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Über dieses Buch

It is a pleasure and an honor to write a foreword for Jennifer Lennon's book Hypermedia Systems and Applications: World Wide Web and Beyond. I am fortunate to have been able to follow the development of this book from an excellent Ph.D. thesis to what I would consider one of the best and most comprehensive books in the area. It has a good chance to become a must for teachers, researchers, and practitioners. For the sake ofthis foreword let us combine the phenomena hypermedia, the Internet, and the WWW by just calling them the Web. Well, this Web surely has become one of the "super hot topics", from both a scholarly and a commercial point ofview! We have a saying that the Web is like a dog: one year's development of the Web corresponds to seven human years. You will be familiar with Murphy's law: "Anything that can go wrong will go wrong", and with a plethora of derivatives or specializations thereof like: "If you are in an otherwise empty locker room, the only other person there is bound to have a locker just on top ofyours"; or: "If traffic is moving slowly, you are always going to be in the slowest moving lane", and so on. Well, I have coined a version that applies to the Web: "Whenever you have understood an important new development concerning the Web you can be sure that it is obsolete".

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction to Hypermedia Systems and their Applications

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
The various applications discussed in this book are exciting achievements that have become possible only because of recent advances in technology. Film, television, video, and computer technologies are converging rapidly. We see competing thrusts from interactive TV, VideoTex, both orthodox and unorthodox [Maurer and Sebestyen, 1982], video-on-demand, and CD-ROM technology, driven by an increased demand for more user interaction. As we shall find again and again throughout this book, the Internet and the World Wide Web are driving the convergence even closer.
Jennifer A. Lennon

2. Visionaries, Pioneers, and Benchmark Applications

Abstract
The history of hypermedia development resists reduction to a simple sequence of statements. Developments occurred in complex interrelations, and in many cases ideas cross-fertilised. Brilliant concepts too dependent on hardware that didn't materialise were abandoned — only to be rediscovered by other researchers. It is far from clear even where to start a history. Some of us may prefer to trace developments back from the present to the past. Others may wish to track all the side branches of failed development, seeking all the interesting whys and wherefores. Obviously this book should be hypertext! Even if, as I have chosen, we keep to a more or less traditional view of “developments”, it is still not easy to tell what name should be pulled out of the hat and placed on a timeline first — Bush, Engelbart, or Nelson, for example. However, several good surveys of hypermedia systems place Vannevar Bush first on the list [Nyce and Kahn, 1991, Conklin, 1987, Nielsen, 1990, Tomek et al., 1991].
Jennifer A. Lennon

3. The Internet:A First Glance

Abstract
As the timeline in the last chapter illustrates, fast-moving events were also taking place in the development of the Internet. But before we can discuss these advances we need to determine just what we mean by the “Internet” — or the “Net”, as many people call it. Is it:
  • A great way of sending personal messages via electronic mail?
  • A means of logging into remote machines?
  • A collaborative tool supporting a wide range of multimedia?
  • Or, as for increasing millions of users worldwide, is it something to be mined (or “surfed”) for a wealth of information, commercial opportunities, relaxation, and addictive fun?
Jennifer A. Lennon

4. Hypermedia Systems: Meeting the Challenges of the Web

Abstract
The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web for short) is an Internet-wide distributed hypermedia information retrieval system [Liu et al., 1994] which provides access to a large universe of documents. The Web is certainly the most widely talked about networked information system existing today, and is definitely the largest hypermedia system in existence. Based on a typical client/server model, several widely used browsers are available (see Section 4.2.1).
Jennifer A. Lennon

5. Hypermedia Systems: Their Application to Life, Work, and Learning

Abstract
In Chapter 4 we discussed how the merging of multimedia and networking technologies has led to the spread of global hypermedia systems. In this chapter we discuss how the convergence of computer-based digital technology, analog technology (such as film, video, etc.), and networking could revolutionise our:
  • — Everyday lives (see Section 5.4)
  • — Work (see Section 5.5)
  • — Lifelong learning (see Section 5.6)
Jennifer A. Lennon

Web Technologies

Frontmatter

6. The World Wide Web

Abstract
This chapter could have been subtitled “Grappling with Medusa” — except that would give a wrong impression. We enjoy the Web. It can be enormous fun. Nevertheless, the analogy is apt since it is huge, multi-faceted, and writhing.
Jennifer A. Lennon

