Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
This study examines the cross-level influence of positive and offensive leader humor climates on employee inclusion and citizenship behaviors, and the moderating effect of trust in such relationships.
We collected data from a sample of 225 respondents nested within 23 teams from a Canadian financial organization. A multilevel confirmatory analysis was used to provide evidence that variables of this study are distinct and a HLM analysis to test the hypotheses.
We find that employees’ perception of inclusion is influenced much more by an offensive humor climate than by a positive one. The results also suggest that the perception of inclusion plays a significant intermediary role in the influence of humor climates on citizenship behavior. Finally, trust in leaders acts as an important contingent condition in the effectiveness of a humor climate.
Use of humor does not always pay. Offensive humor by supervisor is a risky strategy that may undermine the beneficial effects of positive humor climate, increase employee exclusion and weaker individual performance.
Our study shows the utility of using micro- and macro-approaches, and more specifically, the relevance of adopting an integrative multilevel view of the effect of a humor environment in predicting individual inclusion and citizenship behaviors.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: Sage.
Avolio, B. J., Howell, J. M., & Sosik, J. J. (1999). A Funny thing happened on the way to the bottom Line: Humor as a moderator of leadership style effects. Academy of Management Journal,42(2), 219–227. CrossRef
Baumeister, R. F., Bratslavsky, E., Finkenauer, C., & Vohs, K. D. (2001). Bad is stronger than good. Review of General Psychology,5(4), 323–370. CrossRef
Blackhart, G. C., Nelson, B. C., Knowles, M. L., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). Rejection elicits emotional reactions but neither causes immediate distress nor lowers self-esteem: A meta-analytic review of 192 studies on social exclusion. Personality and Social Psychology Review,13(4), 269–309. PubMedCrossRef
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: Wiley.
Bliese, P. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: Implications for data aggregation and analysis. In J. Klein & S. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 349–381). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bliese, P., & Ployhart, R. (2002). Growth modeling using random coefficient models: Model building, testing, and illustrations. Organizational Research Methods,5(4), 362–387. CrossRef
Bolino, M. (1999). Citizenship and impression management: Good soldiers or good actors? Academy of Management Review,24(1), 82–98. CrossRef
Bowen, D. E., & Ostroff, C. (2004). Understanding HRM-firm performance linkages: The role of “Strength” of the HRM system. Academy of Management Review,29(2), 203–221.
Brewer, M. B. (1991). The social self: On being the same and different at the same time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,17(5), 475–482. CrossRef
Burnham, K., & Anderson, D. (2002). Model selection and multi-model inference: A practical information-theoretic approach. New York: Springer.
Carpenter, N., Berry, C., & Houston, L. (2014). A meta-analytic comparison of self-reported and other-reported organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior,35(4), 547–574. CrossRef
Chen, Z. X., & Aryee, S. (2007). Delegation and employee work outcomes: An examination of the cultural context of mediating processes in China. Academy of Management Journal,50(1), 226–238. CrossRef
Chiaburu, D. S., Lorinkova, N. M., & Van Dyne, L. (2013). Employees’ social context and change-oriented citizenship: A meta-analysis of leader, coworker, and organizational influences. Group and Organization Management,38(3), 291–333. CrossRef
Chiaburu, D. S., Stoverink, A., Li, N., & Zhang, X. (2015). Extraverts engage in more interpersonal citizenship when motivated to impression manage: Getting along to get ahead? Journal of Management,41(7), 2004–2031. CrossRef
Cho, S., & Mor Barak, M. E. (2008). Understanding diversity and inclusion in a perceived homogeneous culture: A study of organizational commitment and job performance among Korean employees. Administration in Social Work,32(4), 100–126. CrossRef
Collinson, D. (2002). Managing humor. Journal of Management Studies,39(3), 269–288. CrossRef
Conway, J., & Lance, C. (2010). What reviewers should expect from authors regarding common method bias in organizational research. Journal of Business Psychology,25(3), 325–334. CrossRef
Cook, J., & Wall, T. (1980). New work attitude measures of trust, organizational commitment and personal need non-fulfillment. Journal of Occupational Psychology,53(1), 39–52. CrossRef
Cooper, C. D. (2005). Just joking around? Employee humor expression as an ingratiatory behavior. Academy of Management Review,30(4), 765–776. CrossRef
