Skip to main content

2024 | OriginalPaper | Buchkapitel

11. Hydrogeochemical Processes Regulating the Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Drinking and Irrigation Purpose in a Changing Climate in Essaouira, Southwestern Morocco

verfasst von : Mohammed Bahir, Otman El Mountassir, Mohamed Behnassi

Erschienen in: The Water, Climate, and Food Nexus

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Aktivieren Sie unsere intelligente Suche, um passende Fachinhalte oder Patente zu finden.

search-config
loading …

Abstract

Groundwater is vital for water supply and environmental protection, especially in semi-arid and desert regions. An integrated assessment, focused on the combined use of Water Quality Index (WQI), Irrigation Water Quality Index (IWQI), geochemical and isotopic (δ18O, δ2H and δ3H) tools, was performed in the Cenomanian–Turonian aquifer during the campaigns 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020. Hydrogeochemical analysis reveals that the groundwater is of mixed Ca–Mg–Cl, Ca–HCO3, Ca–Cl, and Ca–SO4 types, with a dominance of the first type. The analysis of the abundance of the main cations and anions shows the dominance of Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ for cations and the dominance of Cl > HCO32− > SO4 > NO3 for anions. The WQI in the Cenomanian–Turonian aquifer was divided into 32.8% (good areas), 44.3% (poor areas), 21.3% (very poor areas) and 1.6% (areas unsuitable for consumption). The IWQI showed that 43% of the studied samples have a high to severe restriction level, while 57% of the studied samples were placed in the low to moderate restrictions for irrigation use. The piezometry of the study area showed that the water flows generally from northeast to northwest and northeast to southwest. Groundwater mineralization in the Cenomanian–Turonian aquifer system is controlled by dissolution, including dissolution of evaporite minerals and reverse cation exchange. Stable isotope signatures (δ18O, δ2H) indicate that the groundwater samples are of meteoric origin without significant evaporation. The most of spring has tritium < 1TU. This could be explained by a reduction in annual precipitation recorded in the study area. The recharge altitude of the aquifer was estimated between 375 to 1275 m, following an altitudinal gradient of 0.26% per 100 m.

Sie haben noch keine Lizenz? Dann Informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 102.000 Bücher
  • über 537 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 67.000 Bücher
  • über 390 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




 

Jetzt Wissensvorsprung sichern!

Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Abourida A (2007) Approche hydrogeologique de la nappe du Haouz (Maroc) par teledetection, isotopie, SIG et modelisation (PhD thesis). Cadi Ayyad University, 146p Abourida A (2007) Approche hydrogeologique de la nappe du Haouz (Maroc) par teledetection, isotopie, SIG et modelisation (PhD thesis). Cadi Ayyad University, 146p
Zurück zum Zitat Amghar M (1989) Apports des méthodes d’analyses de la tectonique cassante à la connaissance de l’histoire alpine du Haute Atlas Occidental. L’exemple du versant nord du bloc ancien et de l’Atlas d’Agadir (Haut Atlas, Maroc). Thèse 3ème cycle, Université Cadi Ayyad, Maroc Amghar M (1989) Apports des méthodes d’analyses de la tectonique cassante à la connaissance de l’histoire alpine du Haute Atlas Occidental. L’exemple du versant nord du bloc ancien et de l’Atlas d’Agadir (Haut Atlas, Maroc). Thèse 3ème cycle, Université Cadi Ayyad, Maroc
Zurück zum Zitat Ayers RS, Westcot DW (1994) Water quality for agriculture, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper Water: Rome, pp 1–120 Ayers RS, Westcot DW (1994) Water quality for agriculture, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper Water: Rome, pp 1–120
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, Mennani A (2002) Problématique de la gestion des eaux souterraines au Maroc. Estudios Geologicos 8(3–4):103–108 Bahir M, Mennani A (2002) Problématique de la gestion des eaux souterraines au Maroc. Estudios Geologicos 8(3–4):103–108
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, Mennani A, Jalal M, Youbi N (2000a) Ressources hydriques du bassin synclinal d’Essaouira (Maroc). Estud Geol 56:185–195CrossRef Bahir M, Mennani A, Jalal M, Youbi N (2000a) Ressources hydriques du bassin synclinal d’Essaouira (Maroc). Estud Geol 56:185–195CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, El Mountassir O, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021a) Hydrochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in Ouazi Basin (Essaouira, Morocco). In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology & innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59320-9_50 Bahir M, El Mountassir O, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021a) Hydrochemical analysis and evaluation of groundwater quality in Ouazi Basin (Essaouira, Morocco). In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology & innovation (IEREK Interdisciplinary Series for Sustainable Development). Springer, Cham. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-030-59320-9_​50
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, El Mountassir O, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021b) Use of WQI and isotopes to assess groundwater quality of coastal aquifers (Essaouira, Morocco). In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology & innovation. Springer, pp 251–255. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59320-9_51 Bahir M, El Mountassir O, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021b) Use of WQI and isotopes to assess groundwater quality of coastal aquifers (Essaouira, Morocco). In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology & innovation. Springer, pp 251–255. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-030-59320-9_​51
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, Mountassir EL, O, Ouazar D, Chehbouni A, Carreira P.M, (2021c) Stable isotope and quality of groundwater around Ksob sub-basin, Essaouira, Morocco. Sustain Water Resour Manag 7:73CrossRef Bahir M, Mountassir EL, O, Ouazar D, Chehbouni A, Carreira P.M, (2021c) Stable isotope and quality of groundwater around Ksob sub-basin, Essaouira, Morocco. Sustain Water Resour Manag 7:73CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Bahir M, El Mountassir O, Dhiba D, Chehbouni A, Carreira PM, Elbiar H (2022a) Combining stable isotope and WQI methods to study the groundwater quality: a case study in Essaouira city, Morocco. SN Appl Sci 4:317CrossRef Bahir M, El Mountassir O, Dhiba D, Chehbouni A, Carreira PM, Elbiar H (2022a) Combining stable isotope and WQI methods to study the groundwater quality: a case study in Essaouira city, Morocco. SN Appl Sci 4:317CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Berner EK, Berner RA (1987) The global water cycle: geochemistry and environment. Prentice Hall, Englewood Clifs Berner EK, Berner RA (1987) The global water cycle: geochemistry and environment. Prentice Hall, Englewood Clifs
Zurück zum Zitat Brown RM, McClelland NI, Deininger RA, Tozer RG (1970) A water quality index-do we dare. Water Sewage Works 117(10) Brown RM, McClelland NI, Deininger RA, Tozer RG (1970) A water quality index-do we dare. Water Sewage Works 117(10)
