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Über dieses Buch

The 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Innovation emphasizes on natural resources technology and management to support the sustainability of mankind. The main theme of ICoSI 2014 “Technology and innovation challenges in natural resources and built environment management for humanity and sustainability ” reflects the needs of immediate action from scientists with different fields and different geographical background to face the global issue on world’s change.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Agriculture

Frontmatter

Application of Organic Fertilizer and Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) to Increase Rice Yield and Quality

Generally, the application of high doses of chemical fertilizer continuously causes leveling production and decreasing rice quality. The objective of this research was to examine the effect of organic fertilizer and PGPR on rice yield and quality. The experiment was conducted at Bener Village, Ngrampal subdistrict, Sragen district, Indonesia. The experiment was arranged into randomized completely block design with three replicates. The main plot was application dose of organic fertilizer consisting of two treatments, i.e., 1 and 2 tons/ha. The subplot was spraying frequency of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), consisting of four treatments, i.e., without PGPR and spraying PGPR three times, four times, and five times. The data were subjected to analysis of variance followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. Plants treated with organic fertilizer of 1 ton/ha and sprayed with PGPR four times resulted in the highest production and rice quality.

Oktavia S. Padmini, Sri Wuryani, Ruly Aryani

Clustering of High-Yielding and Early-Maturing Soybean Genotypes

Global warming has potentially increased the intensity of drought and pest population. Soybean with early maturing (<80 days) tends to be more tolerant to those stresses through escape mechanism. The objective of this research was to map and classify the seed yield and days of maturity of soybean lines, as well as selecting soybean lines for both high yield and early maturing. The experiment was conducted at Genteng Research Station in Banyuwangi, East Java. A total of 666 F5 soybean lines and ten of check cultivars (Argomulyo, Kaba, Panderman, Anjasmoro, G 511 H, Grobogan, G100H, Rajabasa, Malabar, and Burangrang) were identified and grouped based on their yield and days of maturity. The performance of 666 lines and ten soybean cultivars showed optimum agronomic growth. Flowering date of 666 lines ranged from 25 to 34 days (average of 28 days), days of maturity varied from 70 to 79 days (average of 75 days), weight of 100 seeds ranged from 10.44 to 26.26 g/100 seeds (average of 16.22 g/100 seeds), and the seed yield was 0.16–4.06 t/ha (average of 1.47 t/ha). Seed yield from ten check cultivars ranged between 1.29 and 3.79 t/ha (average 1.99 t/ha), and days of maturity has a diverse range from 73 to 78 days (average of 76 days). The result indicated an opportunity to obtain both high-yielding and early-maturing soybean lines. Most of the lines (39.79% or 265 lines) had days of maturity between 75 and 76 days and as many as 261 lines (39.18%) categorized as super-early maturing (<75 days). Based on cluster analysis, ten lines with seed yield between 3.2 and 4.06 t/ha were chosen. Two check cultivars, Anjasmoro and Malabar produced yield of 3.79 and 2.48 t/ha, respectively. Line of Arg//Ljtg/Sbg-12 had the highest yields of 4.06 t/ha with days of maturity 78 days, followed by G511/Mlgg 1029 (84)//M 1029 (84)///1029 (3.75 t/ha). There was a positive correlation between soybean seed yield and days of maturity. For Indonesia’s tropical regions, it was suggested the maturing day of soybean to produce high yield is 74 days.

M. Muchlish Adie, Ayda Krisnawati

Cyperus Rotundus L. Extracts as Botanical Fungicides to Control Soybean Rust Disease

Soybean rust disease caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi Syd. is one of the most important diseases on soybean. Severe infection on soybean crops causes early defoliation. The yield loss caused by this disease has been reported up to 80% on susceptible cultivars. Applications of chemical fungicides that reduce the infection rate, however, are not considered environmental friendly. The use of botanical fungicides is one of the alternative controls to reduce the rust disease. This study aimed to obtain effective concentrations of methanolic and n-hexane extracts of roots, leaves, and flowers of Cyperus rotundus as well as to investigate secondary metabolites in each extract. To evaluate the effectiveness of each extract, a spore germination test was conducted in vitro. Methanolic extracts of the roots, leaves, and flowers inhibited more germinated spores compared to the applications of n-hexane extracts at the same concentrations. Applications of 2.5 and 5% of methanolic extracts of the roots resulted 75 and 78% of ungerminated spores. The numbers of lysed spores as a result of these two concentration treatments were 5 and 6%, respectively. A similar inhibition was observed when 5% of polar extract of the flowers was applied, and the numbers of ungerminated and lysed spores were 71 and 10%. Phytochemical screenings showed that the polar extracts contained more diverse in secondary metabolites compared to those in the non-polar extracts. The methanolic extract of the roots which was the most effective to inhibit the spore germination contained alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and terpenoids. A further test to confirm the presence and to separate these compounds with thin-layer chromatography showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and terpenoids were separated into 2, 4, 3, and 2 spots, respectively. These compounds in the methanolic extract of the roots may be responsible to suppress the spore germination of P. pachyrhizi when these extracts at concentrations of 2.5 and 5% were applied.