Cooper, C. (2008). Elucidating the bonds of workplace humor: A relational process model. Human Relations,61(8), 1087–1115. CrossRef
Dedrick, R., & Greenbaum, P. (2011). Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis of a scale measuring interagency collaboration of children’s mental health agencies. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders,19(1), 1–14. CrossRef
Derfler-Rozin, R., Pillutla, M., & Thay, S. (2010). Social reconnection revisited: The effect of social exclusion risk on reciprocity, trust, and general risk-taking. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,112(2), 140–150. CrossRef
Dirks, K. T., & Ferrin, D. L. (2001). The role of trust in organizational settings. Organization Science,12(4), 450–467. CrossRef
Dyer, N., Hanges, P., & Hall, R. (2005). Applying multilevel confirmatory factor analysis techniques to the study of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly,16(1), 149–167. CrossRef
Earley, P. C. (1986). Trust, perceived importance of praise and criticism, and work performance: An examination of feedback in the United States and England. Journal of Management,12(4), 457–473. CrossRef
Ehrhart, M. G. (2004). Leadership and justice climate as antecedents of unit-level organizational citizenship behavior. Personnel Psychology,57(1), 61–94. CrossRef
Evans, M. G. (1985). A Monte Carlo study of the effects of correlated method variance in moderated multiple regression analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,36(3), 305–323. CrossRef
Fedor, D. B. (1991). Recipient responses to performance feedback: A proposed model and its implications. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management,9, 73–120.
Ferres, N., Cornell, J., & Travaglione, A. (2004). Co-worker trust as social catalyst for constructive employee attitudes. Journal of Managerial Psychology,19(6), 608–622. CrossRef
Ferris, D., Brown, D., Berry, J., & Lian, H. (2009). The development and validation of the workplace ostracism scale. Journal of Applied Psychology,93(6), 1348–1366. CrossRef
Findler, L., Wind, L., & Mor Barak, M. E. (2007). The challenge of workforce management in a global society: Modeling the relationship between diversity, organizational culture, and employee well-being, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Administration in Social Work,31(3), 63–94. CrossRef
Forgas, J. P. (2000). Feeling and thinking: The role of affect in social cognition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gouldner, A. W. (1960). The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement. American Sociological Review,25, 161–178. CrossRef
Hackman, J. R. (1992). Group influences on individuals in organizations. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 199–267). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychology Press.
Heck, R. H., Thomas, S. L., & Tabata, L. N. (2010). Multilevel and longitudinal modeling with IBM SPSS. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Heiss, S. N., & Carmack, H. J. (2012). Knock, knock; Who’s there?: Making sense of organizational entrance through humor. Management Communication Quarterly,26(1), 106–132. CrossRef
Helson, H. (1964). Adaptation-level theory: An experimental and systematic approach to behavior. New York: Harper.
Hitlan, R. T., Cliffton, R. J., & DeSoto, M. C. (2006). Perceived exclusion in the workplace: The moderating effects of gender on work-related attitudes and psychological health. North American Journal of Psychology,8(2), 217–236.
Hofmann, D. A., & Gavin, M. B. (1998). Centering decisions in hierarchical linear models: Implications for research in organizations. Journal of Management,24(5), 623–641. CrossRef
Huo, W., Lam, W., & Chen, Z. (2012). Am we the only one this supervisor is laughing at?: Effects of aggressive humor on employee strain and addictive behaviors. Personnel Psychology,65(4), 859–885. CrossRef
Johnson, S. (2007). What’s so friggin ‘funny? Discover magazine. http://discovermagazine.com/2007/brain/laughter
Kidder, D. L. (2002). The influence of gender on the performance of organizational citizenship behaviors. Journal of Management,28(5), 629–648. CrossRef
Kreft, I., & de Leeuw, J. (1998). Introducing multilevel modeling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. CrossRef
Lapalme, M. E., Simard, G., & Tremblay, M. (2011). Then influence of psychological contract breach on temporal workers’ commitment and behaviors: A multiple agency perspective. Journal of Business Psychology,26, 311–324. CrossRef
Lapalme, M.-E., Stamper, C. L., Simard, G., & Tremblay, M. (2009). Bringing the outside in: Can “external” workers experience insider status? Journal of Organizational Behavior,30(7), 919–940. CrossRef
Leary, M. R., & Downs, D. L. (1995). Interpersonal functions of the self-esteem motive: The self-esteem system as a sociometer. In M. H. Kernis (Ed.), Efficacy, agency, and self-esteem (pp. 123–144). New York: Plenum Press.