Zurück zum Zitat Clark ID, Frjtz P (1997) Environmental isotopes in hydrogeology. Lewis Publishers, New York Clark ID, Frjtz P (1997) Environmental isotopes in hydrogeology. Lewis Publishers, New York
Zurück zum Zitat Craig H (1961) Isotopic variations in meteoric waters. Science. 26;133(3465):1702–3 Craig H (1961) Isotopic variations in meteoric waters. Science. 26;133(3465):1702–3
Zurück zum Zitat Cribb J (2010) The coming famine: the global food crisis and what we can do to avoid it. University of California Press Cribb J (2010) The coming famine: the global food crisis and what we can do to avoid it. University of California Press
Zurück zum Zitat Dixon W, Chiswell B (1992) The use of hydrochemical sections to identify recharge areas and saline intrusions in alluvial aquifers, southeast Queensland, Australia. J Hydrol 130:299–338 Dixon W, Chiswell B (1992) The use of hydrochemical sections to identify recharge areas and saline intrusions in alluvial aquifers, southeast Queensland, Australia. J Hydrol 130:299–338
Zurück zum Zitat Duffaud F (1960) Contribution à l’étude stratigraphique du bassin secondaire du Haut Atlas Occidental (Sud-Ouest du Maroc). Bull Soc Géol Fr 7:728–734CrossRef Duffaud F (1960) Contribution à l’étude stratigraphique du bassin secondaire du Haut Atlas Occidental (Sud-Ouest du Maroc). Bull Soc Géol Fr 7:728–734CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat El Mountassir O (2023) Hydrohémie et vulnérabilité des ressources en eau dans un milieu semi-aride: Approche multidisciplinaire et utilisation des outils SIG (Cas du bassin d'Essaouira, Maroc) “Hydrochemistry and Vulnerability of Water Resources in a Semi-Arid Environment: A Multidisciplinary Approach and the Use of GIS Tools (Case of the Essaouira Basin, Morocco)”. Thèse, N713, Université Cadi Ayyad El Mountassir O (2023) Hydrohémie et vulnérabilité des ressources en eau dans un milieu semi-aride: Approche multidisciplinaire et utilisation des outils SIG (Cas du bassin d'Essaouira, Maroc) “Hydrochemistry and Vulnerability of Water Resources in a Semi-Arid Environment: A Multidisciplinary Approach and the Use of GIS Tools (Case of the Essaouira Basin, Morocco)”. Thèse, N713, Université Cadi Ayyad
Zurück zum Zitat El Mountassir O, Bahir M (2023) The assessment of the groundwater quality in the coastal aquifers of the Essaouira basin, Southwestern Morocco, using hydrogeochemistry and isotopic signatures. Water 5;15(9):1769 El Mountassir O, Bahir M (2023) The assessment of the groundwater quality in the coastal aquifers of the Essaouira basin, Southwestern Morocco, using hydrogeochemistry and isotopic signatures. Water 5;15(9):1769
Zurück zum Zitat El Mountassir O, Bahir M, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021b) Nitrate pollution in groundwater of the Ouazi Basin: case of essaouira (Southwestern Morocco). In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology & innovation (IEREK interdisciplinary series for sustainable development). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59320-9_49 El Mountassir O, Bahir M, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021b) Nitrate pollution in groundwater of the Ouazi Basin: case of essaouira (Southwestern Morocco). In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology & innovation (IEREK interdisciplinary series for sustainable development). Springer, Cham. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-030-59320-9_​49
Zurück zum Zitat El Mountassir O, Bahir M, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021c) For a better understanding of recharge and salinization mechanism of a cenomanian–turonian aquifer. In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology & innovation (IEREK interdisciplinary series for sustainable development). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59320-9_42 El Mountassir O, Bahir M, Ouazar D, Carreira PM (2021c) For a better understanding of recharge and salinization mechanism of a cenomanian–turonian aquifer. In: Abrunhosa M, Chambel A, Peppoloni S, Chaminé HI (eds) Advances in geoethics and groundwater management: theory and practice for a sustainable development. Advances in science, technology & innovation (IEREK interdisciplinary series for sustainable development). Springer, Cham. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​978-3-030-59320-9_​42
