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The successful engineering of synthetic hydrogels that exhibit key features of the natural extracellular matrices has led to significant advances in the field of tissue engineering. Various chemical and physical approaches have been developed for hydrogel synthesis. While the chemical methods rely on the presence of readily addressable functional groups for the formation of covalent bonds at the crosslinking points, the physical approaches utilize weak and reversible interactions for gelation purposes. In many cases, physical gels need to be covalently stabilized for their long term applications in tissue engineering. Over the past decade, hydrogels have evolved from passive scaffolding materials to bioactive and cell-responsive matrices that play a defining role in the regulation of cellular functions and tissue growth. Novel hydrogels with tunable microstructures, mechanical properties, and degradation rates have been engineered. Biological motifs or soluble factors have been successfully incorporated in the hydrogel matrices to allow for a higher level of cell-matrix communication. These synthesis methods have resulted in the production of a wide variety of functional hydrogels that support the growth of many different tissue types. The development of the next generation biomimetic hydrogels relies on parallel advancements in materials chemistry, cell biology and developmental biology.
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- Hydrogels in Tissue Engineering
Sarah E. Grieshaber
Amit K. Jha
Alexandra J. E. Farran
- Springer Vienna
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