Lennox-Terrion, J., & Ashforth, B. E. (2002). From ‘I’ to ‘we’: The role of putdown humor and identity in the development of a temporary group. Human Relations,55(1), 35–60.
Liden, R. C., Erdogan, B., Wayne, S. J., & Sparrowe, R. T. (2006). Leader-member exchange, differentiation, and task interdependence: implications for individual and group performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior,27(6), 723–746. CrossRef
Luria, G. (2008). Climate strength: How leaders form consensus. Leadership Quarterly,19, 42–53. CrossRef
Martin, R. A., Puhlik-Doris, P., Larsen, G., Gray, J., & Weir, K. (2003). Individual differences in uses of humor and their relation to psychological well-being; development of the humor styles questionnaire. Journal of Research in Personality,37(1), 48–78. CrossRef
Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review,20(3), 709–734.
McAllister, D. J. (1995). Affect and cognition-based trust as foundations for interpersonal cooperation in organizations. Academy of Management Journal,38(1), 24–59. CrossRef
Mesmer-Magnus, J., Glew, D., & Viswesvaran, C. (2012). A meta-analysis of positive humor in the workplace. Journal of Managerial Psychology,27(2), 155–190. CrossRef
Meyer, J. C. (2000). Humour as a double-edged sword: Four functions of humour in communication. Communication Theory,10(3), 310–331. CrossRef
Meyer, R. D., Dalal, R. S., & Bonaccio, S. (2009). A meta-analytic investigation into the moderating effects of situational strength on the conscientiousness–performance relationship. Journal of Organizational Behavior,30(8), 1077–1102. CrossRef
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2007). Mplus. Statistical analysis with latent variables. Version, 3.
Nahrgang, J., Morgenson, F., & Illies, R. (2009). The development of leader-member exchanges: Exploring how personality and performance influence leader and member relationships over time. Organizational Behavior and Human Resource Processes,108(2), 256–266. CrossRef
Naumann, S. E., & Bennett, N. (2000). A case for procedural justice climate: Development and test of a multilevel model. Academy of Management Journal,43(5), 881–889. CrossRef
O’Leary-Kelly, A., & Newman, J. (2003). The implications of performance feedback research for understanding antisocial work behavior. Human Resource Review,13(4), 605–629. CrossRef
Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books/D. C. Health and Com.
Organ, D. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Mackenzie, S. B. (2006). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature, antecedents and consequences. London: Sage.
Pearce, J., & Randel, A. (2004). Expectations of organizational mobility, workplace social inclusion, and employee job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior,25, 81–98. CrossRef
Pelled, L. H., Ledford, G. E., & Mohrman, S. A. (1999). Demographic dissimilarity and workplace inclusion. Journal of Management Studies,36(7), 1013–1031. CrossRef
Peter, L., & Dana, B. (1982). The laughter prescription. New York: Ballantine Books.
Pillai, R., Schriesheim, C. A., & Williams, E. S. (1999). Fairness perceptions and trust for transformational and transactional leadership: A two-sample study. Journal of Management,25(6), 897–933. CrossRef
Podsakoff, P. M., Bommer, W. H., Podsakoff, N. P., & Mackenzie, S. B. (2006). Relationships between leader reward and punishment behavior and subordinate attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors: A meta-analytic review of existing and new research. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,99(2), 113–142. CrossRef
Puhlik-Doris, P. (2004). The humor styles questionnaire: Investigating the role of humor in psychological well-being, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Western Ontario.