Zurück zum Zitat El Mountassir O, Bahir M, Ouazar D, Chehbouni A, Carreira PM (2022a) Temporal and spatial assessment of groundwater contamination with nitrate using nitrate pollution index (NPI), groundwater pollution index (GPI), and GIS (case study: Essaouira basin, Morocco). Environ Sci Pollut Res 17:1–8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-16922-8CrossRef El Mountassir O, Bahir M, Ouazar D, Chehbouni A, Carreira PM (2022a) Temporal and spatial assessment of groundwater contamination with nitrate using nitrate pollution index (NPI), groundwater pollution index (GPI), and GIS (case study: Essaouira basin, Morocco). Environ Sci Pollut Res 17:1–8. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1007/​s11356-021-16922-8CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat El Ouali A (1999) Modalites d’alimentation et echanges entre aquiferes de piemont en conditions climatiques arides. Cas des systemes aquiferes du Haut Atlas/bassin Cretace d’Errachidia (Maroc) (Ph.D. Thesis). Mohammed V, Rabat, p 182 El Ouali A (1999) Modalites d’alimentation et echanges entre aquiferes de piemont en conditions climatiques arides. Cas des systemes aquiferes du Haut Atlas/bassin Cretace d’Errachidia (Maroc) (Ph.D. Thesis). Mohammed V, Rabat, p 182
Zurück zum Zitat Epstein S, Mayeda TK (1953) Variations of the 18O/16O ratio in natural water. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 4:213–220CrossRef Epstein S, Mayeda TK (1953) Variations of the 18O/16O ratio in natural water. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 4:213–220CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat ESRI (1999) ARCVIEW GIS v.10.2.2. Environmental Systems Research, Institute Inc ESRI (1999) ARCVIEW GIS v.10.2.2. Environmental Systems Research, Institute Inc
Zurück zum Zitat Fisher RS, Mullican WF (1997) Hydrochemical evolution of sodium-sulphate and sodium-chloride groundwater beneath the Northern Chihuahuan desert, Trans-Pecos, Texas, USA. Hydrogeol J 5:4–16CrossRef Fisher RS, Mullican WF (1997) Hydrochemical evolution of sodium-sulphate and sodium-chloride groundwater beneath the Northern Chihuahuan desert, Trans-Pecos, Texas, USA. Hydrogeol J 5:4–16CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Friedman I (1953) Deuterium content of natural waters and other substances. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 4(1–2):83–103 Friedman I (1953) Deuterium content of natural waters and other substances. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 4(1–2):83–103
Zurück zum Zitat Hasan MM, Ahmed MS, Adnan R, Shafiquzzaman M (2020) Water quality indices to assess the spatiotemporal variations of Dhaleshwari river in central Bangladesh. Environ Sustain Ind 1(8):100068 Hasan MM, Ahmed MS, Adnan R, Shafiquzzaman M (2020) Water quality indices to assess the spatiotemporal variations of Dhaleshwari river in central Bangladesh. Environ Sustain Ind 1(8):100068
Zurück zum Zitat Hem JD (1985) Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water, vol 2254. Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey Hem JD (1985) Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water, vol 2254. Department of the Interior, US Geological Survey
Zurück zum Zitat Horton RK (1965) An index number system for rating water quality. J Water Pollut Control Fed 37(3):300–305 Horton RK (1965) An index number system for rating water quality. J Water Pollut Control Fed 37(3):300–305
Zurück zum Zitat Jalal M, Blavoux B, Bahir M, Bellion Y, Laftouhi N, Puig JM, Mennani A, Daniel M (2001) Etude du fonctionnement du système aquifère karstique Cenomano-Turonian de l’oued Igrounzar (Bassin d’Essaouira, Maroc). J Afr Earth Sci 32:803–817CrossRef Jalal M, Blavoux B, Bahir M, Bellion Y, Laftouhi N, Puig JM, Mennani A, Daniel M (2001) Etude du fonctionnement du système aquifère karstique Cenomano-Turonian de l’oued Igrounzar (Bassin d’Essaouira, Maroc). J Afr Earth Sci 32:803–817CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Lesch SM, Suarez DL (2009) A short note on calculating the adjusted sar index. Trans. ASABE (Am. Soc. Agric. Biol. Eng.) Lesch SM, Suarez DL (2009) A short note on calculating the adjusted sar index. Trans. ASABE (Am. Soc. Agric. Biol. Eng.)
Zurück zum Zitat Mazor E (1991) Applied chemical and isotopic groundwater hydrology. Open University Press, Buckingham Mazor E (1991) Applied chemical and isotopic groundwater hydrology. Open University Press, Buckingham
Zurück zum Zitat Mennani A (2001) Apport de l’hydrochimie et de l’isotopie à la connaissance du fonctionnement des aquifères de la zone côtière d’Essaouira (Maroc Occidental). PhD thesis, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco Mennani A (2001) Apport de l’hydrochimie et de l’isotopie à la connaissance du fonctionnement des aquifères de la zone côtière d’Essaouira (Maroc Occidental). PhD thesis, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech, Morocco
