism and dates back to the emergence of modern African states. The Anglophone crisis in Cameroon is such a typical challenge. This chapter presents two key concerns that have not yet been adequately addressed: First, how do the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and their targets address the challenge of Africa’s historical instability and fragility? Second, on the flip side, how does long-standing instability and fragility affect the achievability of the goals? A key lesson from the Anglophone crisis is that, contrary to the universal understanding, SDGs are not just a development framework to pick up from where the United Nations Millennium Development Goals stopped. They are, as well, instruments to reflect on historical and structural foundations that form the root causes of conflict and fragility. SDGs call for international cooperation toward establishing a fundamental change to build back better: replacing the root causes of vulnerability and fragility with pillars of social equity to attain economic growth and sustainable development.
Samuel Mwangi, Giuseppe T. Cirella

The Pearl’s Social and Environmental Failures: Development Challenges

Identifying the problems in past construction and communicating those lessons in future development will aid the process of successful innovation. This chapter identifies the social and environmental failures of Qatar’s Pearl Island, in order to analyze how MIA Park and Hamad Port overcome those challenges. Through the qualitative research process, semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants and sequences of photographs have been utilized to construct visual investigation. The results demonstrate how Qatar has learnt from past development failures and applied the knowledge in their new ventures. These projects still have several design and construction flaws that require revaluation if Qatar hopes to move forward with their sustainability initiatives. According to the Global Footprint Network, Qatar, alongside other wealthy Gulf states, has the world’s largest ecological footprint per person. Lucrative gas and oil revenue, since the 1970s, has rapidly allowed the Middle East to develop and create desert cities with budgets exceeding billions of dollars to create unique landscapes few places in the world could match. Qatar’s growth in the past decade has been especially tremendous, with the total population increasing by one million, enabling the country’s urban districts to conceptualize artificial islands and mega-structures that have been poorly developed as a result of short-term thinking. This chapter looks at the development of these human settlement projects in light of their immense social and environmental repercussions.
Michael J. Rosciszewski-Dodgson, Giuseppe T. Cirella

Changing Dynamics with COVID-19: Future Outlook

Today, human activities are developing at a drastic speed with little limitation. Excessive development can be problematic to human health as well as reduce the sustainability of natural resources. At present, the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the whole world and adversely has impacted a broad range of human activities, including the economy, agriculture, tourism, and transportation. The excessive increase from globalization, unplanned urbanization, and the destruction of nature (i.e., due to ongoing human activity) have been partially to blame for the current state of the planet. The human population has tripled over the last 70 years. In addition, existing agricultural areas of the world yield lower rates—especially in underdeveloped or developing countries. Moreover, climate change has affected agricultural areas and caused a shrinkage in production patterns. As a result, an increasing population has decreased access to their cultural foods, leaving them with few options, and these unhealthy dietary options frame detrimental long-term concerns. As a result, the human–nature relationship must be considered and decisions made. In sensitive areas, especially in mountainous regions, tropical forests, deserts, and glaciers, human habitation and human and economic activity should be limited. In this chapter, natural and human dynamics are examined by analyzing current changes and future population trends in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. A critical question that should be asked is what can be done regarding environmental sustainability during the crisis and what lessons will be learnt to best apply them in a post-COVID-19 world?
Cengiz Kahraman, Christian Orobello, Giuseppe T. Cirella


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