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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Hybrid Learning, ICHL 2014, held in Shanghai, China, in August 2014. The 31 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 90 submissions. The selected papers cover various aspects on hybrid learning, computer supported collaborative learning, expericiences in hybrid learning, improved flexibility on learning processes and the pedagogical and psychological issues of hybrid learning.




The Present and the Prospect: How Far Away Are They from Blended Learning?

For a better understanding of the status quo of blended learning, this paper conducted a survey in five high schools in Shanghai. The results of the survey indicate that high school learners are not fully aware of the value of blended learning, and that only a small proportion of them have applied blended learning to their study. Although high school learners hold positive attitudes towards blended learning, guidance from their teachers is quite limited in this respect. Teachers seldom offer online learning resources or online courses to learners. This leads to the limited application of blended learning. The paper also discovers that learner’s involvement in blended learning is heavily influenced by factors such as family commitment, learning time, and learning devices. Based on these findings, the paper finally puts forwards a number of suggestions on how to improve the effectiveness of blended learning among young learners.

Huan Liu, Haijun Guo, Minyu Wu, Beirong Lu, Jianqiang Quan, Youqun Ren

Is “MOOC-Mania” over?

The New York Times famously branded 2012 “The Year of the MOOC” given the upsurge of interest in so-called “Massive Online Open Courses.” MOOCs were seen as the future of distance education and the realization of a dream to “democratize” education. Anyone with online access could become a “student” and participate freely in courses offered by the world’s most knowledgeable professors at the most elite universities. Class sizes were unprecedented – it was not unusual to have tens of thousands or hundreds of thousands of participants in some very popular courses. The Times declaration followed the launch of edX, by Harvard University and MIT, and the rapid growth of MOOC platforms and providers such as Coursera and Udacity. The Sand Hill Road venture capitalists invested substantial funds in these providers even though a monetization model was not obvious. It is now almost two years since “The Year of the MOOC” and we must ask ourselves whether the enthusiasm over the MOOC model was/is still warranted. Have MOOCs been successful in changing the direction of online education? What problems, issues, and challenges have MOOC adopters encountered?

Bebo White

A Kinet-Affective Learning Model for Experiential Learning in Smart Ambience

With the increasing development and implementation of 3D visualization and interactive media technologies in education under the auspices of game-based [1], experiential, virtual reality (VR) [2] or smart ambience [3] (defined here as a VR environment that is responsive to user’s natural motion/gesture within it) learning, students and teachers are increasingly exposed to new and unique forms of learning experiences that go beyond those possible with traditional teaching methods.

Horace H. S. Ip, Julia Byrne

Experiences in Hybrid Learning

The Effect of Hybrid Learning in Vocational Education Based on Cloud Space: Taking the Vocational Education Cyber-Platform as an Example

In recent years, instructors have had an increasing interest in integrating cloud-based education platform into their classroom as part of the learning environment, especially in China’s vocational education. Hunan provincial Vocational Education Cyber-Platform (VECP) is the largest vocational education cloud in China. Compared with other information systems, vocational students’ attitude, effect and behavioral intention towards hybrid learning have not been assessed and thoroughly understood. This paper analyses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) in order to examine students’ behavioral intention to use an electronic portfolio system. A Hybrid Learning Usage Questionnaire was developed using existing scales from prior TAM instruments and modified where appropriate. In our survey, 180 students completed the questionnaire measuring their responses to perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease of use (PEOU), attitudes towards usage (ATU) and behavioral intention to use (BIU) the VECP. The results of the study indicated that students’ perceived ease of use (PEOU) had a significant influence on attitude towards usage (ATU). Subsequently, perceived ease of use (PEOU) had the strongest significant influence on perceived usefulness (PU). The research further demonstrated that individual characteristics, technological factors and training experience may have a significant influence on instructors in adopting cloud-based hybrid learning into their courses in vocational education.