Eriyanto Yusnawan, Alfi Inayati

Development of Breakfast Meals from Local Taro Using Extrusion for Food Security

Extrusion technology is growing fast and been demanded by food processor. The selection of material for formulation (composite) is important to produce high quality and performance product. Taro, mung bean and banana are good combination to make breakfast meals. To produce breakfast meals which are expanded, light, porous and crunchy, it is required that starch has special characteristics, i.e., cassava flour. Improvement of the formulation can be done by adding protein, developer material and emulsifier. The aim of the research was to develop formula based on taro flour with the addition of egg flour, baking soda, GMS and arabic gum so it can produce best taro crunch. Formulation was done in sequence. First was addition of cassava flour to obtain the best expansion. Second was improvement of the dough of first formulation by addition of egg flour, baking soda, arabic gom and GMS. The results showed that the best formula is taro crunch with the percentage of taro composite flour 43.75%, egg flour 5%, GMS 1.5%, vegetable oil 5%, salt 1%. The produced taro crunch has characteristics of protein 1.62%, moisture content 5.5%, fat 5.29%, crude fiber 4.07%, carbohydrate 81.36%, energy 379.57 Kal/100 g with the expansion degree of 0.54%.

Ermi Sukasih, Setyadjit

Factors Determining the Practice of Sustainable Cassava Farming System in Tanjungsiang—West Java

For almost 6 decades, farmers in Tanjungsiang of West Java Province cultivate cassava (Manihot esculenta) as main crop without any sign of decrease in area nor productivity. Locally known as sampeu manggu or manggu cassava, the plant variety is Adira-2. With the average land productivity of 20–30 tonnes per hectare, the steady output is considered special due to the crop’s character that tends to cause soil nutrition losses. Investigation on factors determining the implementation of sustainable cassava farming strategy was conducted, utilizing socio-ecological approach to perform a case study. Data and information are obtained through group discussion and participatory observation and analyzed descriptively, and the data indicate that farmers’ preference to plant cassava as their main crop all year round is manifestation of their determination to pursue long-term land productivity. Market demand is accommodated accordingly without extreme conduct of boosting land productivity. Despite the relatively low economic value, market certainty provides assurance to the farmers to keep cultivating cassava and maintain productivity. Moreover, its special quality of the crop serves as important symbol to the community’s pride which leads to a collective decision to apply ecological friendly land management system leading to sustainability.

Carolina Carolina

In Vitro Sterilization and Shoot Induction of Fig (Ficus carica L.) Using MS Containing GA3 Medium Supplemented with BAP and NAA

The purpose of this research was to obtain the proper sterilization method for fig (Ficus carica L.) shoot and determine the best combination of BAP and NAA for in vitro shoot induction of fig. The sterilization research was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD), a single factor with five treatments. The treatments tested were dipping in NaClO (0.1, 5% for 7 min), fungicide and bactericide 4 g/L (5 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h). Each treatment was repeated three times. Parameters measured were the percentage of browning explants, the percentage of contaminated explants and the percentage of survive explants. Shoots induction research was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD), a single factor with seven treatments. The treatments tested were the addition of BAP (0, 2, 4, 6 mg/L) and NAA (0, 0.5, 1 mg/L) to the MS medium containing GA3. Each treatment was repeated six times. Parameters measured were the percentage of contaminated explants, the percentage of survive explants, percentage of shoot formation, percentage of browning explants, number of shoots, shoot height, number of leaves and percentage of rooted explants. The best method for fig shoot sterilization was dipping explants in NaClO10%, 5′ + NaClO 5%, 7′ + fungicide and bactericide 4 g/L for 3 h with the percentage of survival explants 100% during 30 days of observation. The addition of 2 mg/L BAP and 0.5 mg/L NAA into MS containing GA3 medium was favorable to produce among the highest percentage of fig shoot formation (33.33%) and the browning explants (0.00%).

Innaka Ageng Rineksane, Rahman Budiawan, Gunawan Budiyanto

Induction of Callus Cultures from the Leaves of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels in Woody Plant Medium with Variations of Growth Hormones

Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels, known as jamblang, belongs to the family of guava (Myrtaceae). The plant can be found in India, Southeast Asia and Eastern Africa. This plant has a potential use for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although still visible, especially in rural areas, it is becoming very rare in big cities. Nowadays, not many people use the fruit of this plant because of its scarcity. To overcome the problem, in this research, jamblang plant was propagated in vitro using the leaves as explants to produce callus cultures instead of the regeneration of whole plants. The sterilization was conducted by immersing them in the Mushi Guard solution (5 mL/L), followed by the immersion in the solution of NaOCl. The callus cultures were here induced using WPM (Woody Plant Medium) with different concentrations of growth hormones, i.e., naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzylaminopurine (BAP), in order to determine their optimum concentrations for the induction. The results showed the optimum media of calluses induction was WPM with NAA 5 ppm without any addition of BAP with an induction time of 30 days and percentage of callus cultures induction up to 90%. The optimum media for calluses growth was also WPM with the addition of NAA 5 ppm. Their average growth index was 2.212 after the 30 days of subculturing.