7. Hyperwave — An Advanced Hypermedia Document Management System

Abstract
Hyperwave is a distributed hypermedia system developed at the Institute for Computer Science and Computer Supported New Media (IICM) at the Graz University of Technology in Graz, Austria. The principal architects are Prof. Hermann Maurer and Frank Kappe.
Jennifer A. Lennon

8. Hypermedia: Standards and Models

Abstract
Many of the important advances in hypermedia that we are discussing in this book are due to progress in data compression techniques (see Section 8.4) and in standardising network protocols (see Section 8.2.1).
Jennifer A. Lennon

Advanced Applications and Developments

Frontmatter

9. Electronic Presentation, Publishing, and Digital Libraries

Abstract
Any complexity to be understood, let alone conveyed, must be structured. It may be that the human brain needs it actually modelled as a structure, visual or conceptual. Moreover, anything new, particularly anything abstract, can be most comfortably met by meeting it in terms of something familiar. Computing, accepting all this, has had fun with metaphors. The concept of “navigating” is itself a metaphor. For multimedia presentations “travel” is only one of several available metaphors discussed in Section 9.2.
Jennifer A. Lennon

10. Integrated Learning Environments

Abstract
Integrated learning environments, based on Web-based digital libraries, will allow remote access to resources from home, work, and learning centres, thus breaking down physical barriers [Marchionini and Maurer, 1995b].
Jennifer A. Lennon

11. From Traditional Lectures to CAI

Abstract
In this chapter lecturing technologies past and present are considered and then several conjectures are made about future developments based on recent advances in hypermedia systems. The advantages and disadvantages of present day techniques are discussed, so that the ideas developed are soundly based on past experience. A single system is posited integrating technologies as diverse as multimedia presentations, computer-assisted learning, computer conferencing, distance teaching, and decision rooms.
Jennifer A. Lennon

12. Hypermedia and Distributed Learning Environments

Abstract
The statement “Millions of students take courses electronically” [Rossman, 1992] is no exaggeration. Even back in 1990, the National Technical University (NTU) in the US, for example, had more than 1,100 graduate students in their electronic learning programme, and most of those who completed the Masters programme said that they would not have been able to do so in any other way [Rossman, 1992].
Jennifer A. Lennon

13. Interactive and Annotated Movies

Abstract
Free will is such a basic tenet of everyday belief that we assign it to the depths of our subconsciousness. Freedom of choice is assumed to be a basic human right. People expect choice — maximum choice, comprehensive choice. Computer technologists are compulsively answering the demand; and each answer raises further expectations. We have interactive TV, choice of TV programs from a multi-windowed screen display, and personal computers that can double as TVs and video recorders. Meanwhile on our computer screens more and more windows are appearing, with an increasing number of dialog boxes. Computer-controlled movies are developing such a range of options that, even at this stage, we must remember that more is not always best. Confusion, haste, inertia, and mental repetitive strain injury are only some of the human factors that will necessitate real research to optimise choice.
Jennifer A. Lennon

14. Hypermedia and the Notion of a Personal Assistant

Abstract
Evolution in human-computer interface design has brought us a long way from the days when computers were all but dictators, when users obeyed enigmatic rules or risked ignominious crashes! Years of research and many trials involving users (willingly and unwillingly) have steadily improved computer interfaces to the point where today's operators are much more in control. However, we believe that the next few years will see another quiet revolution as the computer becomes more of a versatile supportive ally — a true Personal Assistant (PA for short).
Jennifer A. Lennon

15. Hypermedia and a New Symbolism for Improved Communication

Abstract
This chapter introduces MUSLI2 — a MUlti Sensory Language Interface.
Our current MUSLI work has two main thrusts: facilitating the use of abstract moving symbols (abstract movies), and exploring new ways of using old media to create a true multi-sensory environment. New ways of incorporating old media into a MUSLI environment is the subject of the next chapter.
Jennifer A. Lennon

16. Hypermedia and a New Multi-Sensory Environment

Abstract
In the previous sections we described the current version of the MUSLI editor/player prototype and we made a first attempt at describing a dynamic abstract visual language. However, we hope MUSLI will develop into not just a language but a whole multi-sensory environment. This hope is reflected in the name change from MUSIL (MUlti Sensory Information Language) to MUSLI (MUlti Sensory Language Interface)For example, as explained in Section 16.11, interactive, annotated and simultaneous movies should all be part of the environment. In Section 16.6.2 we also consider possible ways of “speed-reading” the wave forms of digitised speech
Jennifer A. Lennon

Backmatter

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