Di Wu, Xiaorong Yu, Yinghui Shi, Harrison Hao Yang, Chun Lu

Study on the Interactions in Classroom of the Future

Classroom of the future is a teaching and learning space, consisting of human, technology, environment and resources. Classroom interactions can be viewed as a core in the classroom of the future. The interactions are not only between people. They also include others, namely, technology, environment, and resources. Through the studies on the classroom interactions, we can better understand how to redesign and implement the classroom of the future. This paper discusses relevance concepts, theories and various study dimensions, and reports an analysis on classroom interactions in the classroom of the future.

Feng Qiu

Reconstructing New Space for Teaching and Learning: The Future Classroom

Educational reform and talent cultivation require us to transform the traditional classroom. In this transformation, classrooms are reconstructed to support new styles of teaching and learning with intelligent features, blended learning, openness, and human-oriented, interactive and ecological elements. This paper reports a study on the future classroom, not only on the physical construction but also on the basic theory and application aspects. Interaction types and new styles of teaching and learning are discussed.

Jiping Zhang

An Empirical Study of Leveraging Information Technology in Business through Flexible Learning, Project and Problem-Based Learning, and Cross-Disciplinary Learning

Traditional business education studies focus on core commercial areas but graduates do not pay attention to using information technology in business environments; conversely, traditional information technology education focuses on training in compute applications and their underlying theories but graduates do not know how these applications can be utilized in the commercial environment. Application of information technology in business is an important and emerging area in modern business world. This paper summarizes how Caritas Institute of Higher Education established the Business Technology Centre to provide project and problem based flexible learning for students to customize their learning by using modern business technologies. Students formed a cross-disciplinary project teams to solve some real business problems based on group members’ expertise and techniques. After having gone through this cross-disciplinary learning, students have gained practical experience in business technology and application, and enriched their learning experience as well as enhanced their employability.

Kwan Keung Ng, Fu Lee Wang, Louise Luk

A Practical Research of Hybrid Learning Mode in Teaching and Research Activities

Along with the further improvement of education system in China and the deepening reform of new curriculum, teachers’ professional quality has become critical to survive and succeed in the education industry. As the most effective means of improving teachers’ professional quality, teaching and research activity has become the second biggest task for a teacher in addition to the lecture. However, the effect of traditional teaching and research activities are not ideal, owing to the limitation in time, content and resources. In this article, we revealed the disadvantages of traditional teaching and research activities, and analyzed the advantages of teaching and research activities in hybrid learning mode. Our practical research also indicates that the hybrid leaning mode can improve the effectiveness of teaching and research activities.

Sen Wang

The Context of Blended Learning: The TIPS Blended Learning Model

Traditional learning in face-to-face mode has been the majority learning mode until the end of last Century. With the advent of using Internet technology, e-learning has been intensively used in higher education to enhance teaching and learning. In order to maximize the benefits and offset the constraints of both learning in pure face-to-face mode and e-learning mode, blended learning was advocated by the researchers as a solution. Throughout the years of blended learning development, the understanding on the context of blended learning was varied. This paper aims at identifying the context of blended learning in its evolution by reviewing the researches in the literature. A blended learning model, TIPS, was demonstrated as a holistic view to cover the perspectives of the context of blended learning. The TIPS blended learning model can be served as tips in designing and developing blended learning.

Jeanne Lam

Is the Flipped Classroom Model Effective in the Perspectives of Students’ Perceptions and Benefits?

Flipped Classroom Model is an instructional strategy that is gaining attention and adherents among instructors and educators nowadays. It is deviated from the conventional teaching method in which instructors mainly provide instructions in the classrooms. In applying the Model, students are requested by an instructor to watch a short video before the class. As a result, the instructor can instead devote more time to adopting active learning strategies in the classroom. The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not the Model is effective in students’ benefits and perceptions, illustrated by a case study. Result has indicated that the Model was not only more effective than the conventional method in delivering an overview of the required materials, but also students benefitted from the inclusion of added examples about working implementations to raise their confidence level on English learning.