Tjie Kok, Xavier Daniel, Stevanus Soegiono

Nutritional and Physical Characteristic of Sweet Potato and Taro Flour Modified by Amylolytic Enzyme

Nutrition improvement and security could be implemented by utilizing local commodities, such as sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L) and taro (Colocasia esculenta (L) Schoot). An effort on food security using both commodities is by producing them to become modified flour that is fermented using amylolytic enzyme. Due to similar characteristic to wheat flour, the modified sweet potato and taro flour could substitute the role of wheat flour, could be beneficial for people with autism. The objective of this research is to know the nutritional and physical characteristic of modified sweet potato and taro flour using amylolytic enzyme fermentation. The type of this study was experimental designed in group random. There were six treatments of each commodity (sweet potato and taro) with three duplications. In nutritional aspect, the administration of amylolytic enzyme with different concentration resulted in significant difference (P < 0.05) on starch content of the modified sweet potato flour as well as on protein content of the modified sweet potato and taro flour and very significant difference (P < 0.01) for the modified taro flour. In contrast, the addition of amylolytic enzyme with different concentration resulted in insignificant difference (P > 0.05) on fiber content of modified taro flour. Meanwhile, in physical aspect the addition of amylolytic enzyme with different concentration resulted in significant difference (P < 0.05) on luminosity score (whiteness degree) of the modified sweet potato and taro flour. Both modified flour could have characteristics of wheat flour.

Badrut Tamam

Optimation of Breakfast Meals from Local Taro Using Response Surface Methodology

The simplest method in producing plain breakfast meals from taro by preparing a dough, making the dough flat, making a flake, then drying the flake in a cabinet dryer. In this experiment optimation of cooking factors such as baking temperature (°C), time (mins), and thickness of flakes (mm), have been done by using an RSM approach with 20 experimental units in central composite design. The products then were analysed on they hardness (g), total work (MJ) and fracturability (g). The selected formula was validated. The best processing conditions recommended by RSM was 120.8 °C baking temperature, 12.02 min baking time and 0.50 mm product thickness. The product has the hardness of ca. 139.0 g, total work ca. 0.37 (MJ) and fracturability ca. 139.0(g). Predicted and actual product is considered as the same since they are fall in range of 95% confidence. Thus, the above recommended condition of the treatment is validated as the best treatments in producing plain breakfast meals.

Setyadjit, Ermi Sukasih

Selection of Soybean Lines (Glycine max) Tolerant to Drought

Soybean cropping pattern in Indonesia, which follows the pattern of rice-rice-soybean, causing soybean cultivation often encounter the problem of water deficiency due to soybean growing season which falls in the dry season. Soybean varieties tolerant to drought can prevent yield loss due to water deficit. The aim of this research was to identify soybean lines tolerant to drought. A total of 85 soybean lines from F5 generation population were tested in Muneng Experiment Station, Probolinggo district, East Java province from July to September 2013. Six soybean genotypes namely: Dering 1, Tidar, Grobogan, ARG/GCP-335, Tanggamus and SU-17-1014 were used as check. All genetic material planted into five different blocks in the field and arranged as augmented design. Each block contains of 17 different lines and 6 soybean genotypes were planted randomly. Fertilization was given at planting and conducted according to the dosage recommendation, i.e. 100 kg ha−1 of Urea, 75 kg ha−1 of SP36, and 75 kg ha−1 of KCl. Irrigation was only given twice, first at planting time and the latter at the time of flowering with the purpose of conditioning the plant exposed to drought stress during the reproductive phase. The results showed that there were soybean lines with better performance than those of check. Line number 76, 81, and 84 (Tanggamus/Shr-3B-342-207, Tanggamus/Shr-3B-343-208, and Tanggamus/Shr-3B-351-64, respectively) had the number of fertile nodes and the number of pods higher when compared with Dering 1. All soybean lines were classified as ultra early maturing soybean (ranging from 60 to 69 days after planting) and early maturing soybean (ranging from 70 to 73 days after planting). A total of 78 lines (92%) more early maturing when compared with Dering 1, but only 20% (17 lines) more early maturing than those of Tidar. In general, almost all of lines had seed size larger compared to Tidar, but there were only 14 soybean lines with seed size greater than those of Dering 1. However, none of soybean lines are capable of producing seeds exceeds Dering 1 and Tidar.

Apri Sulistyo, Suhartina, Novita Nugrahaeni, Purwantoro

Synergism Between Sago Starch and Chitosan in Enhancing Biodegradable Film Properties

The research studied properties of biodegradable film from the mixture of sago starch and chitosan. The biodegradable film was obtained by solution casting method with addition of glycerol 1.5% as plasticizer. Mechanical properties of biodegradable film from sago starch and chitosan were determined including tensile strength, elongation, color and biodegradability. To study shape surface morphology of biodegradable film, the microfracture of biodegradable film was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Biodegradable film with the composition of sago starch and chitosan 1:1 significantly had the lowest number of tensile strength. The study revealed that addition of chitosan improved biopolymer elongation and brightness, but it weakened tensile strength of biopolymer and reduced its biodegradability.