Raudenbush, S., & Bryk, A. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Roberson, Q. M. (2006). Disentangling the meanings of diversity and inclusion in organizations. Group and Organization Management,31(2), 212–236. CrossRef
Robinson, S., O’Reilly, J., & Wang, W. (2013). Invisible at work: An integrated model of workplace ostracism. Journal of Management,39(1), 203–231. CrossRef
Robinson, D. T., & Smith-Lovin, L. (2001). Getting laugh: Gender, status, and humor in task discussions. Social Forces,80(1), 123–158. CrossRef
Romero, E. J., & Cruthirds, K. W. (2006). The use of humor in the workplace. The Academy of Management Perspective,20(2), 58–69. CrossRef
Romero, E., & Pescosolido, A. (2008). Humor and group effectiveness. Human Relations,61(3), 395–418. CrossRef
Schein, E. H. (1971). The individual, the organization, and the career: A conceptual scheme. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science,7(4), 401–426. CrossRef
Scogin, F. R., & Pollio, H. R. (1980). Targeting and the humorous episode in group process. Human Relations,33(11), 831–852. CrossRef
Shore, L. M., Randel, A. E., Chung, B. G., Dean, M. A., Ehrhart, K. H., & Singh, G. (2011). Inclusion and diversity in work groups: A review and model for future research. Journal of Management,37(4), 1262–1289. CrossRef
Slåtten, T., Svensson, G., & Sværi, S. (2011). Empowering leadership and the influence of a humorous work climate on service employees’ creativity and innovative behavior in frontline service jobs. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences,3(3), 267–284. CrossRef
Sobel, M. (1982). Asymptotic confidence interval for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhardt (Ed.), Sociological Methodology (pp. 290–312). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Spector, P. E. (2006). Method variance in organizational research: Truth or urban legend? Organizational Research Methods,9(2), 221–232. CrossRef
Stamper, C. L., & Masterson, S. S. (2002). Insider or outsider? How employee perceptions of insider status affect their work behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior,23(8), 875–894. CrossRef
Susa, A.M. (2002). Humor type, organizational climate, and outcomes: The shortest distance between an organization’s environment and the bottom line is laughter. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Nebraska.
Takeuchi, R., Chen, G., & Lepak, D. P. (2009). Through the looking glass of a social system: Cross-level effects of high performance work systems on employees’ attitudes. Personnel Psychology,62(1), 1–29. CrossRef
Taylor, S. (1991). Asymmetrical effects of positive and negative events: The mobilization-minimization hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin,103, 193–210. CrossRef
Tremblay, M., & Gibson, M. (2016). The role of humor in relationship between transactional leadership behavior, perceived superior support and citizenship behavior. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies,23(1), 39–53. CrossRef
Twenge, J. M., Ciarocco, N. J., Cuervo, D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2003). Social exclusion reduces prosocial behavior (unpublished manuscript).
Waldman, D., Carter, M., & Hom, P. (2015). A multilevel investigation of leadership and turnover behavior. Journal of Management,41(6), 1724–1744. CrossRef
Wang, L., Chu, X., & Ni, J. (2010). Leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behavior: A new perspective from perceived insider status and Chinese traditionality. Frontiers of Business Research in China,4(1), 148–169. CrossRef
Wang, J., & Kim, T.-Y. (2013). Proactive socialization behavior in China: The mediating role of perceived insider status and the moderating effect of supervisors’ traditionality. Journal of Organizational Behavior,34(3), 389–406. CrossRef
Wanzer, M. B., Booth-Butterfield, M., & Booth-Butterfield, S. (1996). Are funny people popular? An examination of humor orientation, loneliness, and social attraction. Communication Quarterly,44(1), 42–52. CrossRef
Yang, C., Ding, C., & Lo, K. (2015). Ethical leadership and multidimensional organizational citizenship behaviors: The mediating effects of self-efficacy, respect, and leader member exchange. Group & Organization Management, 1–32.
Zhang, Z., Zyphur, M., & Oreacher, K. (2009). Testing multilevel mediation using hierarchical linear models. Organizational Research Methods,12(4), 695–719. CrossRef
- Humor in Teams: Multilevel Relationships Between Humor Climate, Inclusion, Trust, and Citizenship Behaviors
- Springer US
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Neuer Inhalt/© julien tromeur | Fotolia