Kenneth Wong, David W. K. Chu

Myths to Burst about Hybrid Learning

Given the snowballing attention to and growing popularity of hybrid learning, some take for granted that the learning mode means more effective education delivery while some who hold a skeptical view expect researchers to inform them whether hybrid learning leads to better learning effectiveness. Though diversified, both beliefs are like myths about the hybrid mode. By reporting findings concerning the use of wikis in a major project on hybrid courses piloted at a university in Hong Kong, this paper highlights the complexity concerning the effectiveness of a hybrid learning mode and the problems of a reductionistic view of its effectiveness. Means for


learning were blended with conventional distance learning components into four undergraduate courses. Findings show that a broad variety of factors, including subject matters, instructors’ pedagogical knowledge of the teaching means, students’ readiness for the new learning mode and the implementation methods, play a key role in deciding learning effectiveness, rather than just the delivery mode

per se


Kam Cheong Li

Computer Supported Collaborative Learning

Trends of Cloud Computing in Education

As an emerging technology, cloud computing has been increasingly and widely used in the field of education. Based upon 132 research studies on education of cloud computing from the Education Resources Information Center database over the recent years, this study selected 42 high-frequency descriptors to conduct co-word analysis of cloud computing in education. The results show that cloud computing in education is mainly concentrated on five areas: conceptual and pedagogical aspects, educational applications, processing of information and resources, pros and cons of cloud computing in education, and database management system integrated with cloud-based services. In addition, it provides a detailed discussion of the impact of cloud computing in these five areas.

Yinghui Shi, Harrison Hao Yang, Zongkai Yang, Di Wu

Research and Application on Web2.0-Based Sharing Modes of Curriculum Resources

Based on the analysis and research of curriculum resources sharing at home and abroad, in this paper, we constructed an overall framework of Web2.0-based sharing modes of curriculum resources. Taking one of the National Quality Courses (awarded by Chinese Ministry of Education to top quality courses offered by universities) "Principles and Methods of Instructional Design", we studied the resources applications of sharing modes based on Blog and Wiki, and verified their effectiveness.

Youru Xie, Jing Bai, Guanjie Li, Rui Yin

The Development of an Augmented Reality Framework for Constructing Circuit Learning Aids

The potential of Augmented Reality (AR) as an effective approach to support learning has been discovered in numerous research studies and practical cases today. With its power to enhance the expressiveness of the real world and its multiple platform implementation choices, AR brings new visions in the organization of virtual and physical resources, thus providing a powerful hybrid learning environment. While there exits popular open source and commercial SDKs for AR application development, a way for more agile and domain specific implementation is required by non-professional developers as teachers. In this work, an AR framework was developed to support AR circuit construction. Core design issues such as object modeling, algorithms for circuit recognition and calculation were discussed, and the work flow was also illustrated by implementing a circuit demo with the framework.

Chen Qiao, Xiangdong Chen

A Mahjong-Like Game of English Vocabulary Spelling

With rapid development of the world globalization, the role of English has become an international language for people conversation. In fact, people know it but they often have no good ways to learn English efficiently. Sometimes, some people think that the procedure of learning English is boring. Therefore, it is an important issue how to engage and encourage people to effectively learn English. Many researches and experiments had indicated that the game-based learning is a joyful approach for learning. Chinese Mahjong is a traditional Chinese game for gambling and entertainment. The game rule of Mahjong is to collect the related cards combining a card sequence or the same cards in a triple pair. In the same, spelling the English vocabulary is also combined the letters to form a word. Thus, this paper tries to design and implement a Mahjong-like multi-party game spelling the English vocabulary for learners in English learning. That is, the learners play the game with other peer learners via the Internet to promote their spelling abilities of English vocabulary in multi-party networked game.