Indira Prabasari, Nafi Ananda Utama, Chandra Kurnia Setiawan

Variability of Soybean Genotypes Based on High Yield and Seed Size Supporting Industrial Raw Material

The main utilization of soybean with large seed size (>14 g/100 seeds) in Indonesia is for tempeh raw material. The aim of this research was to identify soybean genotypes based on high yield and seed size. Experiment was conducted at Jambegede Research Station (Malang), from February to May 2013 using 429 soybean genotypes. ‘Rajabasa,’ ‘Grobogan,’ and ‘Mutiara’ were used as check varieties. Each soybean line was planted on 4.5 m row, 40 cm × 15 cm plant distance, 2 plants/hill. Plant was fertilized with 50 kg urea, SP36 100 kg, and KCl 75 kg/ha. The seed size and seed yield varied among 429 genotypes. A total of 167 genotypes (38.93%) have large seed size (14–16 g/100 seeds). Most of genotypes have yield at range 2.5–3.0 t/ha, counted for 212 genotypes (49.42%), and only three genotypes have seed yield above 2.94 t/ha. Range of seed yield was 0.17–3.11 t/ha (average 2.09 t/ha), and 100 seeds weight ranged from 8.20 to 21.34 g (average 14.31 g). The average seed yield and seed size of check variety of ‘Rajabasa’ was 2.32 t/ha and 11.56 g/100 seeds, respectively. Check variety of Grobogan had average seed yield and seed size of 2.30 t/ha and 21.34 g/100 seeds, respectively, while the seed yield of ‘Mutiara’ was 1.67 t/ha with seed size up to 17.80 g/100 seeds. Simultaneously, two genotypes were successfully selected (Grobogan × Wilis-52 and Grobogan × Wilis-17) with yield above 2.94 t/ha and seed size above 14 g/100 seeds. Genotype of G511H/Kaba//Kaba///Kaba////Kaba-19 had highest yield, but the seed size was categorized as medium size (11.35 g/100 seeds). All the three selected genotypes had higher yield than the check varieties and have a chance to proceed to the next breeding step, so it could be released as new improved varieties.

Ayda Krisnawati, M. Muchlish Adie

Vegetables Mapping Using Production and Socioeconomic Indicators Approach

Founded in 2007, Serang was considered as one of the new cities in Indonesia. That was why vegetables commodities mapping was not available yet. This mapping was essential for a new city to create an accurate policy in order to develop and maintain sustainable agriculture practices. Many agriculture commodities mappings were constructed by using location quotient (LQ) method. Unfortunately, it was based on productivity only. In this paper, we presented a vegetables commodities mapping by using not only production factor, but also farmer’s socioeconomic indicators, namely: (1) land width (preservation), (2) future land width (enhancement), and (3) household expenditure. The production factors and the farmer’s socioeconomic indicators were mapped and drawn in a biplot as the first and the second layer. These two layers were overlayed in order to obtain a priority commodity in each district. Finally, this study resulted in four commodity priority categories, and they are: first, Cipocok Jaya district as the main priority with cucumber as its potential commodity; second, Curug district with chili as its commodity; third, Walantaka district with chili and Taktakan district with pea bean as their potential commodities; and finally, Kasemen and Serang districts that have no identified commodity yet.

Weksi Budiaji, Juwarin Pancawati, Suherna

Willingness to Pay and Willingness to Work to Avoid Deforestation and Forest Degradation

Contingent valuation method (CVM) is widely applied to value environmental goods and services. Initially developed in developed countries, CVM now is also widely applied in developing countries. However, in many cases, value estimates from CVM studies carried out in developing countries are smaller than expectations. One possible explanation for this phenomenon is that people in developing countries may have different preferences toward environmental goods and services. Another explanation argues that it is effect of poverty on the valuation, i.e., effect of limited income instead of deficiencies in preferences. A suggestion to resolve the problem according to the latter argument is by using nonmonetary contribution as payment vehicle. Following this argument, this paper reports result of CVM surveys using working time without pay (or called willingness to work, WTW) in addition to standard monetary contribution (or called willingness to pay, WTP) implemented for a contingent scenario to avoid deforestation and forest degradation in Segah watershed in Berau District, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Both WTP and WTW are elicited in open-ended format, i.e., directly asking respondents about their maximum contributions for the proposed program. Results show that in terms of WTP, respondents’ average benefit from the proposed project is Rp124,088 for onetime payment, whereas average WTW is 20.25 days per year. When WTW is converted to WTP using casual daily wage, it turns out that WTW is 8.15 times higher than WTP. The results confirm findings of previous studies that value estimated in terms of WTW is substantially higher than WTP. In addition, among similar sets of socioeconomic and forest use variables, variables of income, gender, family having baby, living in mixed tribe villages, and extent of using river services are significant determinants for WTP, whereas migration, living in mixed tribe villages, extent of using forests, practicing ritual related to forests, having gardens located in forests, and belief in the scenario applicability are significant determinants for WTW. Although determinants of the WTP and WTW are found to be different, in general the variables exhibit expected signs, which shows validity of the model. Therefore, the finding supports for using nonmonetary contribution for CVM study implemented in developing countries, especially in community with limited cash income.

