Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
Women are less likely to choose physical Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (pSTEM) majors, partly because a lack of role models makes it hard for women to imagine themselves as successful in those fields. Possible self-interventions can help people imagine themselves having a successful future. Using social cognitive theory and expectancy-value framework, the current study explored virtual reality (VR; HTC Vive) as a space for a possible self-intervention to decrease stereotype threat and increase pSTEM motivation. Participants were 79 undergraduate women in California (46% Asian, 32% Latina, 14% white) who were randomly assigned to embody a future self either highly successful in pSTEM or highly successful in humanities. Following the virtual experience, women in the pSTEM condition differed significantly from women in the humanities condition regarding pSTEM value beliefs, anticipated stereotype threat, course motivation, and women-pSTEM implicit associations, after controlling for prior pSTEM-self implicit associations. However, this difference only occurred among women who identified with the experience. While women with high identification demonstrated an effect in the desired direction, women with low identification demonstrated reactance in the opposite direction. This speaks to the usefulness of identification as a moderator and implies that virtual reality might be a useful tool for future self-interventions among students.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Ahn, S. J. (2015). Incorporating immersive virtual environments in health promotion campaigns: A construal level theory approach. Health Communication, 30(6), 545–556. CrossRef
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media Psychology, 3(3), 265–299. https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532785XMEP0303_03. CrossRef
Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychological Review, 106(4), 676–713. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.106.4.676. CrossRef
Cromley, J. G., Perez, T., Wills, T. W., Tanaka, J. C., Horvat, E. M., & Agbenyega, E. T. (2013). Changes in race and sex stereotype threat among diverse STEM students: Relation to grades and retention in the majors. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38(3), 247–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cedpsych.2013.04.003. CrossRef
Cvencek, D., Meltzoff, A. N., & Greenwald, A. G. (2011). Math–gender stereotypes in elementary school children. Child Development, 82(3), 766–779. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2010.01529.x. CrossRef
Cvencek, D., Kapur, M., & Meltzoff, A. N. (2015). Math achievement, stereotypes, and math self-concepts among elementary-school students in Singapore. Learning and Instruction, 39, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2015.04.002. CrossRef
Diekman, A. B., Brown, E. R., Johnston, A. M., & Clark, E. K. (2010). Seeking congruity between goals and roles: A new look at why women opt out of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers. Psychological Science, 21(8), 1051–1057. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797610377342. CrossRef
Doyle, R. A., & Voyer, D. (2016). Stereotype manipulation effects on math and spatial test performance: A meta-analysis. Learning and Individual Differences, 47, 103–116. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.12.018. CrossRef
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53(1), 109–132. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135153. CrossRef
Else-Quest, N. M., Hyde, J. S., & Linn, M. C. (2010). Cross-national patterns of gender differences in mathematics: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 136(1), 103–127. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018053.
Gilliam, M., Jagoda, P., Fabiyi, C., Lyman, P., Wilson, C., Hill, B., & Bouris, A. (2017). Alternate reality games as an informal learning tool for generating STEM engagement among underrepresented youth: A qualitative evaluation of the source. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 26(3), 295–308. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10956-016-9679-4. CrossRef
Green, C. S., Strobach, T., & Schubert, T. (2014). On methodological standards in training and transfer experiments. Psychological Research, 78(6), 756–772. CrossRef
Greenwald, A. G., Nosek, B. A., & Banaji, M. R. (2003). Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. an improved scoring algorithm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(2), 197–216. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52. CrossRef
HTC Corporation. (2017). VIVE: Virtual reality beyond imagination. Retrieved on April 17, 2019, from https://www.vive.com/us/.
Leaper, C. (2015a). Do I belong?: Gender, peer groups, and STEM. International Journal of Gender, Science, and Technology, 7, 166–179.
Leaper, C. (2015b). Gender and social-cognitive development. In R. M. Lerner (series Ed.), L. S. Liben & U. Muller (Vol. Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science (7th ed.), Vol. 2: Cognitive processes (pp. 806–853). New York: Wiley.
Loveday, P. M., Lovell, G. P., & Jones, C. M. (2018). The best possible selves intervention: A review of the literature to evaluate efficacy and guide future research. Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(2), 607–628. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-016-9824-z.
Meevissen, Y. M., Peters, M. L., & Alberts, H. J. (2011). Become more optimistic by imagining a best possible self: Effects of a two week intervention. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42(3), 371–378. CrossRef
Miller, L. M., Chang, C., Wang, S., Beier, M. E., & Klisch, Y. (2011). Learning and motivational impacts of a multimedia science game. Computers & Education, 57(1), 1425–1433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.01.016. CrossRef
National Science Foundation. (2015). Solving the equation: The variables for women’s success in engineering and computing. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. Retrieved on June 15, 2018, from www.nsf.gov/statistics/wmpd/.
Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Sriram, N., Lindner, N. M., Devos, T., Ayala, A., et al. (2009). National differences in gender–science stereotypes predict national sex differences in science and math achievement. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(26), 10593–10597. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0809921106. CrossRef
Oyserman, D., Bybee, D., & Terry, K. (2006). Possible selves and academic outcomes: How and when possible selves impel action. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(1), 188–204. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.206. CrossRef
Peters, M. L., Flink, I. K., Boersma, K., & Linton, S. J. (2010). Manipulating optimism: Can imagining a best possible self be used to increase positive future expectancies? The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(3), 204–211. CrossRef
Scherr, S., & Müller, P. (2017). How perceived persuasive intent and reactance contribute to third-person perceptions: Evidence from two experiments. Mass Communication & Society, 20(3), 315–335. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2016.1250911. CrossRef
Schoon, I., & Eccles, J. S. (2014). Gender differences in aspirations and attainment: A life course perspective. In Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: U. K.
Singla, A., Fremerey, S., Robitza, W., & Raake, A. (2017). Measuring and comparing QoE and simulator sickness of omnidirectional videos in different head mounted displays. IEEE: Ninth International Conference on Quality of Multimedia Experience, 1–6.
Steele, C. M. (2010). Whistling Vivaldi: How stereotypes affect us and what we can do. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co.
Steele, J. R., & Ambady, N. (2006). “Math is hard!” the effect of gender priming on women’s attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42(4), 428–436. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2005.06.003.
Unity Technologies. (2017). Unity—Game Engine. Retrieved on June 12, 2018, from https://unity3d.com.
Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2013). Five challenges for the future of media-effects research. Communication Research Paradigms, 7, 197–215.
Wang, L., Bastiaansen, M., & Yang, Y. (2015). The influence of emotional salience on the integration of person names into context. Brain Research, 1609, 82–92. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2015.03.028. CrossRef
- “I’m a Computer Scientist!”: Virtual Reality Experience Influences Stereotype Threat and STEM Motivation Among Undergraduate Women
Christine R. Starr
Barrett R. Anderson
Katherine A. Green
- Springer Netherlands
in-adhesives, MKVS, Zühlke/© Zühlke