Cheng-Yu Tsai, Jenq-Muh Hsu, Hung-Hsu Tsai, Pao-Ta Yu, Wen-Feng Huang

Factors Influencing Trust and Acceptance of Electronic Sand Tables for Higher Business Education

This research proposes a trust model to investigate the factors that influence students’ trust and acceptance of electronic sand table (EST) learning systems. A total of 171 valid samples were collected from the students in Guangzhou College, South China University of Technology who have participated in EST-based courses. The results of this study indicate that entertanability, reliability, and auditability are key factors that determine students’ trust toward EST learning systems. Furthermore, recommendations for the development and implementation of EST learning systems are provided based on the findings.

River Chu, Yan Li, Ivan K. W. Lai, Zhiwei Zhu

Understanding Students’ Continuance Intention toward Social Networking e-Learning

With the rapid development of internet technologies, social networking e-learning has become increasingly popular that supports collaboration and sharing between students for them to solve daily learning problems. However, some students may not continually keep this practice due to some reasons. With the considering of expectation-value theory, this study tries to study students’ continuance intention toward social networking e-learning by extending the UTAUT model with a critical psychological factor “perceived value”. A Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis is used to analyze the data collected from 240 students in Macau. The results of this study indicate that perceived value is an important factor followed by social influence that influence the continuance intention toward social networking e-learning. This study contributes a research model for the study of technology acceptance continuance in educational contexts and provides recommendations for educators to formulate their strategies to motivate students for collaborative learning through social networking e-learning.

Ivan K. W. Lai, Donny C. F. Lai

Improved Flexibility of Learning Processes

An Editable Multi-media Authoring eBook System for Mobile Learning

Traditional eBook is to put the content of a book from hardcopy paper format into electronic mobile device format. Nevertheless, with evolution of mobile computing, information can be spread in seconds by mobile phones in multi-media format. Therefore, a student may need to put his/her learning material in an eBook which can be accessed by mobile device so that the student can study at any time and at anywhere using the mobile device. An authoring eBook allows students selects his/her own lecture slides from teacher’s power point files, relevant discussion from open forum, cognitive map from course concept map, and video recording from lectures etc. This paper presents a methodology that can let students tailor make his/her own learning material from different multi-media source, and which can be edited as students’ learning level improves. The stepwise development procedure includes preprocess of converting discussion panel and mind maps into images, uploading document, video, audio and images into PDF files, concatenate PDF files into an eBook PDF file, and modify the eBook PDF files if needed.

Joseph Fong, Vincent Chung, Kenneth Wong

A Review on the Development of an Online Platform for Open Textbooks

Open textbooks are typical open education resources that are freely and openly available for anyone to use and re-use, usually through an online platform which serves at least four purposes. First, it provides a repository for hosting the open textbooks. Second, it provides functions for users to access the open textbooks, both online and offline. Third, it also provides functions for users to contribute, revise, remix and redistribute the textbook contents. Forth, it allows users to rate and comment on the textbook contents. This paper shares our experience in developing an experimental platform for open textbooks, especially on the technical limitations and problems. The key functions of an open textbook platform are identified. It is learnt that user friendliness and easiness for use are the design objectives so a simple and concise user interface is required. It is however revealed that a right balance between user friendliness and functional comprehensiveness is important but difficult to achieve.

Simon K. S. Cheung, Kelvin K. W. Lee, Kelvin K. L. Chan

Developing Knowledge Clusters in a Supportive Learning Environment

Concepts naturally have linkages with each other. Their relationships may not be so obvious to students if they are located in different learning sessions. Systematic knowledge management is desirable in learning with the use of technology in which we could control and represent knowledge with different types of connections. This paper introduces a new learning approach supported by the concept of a Knowledge Cluster. A Knowledge Cluster facilitates learning of concepts with focus on understanding the relationship of concepts across different topics, sessions and courses.

