The hyper geometric distribution applies when a population of size N has D marked items, and a sample of n items taken without replacement yields x marked items. This differs from the binomial distribution where the population size is infinite and the samples are taken with replacement. The hyper geometric applies often in quality applications when a lot of N items with D defectives (quantity unknown) and a sample of n without replacement is taken. The sample result of x defectives allow the management to gauge the quality of the lot.
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