A. Solikin

Economics

Frontmatter

A Cluster Model for Increasing Performance of Small and Medium-Scale Enterprises (A Case Study in Bogor, Indonesia)

Small Medium Enterprises (SME) is one of economic fundament in Indonesia. Their endurance has already known since Monetary Crisis in 1998. But, most of them have not managed well. Many problems occurs on them, such as restricted resources in human resources, assets, capital and others. For increasing their performance, they need supports from others stakeholders. The better performance of them, the higher profit they will get. For larger, it will awake the economic based on community in Indonesia and give more progress. Based on those reasons, the purpose of this research is to increase the performance of SME’s in Kecamatan Cibinong, Kabupaten Bogor by Cluster Model. This model built a place as the center of industiesy (Kecamatan Cibinong). The center (Kecamatan Cibinong) consists of three area productions: SME of “Kerupuk Mie”, SME of Bambu Hitam Meubeul, and SME Traditional Cake (Dodol, Wajik, Bugis). Ishikawa diagram was used to identify problems occurs on each of SME. This research’s result shows that marketing is the most difficult problem of them. The solution of that problem is building a cluster with Digital Marketing Center (DMC) in the center of cluster (Kecamatan Cibinong).

Resista Vikaliana, Desi Harsanti, Dewi Sri Wulandari, Asti Andayani

Clustering Residents Based on Perceptions Toward Tourism Growth in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

The development of tourism sector in the region will deliver benefits for local community including the increase sales level, more job openings, the increase in the ability of people to learn foreign languages, encouragement to repair facilities and infrastructure; but on the other hand, it have negative impacts on local residents like congestion, pollution, noise, and rise in criminal cases. Yogyakarta, as a tourism destination, faces the same problem. The tourism growth in that place makes raise the pros and cons among the community. Some people are more pleased with increasing number of tourist arrivals to their area because it gives the direct impact on their economic development, but other people show their objection to its negative impact, especially the traffic. Therefore, a study in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, was conducted to identify and analyze the residents’ perception as the variable considered for the local government to arrange the policy toward tourism development. A total of 180 completed questionnaires were obtained from 200 respondents approached. The respondents were drawn from different walks of life by considering various aspects such as age, occupation, distance between home and the nearest tourism object, income, origin. Non-hierarchy clustering method—k-means cluster—is used to analyze and identify the respondents’ perceptions of the tourism growth. From the calculation using SPSS 16, it is found that there are three clusters formed based on eight variables: positive residents (47%)—people who are delighted and enjoying the tourism environment; negative residents (21%)—people who do not like the tourism, especially for its impact on traffic; and opportunist residents (32%)—people agree that tourism causes traffic, but they are not care about that because they get benefit impact from tourism activities for their income. In conclusion, from the data clustering, it is informed that the growth of the tourism in Yogyakarta has provided more benefits than costs to the residents.

Harwati

Embedding Accountability Throughout the Innovation Process in the Green Economy: The Need for an Innovative Approach

Innovation in the green economy entails transformative change in society. Vital infrastructure technologies in the fields of energy, water, communication, waste handling, and so on have many interdependencies with other economic sectors. Hence, introducing green innovation in such sectors has complex repercussions and requires many complementary changes to be made elsewhere in the economy as well. Therefore, such innovations come with large uncertainties and risks. They need a long time to be fully developed and assimilated into society, and this is never a smooth journey because many effects were not foreseen at the start. Undesirable social, economic and environmental consequences can easily occur along the way. Therefore, innovation in the green economy introduces the need to foreground issues of accountability more prominently and explicitly throughout the innovation process. This implies that it is necessary to start defining accountability from the beginning of the innovation process—not only toward the end. This can help us to figure out beforehand about what (negative) impacts could possibly emerge and how they can be prevented, in order to lead to satisfactory outcomes for all stakeholders. Therefore, this paper attempts to create an understanding of the importance of embedding accountability throughout innovation process in the green economy by addressing the following questions: How do we define accountability for innovation in the green economy? What kind of approach may help us in embedding accountability throughout the innovation process in the green economy? To answer these questions, the concept of responsible innovation is introduced and the application of the approach is illustrated through a case study. The paper concludes that responsible innovation approach allows the careful scrutinizing of the (emerging) impacts of innovation and provides a clear map of the roles, tasks, and liabilities of innovation actors as the basis for embedding accountability throughout the innovation process.