Wai-lap Chan, Lam-for Kwok

Forms of Instruction and Students’ Preferences - A Comparative Study

Online teaching and learning is increasingly common nowadays at many types of higher education institutions, ranging from hybrid/blended courses that offer a combination of face-to-face and online instruction, to fully online experiences and distance learning. The purpose of this article is to firstly outline the main benefits of online teaching and learning. Secondly, the authors survey which of the forms of instruction currently prevails and thirdly, to what extent students’ learning preferences correspond to the selected form of instruction. This survey is conducted both in the Czech Republic and abroad, in this case in Kazakhstan, in order to obtain more reliable results

Blanka Frydrychova Klimova, Petra Poulova

Borderless Education: InterUniversity Study – Successful Students’ Feedback

The paper introduces the project of interuniversity study running within eight universities (United Kingdom, Ireland, Finland, Latvia, Italy and three institutions from the Czech Republic). The process of instruction ran online in the LMS Blackboard, EDEN and Moodle. The paper is structured in three main parts (1) briefly describing the project and (2) presenting evaluation feedback collected from those students who succeeded in this form of study and (3) providing recommendations resulting from the questionnaire results towards improvements the hybrid learning process for future use.

Petra Poulova, Ivana Simonova

Creating and Delivering Learning Materials for Mobile Phones - Our Findings in Japan

With increasing permeation of mobile devices into people’s everyday life, m-learning can be regarded as the next generation of e-learning. Learning via mobile devices, especially mobile phones, is practiced in educational areas all over the world. This paper describes a mobile language learning project which creates English learning materials and delivers the learning materials to Japanese university students. The data collected from this ongoing mobile language learning project allows us to investigate Japanese students’ mobile learning styles and learning material preferences as well as their concerns about using mobile learning. The data was collected from various sources: online surveys, server logs, user registered personal information, interviews and actual online quiz results. The findings obtained from this research provide useful information for future mobile learning project/system design, implementation and content delivery.

Shudong Wang, Jun Iwata, Douglas Jarrell

Pedagogical and Psychological Issues

Instructional Design and Practice of Problem-Based Collaborative Knowledge Building under Network Environment

A new hybrid learning model of problem-based collaborative knowledge building (referred to as the CKB) is based on the specific learning CKB under network environment. It can be integrated with knowledge creation to promote advanced cognitive activities and to solve problem together. We expound its connotation, basic elements, characteristics, and explore the main steps and operation process. The model has three main stages including learner community, cognitive conflict-based and integration-based CKB. Taking "structural chemistry" course as an experiment to verify, though action research, questionnaire survey and the interview method, it proves that the model plays active roles in improving student’s learning interest, academic performance and high levels abilities, especially social abilities, ability to practice, research and to solve problem in real situations. It is important to take into account whether the teachers have the ability required by the model.

Haixia Zhao

Personalized-Adaptive Learning – A Model for CIT Curricula

We studied the complexity of building a personalized and adaptive learning system for computer and information technology (CIT) curricula. Working with an online personalized competency-based CIT curriculum at Northern Arizona University (Flagstaff, Arizona, USA), our research developed a model for layering adaptive capacities into this curriculum to provide enhanced feedback and remediation for students. Additionally the model we developed provided integration of data collection and analysis that could drive evidence-based educational practices for CIT undergraduate and graduate programs. In this paper, we describe the conceptual model for a personalized-adaptive learning CIT educational environment, along with data collected over three years that support the efficacy of the approach we describe. We call the model

SIGNAL CIT Education

—Serial Integration of Guiding Nodes for Adaptive Learning in CIT Education.

Jayshiro Tashiro, Fred Hurst, Alison Brown, Patrick C. K. Hung, Miguel Vargas Martin

A Critical Analysis of the Studies on Fostering Creativity through Game-Based Learning*

Creativity and game-based learning have long been under heated discussions and studies. In order to clarify whether games-based learning can contribute to fostering creativity, we carried out a literature review of related studies and researches. We concluded that there are generally three approaches adopted to fostering creativity in game-based learning: “Learning in games”, “Learning about games” and “Learning both in and about games”. In discussing the three approaches and their representative studies, we found that game-based learning is generally an important and effective way of fostering and enhancing creativity, though other influence factors need to be considered. In response, we provide suggestions for further studies.