Zurück zum Zitat Mennani A, Blavoux B, Bahir M, Bellion Y, Jalal M, Daniel M (2001) Apports des analyses chimiques et isotopiques à la connaissance du fonctionnement des aquifères plio-quaternaire et turonien de la zone synclinale d‟Essaouira (Maroc occidental). J Afr Earth Sci 32:819–835CrossRef Mennani A, Blavoux B, Bahir M, Bellion Y, Jalal M, Daniel M (2001) Apports des analyses chimiques et isotopiques à la connaissance du fonctionnement des aquifères plio-quaternaire et turonien de la zone synclinale d‟Essaouira (Maroc occidental). J Afr Earth Sci 32:819–835CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Ministère chargé de l’Aménagement du Territoire, de l’Eau et de l’Environnement (MATEE). Etat de la Qualité des Ressources en Eau au Maroc 2000/2001 (Novembre 2003) Ministère chargé de l’Aménagement du Territoire, de l’Eau et de l’Environnement (MATEE). Etat de la Qualité des Ressources en Eau au Maroc 2000/2001 (Novembre 2003)
Zurück zum Zitat Nikpey E, Karlsen TV, Rakova N, Titze JM, Tenstad O, Wiig H (2017) High-salt diet causes osmotic gradients and hyperosmolality in skin without afecting interstitial luid and lymph. Hypertension 69:660–668CrossRef Nikpey E, Karlsen TV, Rakova N, Titze JM, Tenstad O, Wiig H (2017) High-salt diet causes osmotic gradients and hyperosmolality in skin without afecting interstitial luid and lymph. Hypertension 69:660–668CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Payne (1983) Groundwater salinization. In: Guidebook on nuclear techniques in hydrology. Technical report series no 91. IAEA, Vienna, pp 351–357 Payne (1983) Groundwater salinization. In: Guidebook on nuclear techniques in hydrology. Technical report series no 91. IAEA, Vienna, pp 351–357
Zurück zum Zitat Rodier J, Legube B, Merlet N, Mialocq JC, Leroy P, Houssin M, Lavison G, Bechemin C, Vincent M, Rebouillon P, Moulin L, Chomodé P, Dujardin P, Gosselin S, Seux R, Al Mardini F (2009) L’Analyse de l’eau. 9e édition, Dunod, Paris Rodier J, Legube B, Merlet N, Mialocq JC, Leroy P, Houssin M, Lavison G, Bechemin C, Vincent M, Rebouillon P, Moulin L, Chomodé P, Dujardin P, Gosselin S, Seux R, Al Mardini F (2009) L’Analyse de l’eau. 9e édition, Dunod, Paris
Zurück zum Zitat Singh SP, Tripathi SK, Kumar V, Kumar A, Raha P (2015) Hydro- chemical investigation and groundwater quality evaluation for irrigation purpose in some blocks of Varanasi District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Int J Trop Agric 33:1653–1660 Singh SP, Tripathi SK, Kumar V, Kumar A, Raha P (2015) Hydro- chemical investigation and groundwater quality evaluation for irrigation purpose in some blocks of Varanasi District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Int J Trop Agric 33:1653–1660
Zurück zum Zitat Subba Rao N, Srihari C, Deepthi Spandana B, Sravanthi M, Kamalesh T, Abraham Jayadeep V (2019) Comprehensive understanding of groundwater quality and hydrogeochemistry for the sustainable development of suburban area of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 636:52–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2019.1571403CrossRef Subba Rao N, Srihari C, Deepthi Spandana B, Sravanthi M, Kamalesh T, Abraham Jayadeep V (2019) Comprehensive understanding of groundwater quality and hydrogeochemistry for the sustainable development of suburban area of Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. Hum Ecol Risk Assess 636:52–80. https://​doi.​org/​10.​1080/​10807039.​2019.​1571403CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Wang Y, Jiao JJ (2012) Origin of groundwater salinity and hydrogeochemical processes in the confined quaternary aquifer of the Pearl River Delta, China. J Hydrol 438–439:112–124CrossRef Wang Y, Jiao JJ (2012) Origin of groundwater salinity and hydrogeochemical processes in the confined quaternary aquifer of the Pearl River Delta, China. J Hydrol 438–439:112–124CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat WHO (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO Chronicle 38:104–108 WHO (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality. WHO Chronicle 38:104–108
Zurück zum Zitat Xiao J, Wang L, Deng L, Jin Z (2019) Characteristics, sources, water quality and health risk assessment of trace elements in river water and well water in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Sci Total Environ 650:2004–2012 Xiao J, Wang L, Deng L, Jin Z (2019) Characteristics, sources, water quality and health risk assessment of trace elements in river water and well water in the Chinese Loess Plateau. Sci Total Environ 650:2004–2012
Metadaten
Titel
Hydrogeochemical Processes Regulating the Groundwater Quality and Its Suitability for Drinking and Irrigation Purpose in a Changing Climate in Essaouira, Southwestern Morocco
verfasst von
Mohammed Bahir
Otman El Mountassir
Mohamed Behnassi
Copyright-Jahr
2024
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-50962-9_11