Andri D. Setiawan, Rajbeer Singh, Henny Romijn

Tourist Village for Rural Economic Development

The majority of Indonesian people live in rural areas. Most of them are working in the agricultural sector. However, the agricultural sector is not going well so it cannot contribute to the welfare of the society. This factor pushes a massive urbanization, where people in rural areas migrate to the urban areas; they prefer to be a factory worker or a store employee instead of managing the economic potential in their hometown. In fact, the rural areas can be developed for economic growth, such as the development of the tourism sector. Saturation of tourists to the city’s attractions gives opportunities to develop a village-based alternative tourism. By using the status of DIY as a world-class tourism city, some districts are trying to attract tourists by developing tourist villages. This study aimed to analyze the factors that influence the development of rural tourism located in Sleman Regency. During the development, the tourist villages are divided into two groups in relation to their growing capability, i.e., middle growing and non-growing groups.

Agus Mansur, Riski Nobriandiro, Yasser Azka Ulil Albab

Innovative Women Entrepreneurs in the Green Economy: Two Case Studies from Mauritius

Women make up 51% of the population of Mauritius, but only a very small percentage manages to emerge as entrepreneurs. Contextual inquiry was conducted with two women, both green entrepreneurs, to understand their motivations, business model and the socio-economic impacts of their enterprises. These two women are from completely different social backgrounds, have different levels of formal education, which makes their cases and their business approaches all the more unique and interesting. Both women have lifted other women—the nurturers of future generations—out of deprivation and poverty enabling their families to live with dignity and enhanced financial security. This paper is a narrative of how two women, having espoused sustainable business practices, have successfully grown businesses that are capable of exporting duly certified green products to the most demanding and highly competitive global markets. The concept of sustainability (people, planet, profit) underpinned the key aspects of their business, which proves that sustainability can be a positive driver of innovation and socio-economic change.

Satyadev Rosunee, Adeela Peer

Optimization of Law Enforcement on Reclamation Process in Indonesia

Indonesia is blessed with abundant natural and energy resources. The natural and energy resources consist of mine, natural gas, and oil which spread out in all of regions of Indonesia. Nowadays, the development of mining activity is more rapid and useful. Yet, most of the companies possess lack of intention to fulfill the liabilities, in terms of arrangement, maintenance, recovery, and also environmental protection. Many victims got the negative impact because of the activities done by the mining companies which did not conduct the liabilities. One of the problems is the post-mining reclamation process. The paper aims to analyze the effectiveness of the administrative sanctions of post-mining reclamation process and the role of criminal sanctions on it. The method used is a normative legal research with descriptive quality. The legal basis of the paper is the Law No. 4 of 2009 on Mining and Coals, Government Regulation No. 78 of 2010 on Reclamation and Post-Mining, and some particular regulation related to the issues. As a result, this paper finds whether or not the administrative sanctions are effective to solve the environmental damage to post-mining through reclamation. The paper also suggests an idea on the enforcement of criminal sanctions for companies which made the environmental damage and/or did not conduct the reclamation process.

Yordan Gunawan, Andika Putra, Mohammad Hazyar Arumbinang

Planning Livable Community with Social Systems Approaches: Medan, Indonesia

Livable Community is an ideal condition desired by all people. The perfect condition has variety specification based on the need of the community. Social system approaches the resident used as the approach of planning strategy of a livable community. The social system approaches are community profile, social fragmentation, and social dynamics. The aim of the research is to find the planning concept of the livable community in Indonesia with the approach of the local community system. The components of planning livable community are land use, social and cultural opportunity, economic resources, access and mobility, safety and aesthetic, environmental consideration and cumulative effects. The research is done by survey method in three social housing developed by Perumnas in the city of Medan such as Perumnas Helvetia, Perumnas Martubung and Perumnas Simalingkar. Community residents of Perumnas (public housing in Indonesia) represent the character of the local community in Indonesia. Perumnas is also the form of the urban fabric which built to meet housing needs in Indonesia.

Dwira Nirfalini Aulia

Poverty, Its Measures and Determinants: Evidence Across Provinces in Indonesia

This paper attempts to examine the measurement concepts and problems of poverty and provides empirical evidence, by analyzing the influence of population, gross domestic regional product, share of agriculture, share of industry, and mean years of schooling to poverty in the case of 33 provinces of Indonesia period 2006–2012 by using random effect model. The empirical evidence suggests that population is positively and significantly influence number of poverty in Indonesia, while gross domestic regional product, share of industry, and mean years of schooling are negatively and significantly influence the poverty in Indonesia. In addition, this study also finds that share of agriculture is having no significant influence to poverty reduction in Indonesia. This finding is acceptable as agricultural productivity in Indonesia remains low so that it is not capable enough to be an adequate source of income for the society.