Huan Nie, Haiming M. Xiao, Junjie J. Shang

Exploring Interpersonal Relationship and Growth Need Strength on Knowledge Sharing in Social Media

Popular social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook and Weibo empower users to connect to people. Active SNS users are leaders of their peer groups. The youths are dedicated to share knowledge and information on SNS in their daily lives. We explore the motivation drivers influencing university applicants’ online knowledge sharing behaviour on SNS. Using a survey questionnaire completed by 485 students who enrolled a university degree programme in various majors, the study found that perceived online relationship commitment had a direct, positive and significant effect (


=0.66, p<0.001) and the perceived growth need commitment also had a direct, positive and significant effect (


=0.21, p<0.001) toward online knowledge sharing behaviour, whereas perceived online attachment motivation had a significant but indirect effect on online knowledge sharing behaviour through perceived online relationship commitment. The proposed online knowledge sharing model explained 43% of the observed variance, and its implications are discussed.

Sally M. Li, Will W. K. Ma

The Analysis of Classroom Teaching Behavior Based on Knowledge Building

As a teaching method, knowledge building has an advantage that it provided a straightforward way to realize knowledge creation and innovation in the present age. The practice of knowledge building in classroom not only helped student to achieve progress, but also promoted the teacher’s professional development. Taking the instructional behavior as the object of research, the paper analyzed the process of teaching in classroom with quantitative method, and combining the qualitative analysis of classroom observation, explored the effects of knowledge building on teacher’s professional development. The research results were teacher’s professional development have been improved in the circumstance of knowledge building theory.

Wu Chen, Meilin Long, Qionghua Duan

Evaluation of Learning Website: A Social Network Perspective

With the rapid development of learning websites, website evaluation attracts more and more attention of the educators. In this paper, we study the current ways of evaluating learning websites and their shortages, and identify the features and advantages of social network in evaluating learning websites. The paper analyzes the possible interaction among learners in learning websites, and tries to find out whether the relevant elements of social network can be used as evaluation indexes in evaluating learning websites. Some initial research is conducted on the correlation between the relevant elements of social network and the evaluation elements of traditional website.

Nengshan Feng, Xindong Ye

Chinese Composition Teachers’ Commentary Styles and Patterns in a Tablet-Based Marking Environment

This paper is a preliminary study on the general marking process of Chinese writing teachers in a tablet-based marking platform, which focuses on identifying the predominant commentary styles and patterns of the Chinese writing teachers on a newly developed tablet-based marking platform. Two participating teachers were recruited to take part in an on-site experiment in which they were requested to mark four compositions written by their students on a tablet-based marking platform. It is found that one of the participants was overgeneric in his overall comments and both of them tended to emphasize evaluation over instruction in their marking. We try to account for these findings in terms of their narrow conception of the role of teachers in composition marking merely as “proofreaders”, “evaluators” and “judges”, and propose the need to promote a more comprehensive notion of writing teachers.

K. K. Ying, Kat Leung, Roger Lee, Daisy Chow

An Empirical Research on Teachers’ Self-Efficacy in Distance Learning

Distance education in now a new platform for the continuing education of teachers. This education form, characterized by its autonomy in organization, pertinence in content, flexibility in form, has become one of the most important methods for teachers’ professional development in network age. The efficiency of distance education depends on greatly on teachers’ active participation, so a study of teachers’ self-efficacy is very important. This study, based on relevant theories on self-efficacy, provides a clear definition about teachers’ self-efficacy in distance learning, and focuses on an empirical research on the self-efficacy of the teachers participating distance education with the help of a scientific questionnaire.

Jiangsheng Zhang, Juan Li, Fengshan Liu


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