Masyhudi Muqorobin, Venia Prissi Ramadhani, Agus Tri Basuki

Quality Improvement of Product–Service Package of “Mangunan” Agrotourism Using Quality Function Deployment Approach

Mangunan is one of growing agrotourism in the district of Bantul Yogyakarta. Basically, Mangunan had many criteria to support the implementation of product–service package sustainability agrotourism that included product, service, and others. Product–service package is a correlation between the products and services offered simultaneously. Mangunan has a variety of recreational and educative facilities and is supported by a natural landscape as a special attraction. Although it has a wide range of potential, Mangunan has not been able to attract tourists to visit. The study aimed to formulate technical requirements for improving quality of “Mangunan” agrotourism using Quality Function Deployment approach.Quality function deployment (QFD) provides a comprehensive, systematic approach to ensure whether new products meet or exceed customer expectations. QFD can be a powerful tool because it can reduce time to market, improve quality, and increase customer satisfaction. The techniques that were employed in the study included consumer surveys to collect the consumer preference in product, price, place, promotion, people, process, physical evidence (7P) of Mangunan Agrotourism and convert consumer and market information into detailed technical requirements.Based on the 7P Tourism Marketing, dimensions that must be corrected immediately were as follows: Product, which included services and product sales of fruit and a comfort place to enjoy the view. Place dimension such as ease to reach the locations. Promotion dimension included the granting bonuses for certain package orders, the appropriate price with the service received for price dimension. People dimension such as attractive and good appearance employee. Process dimension was recognizing the loyal customers, and the physical evidence such as transportation facilities in the garden without having to walk away. Technical requirements for Mangunan quality improvement included education and training for employees and establishing Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of services.

Nafis Khuriyati, Wahyu Supartono, Rahmat Hidayat

Spatial Use and Satisfactory Level of the High-Density Housing Residents

This research presents evidence on how the space used by the residents and their satisfactory level towards space of living. The study proceeds by looking at what the occupants’ perceptions towards their space. Various variables are used to foresee the possible factors that affect their satisfactions. Variables used for assessment are some of possible dimensions occupants’ feel of necessary for the space. Physical, psychological, and perceptual performance of space is assessed in this study as indicated by Murtha’s Criteria on Dimensions of User Benefits, such as behaviour facilitation (functional conformance and spatial conformance), physiological maintenance (climate conformance and hazard regulation, perceptual maintenance (sensory initiation and sensory conformance), and social facilitation (social initiation and social isolation) (Fisher in Environmental psychology, 2nd edn. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1984, [1]). The primary data, collected from respondents of particular type of high-density housing units in Jakarta, were analysed and interpreted by qualitative–quantitative methods using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), and results were further presented in descriptive form. This study concluded that the perceptions and satisfactorily level of residents towards their space are variously found. From the previous research, the implication for planning has mentioned that the minimum standard of 36 m2 is advised for the high-density housing (Indriyati in Low-cost housing in Jakarta: toward a more humane architecture. Penerbit Pustaka Sutra, Bandung, 2009, [2]), and it now further investigates whether this minimum standard has also met residents’ satisfaction for the extended dimensions of user benefits. The findings will provide architects the potential criteria of space that need to be highly concerned. They should develop design ideas based on a more profound knowledge of potential users’ physical and perceptual needs of expected design for the high-density housing. This research is also resulting in an advice that users are always to involve in the design process.

Sri Astuti Indriyati

The Development of DIY’s Southern Coastal Communities: Issues and Challenges

The reality shows that Indonesia is one of the countries that have the longest beach in the world. This fact gives implication that the economic potential of people life at the beach is important factor to economic growth indoors welfare for improving economic development and equity both national and regional scope. Research methodology that is applied for the investigative descriptive obtained the fact about the economic problems of people at the beach especially beach economy potential for improving people’s economic welfare. Analytical method at this research is location quotient (LQ), shift-share, and Klassen typology. The output of this research is to come up with a planning system and model of integrated investment promotion which can result in more equitable economic development at the DIY’s coastal areas.

Imamudin Yuliadi

The Effect of Leadership Style, Work Motivation, Organizational Culture and Job Discipline on Employees Performance

The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of leadership styles, motivation, and organizational culture and work discipline on employee performance. This study is conducted to see whether there are differences in the performance of employees in the conventional and Islamic banking. The benefits obtained in this study are to add to knowledge about organization policy related to employee performance. Questionnaires were used to obtain related data and analysed by using SPSS. The results obtained in this study are the variables of leadership style, organizational culture and work motivation, and discipline of work have a significant effect on employee performance, motivation of work gives the most impact among other standardized coefficient variable that is equal to β = 0.392 in islamic banking and β = 0.395 in conventional banking and no difference performance of the conventional and islamic banking employees.

Retno Ulfayatun Hidayah, Ietje Nazaruddin

The Study of Snack Purchasing Behavior and Foreign Tourists’ Eating Habits at Taiwanese Night Markets

Taiwan is well known for its reputation cuisine, and annually thousands of tourists come to Taiwan to taste authentic traditional cuisine, in addition to provide the residents’ life needs, taking into account the meaning of leisure culture and tourism. Taiwan has many night markets in different cities and counties, and more than several hundreds of thousands of street vendors make a living from their stalls, and many of them, including the night markets, are in fact recently established. The night market become pooled these delicacies field. “Night market” has become a nighttime leisure activity in Taiwan. Taiwan’s night market continued to flourish, more diversified, combined with leisure, entertainment, and cuisine, becoming the first choice for domestic and foreign tourists and attractions. It provides consumers the night leisure and recreation place, and demographics they cover and consumers who are not limited to regional groups, including the more exotic visitors from Taiwan to the world famous gourmet snacks; attracting international tourists, Taiwan Tourism Bureau has been the promotion of policy, according to Tourism Bureau statistics. In 2014 the number of people reached 9.91 million in Taiwan. The research focuses on night market industry in detail. Total frequency for going to night market per month and different annual incomes, ages, occupations, types of consumption and past experiences of consumption, and finally deliver a conclusion on the frequency and content of consumers’ behavior in each respective target group. Taiwan’s population of overseas tourists are divided into two types, “Europe, USA and Canada” and “Japan and South Korea,” and must have shopped in Taiwan night market of expatriates to conduct analysis, analytical method using factor analysis, and correlation analysis. The purpose of the consumption is to focus the main factors in Taiwan night market.

Shu-Hsien Liao, Pei-Yuan Hsiao

The Sustainability of Bayt Al-Maal Wa Al-Tamwil’s Contribution to Yogyakarta Citizen

This paper aimed at identifying the influence of selected BMT’s products (Pr), empathy of Islamic microfinance institution to the member (G), and profit-sharing ratio determination (Ps) on their member’s welfare (Y). This welfare is the increment of a combination of member’s income (y), consumption (C), and investment (I) after being BMT’s partner. By using Slovin formula and multiple linear regression method, this study evaluates 95 BMTs members who are in their second (or above) financing periods. The finding indicates that the improvement in their welfare has a positive relationship with the products offered, the empathy of BMTs to their members, and profit-sharing ratio they agreed. In the long run, this will promote the sustainability of contribution of BMTs for small entrepreneurs. Therefore, paying consistent attention to the members and being committed on the track as BMTs, with social services as their platform of services, will contribute to solving the problems of micro- and small enterprises as the grassroot economy level who are unable to secure access to Islamic banks.

Masyhudi Muqorrobin, Yuli Utami, Abdiel Fadhil Ridho

Traffic Jam in Tuanku Tambusai Road, Pekanbaru City

Traffic jam in urban road in big cities has been the main issue in developing countries such as Indonesia. It is so easy to own motor vehicles today. This is one of the causing factors of dense traffic. In Riau Province, particularly Pekanbaru City, the number of motor vehicle ownership is growing sharply. This growth is in line with the economic growth and people’s mobility. The characteristic of the usage of Tuanku Tambusai Road Part is mixed-use area. The objective of the research is to (1) identify the causing factors of the traffic jam incidence in Tuanku Tambusai Road and (2) to explore the traffic attraction and traffic generation. The method used in this research is a deductive approach based on a general theory which has to be proved with fact finding. In addition to the deductive approach, a quantitative method is used to identify the performance of Tuanku Tambusai Street, its traffic attraction, and traffic generation. The result shows that the causing factors of the traffic jam in Tuanku Tambusai Street among others are (1) the road capacity is about 1978.40 passenger car unit per hour, and (2) the traffic flow volume of Tuanku Tambusai Street from SKA Shopping Center for on the most dense day, Thursday, is 4340.2 passenger car unit, whereas that of from the flyover on the most dense day, Thursday, is only 815.4 passenger car unit. This indicates that the traffic flow volume from SKA Shopping Center (east) has been over the capacity of the road. On the other hand, the traffic flow volume from the flyover (west) is still under the capacity of the road. The saturation level of the road, from west to east, is categorized unstable with the point of 2.19 passenger car unit. Meanwhile, from east to west, it is categorized stable with the point of 0.41 passenger car unit, categorized into an F-level service. The traffic attraction and generation of the road are that correlation value is 0.991. Theoretically, a strong correlation will occur if the value is close to 1. Based on summary model, the r-square value is 0.975; ANOVA value is 39.930 with a significance level of 0.049; and coefficient value is 304.940. As a conclusion, according to the regression formula, the number of mobility of the traffic attraction and generation is influenced by the increasing use of land.

Lucky Prawira, Abdul Kudus Zaini, Puji Astuti

Work in Progress—Using Transnational Education Program to Inculcate Social Innovation and Sustainability Mindset

With the rapid progress of globalization, there is a need to innovate the way educational institutions in developing students to be world ready to face current sustainability issues. Learning Express (LeX) program is Singapore Polytechnic (SP) answer to tackle this issue. The objective of this program is to give opportunities for students from SP and partner institutions in using their technical skills and knowledge to conceive and co-create with rural communities on social projects in sustainable ways. In this paper, the detailed structure and pedagogy of LeX is explained using the implementation trip at Yogyakarta, Indonesia in March 2013 as an example. It was found that a number of key success factors like local educational institution partners, buddy system, and methodology used are important for successful implementation of this program.

Noel Kristian

Technology

Frontmatter

2-D and 3-D Subsurface Liquefaction Potential Profiling Using Tomography Surface Waves Method

A 6.3 Mw earthquake struck Yogyakarta region in 2006 causing many geotechnical damages, e.g., ground cracks, surface displacement, landslides and local liquefactions and soil billings occurred in some regions. From field observations, it was shown that most minor to major structural damages in buildings and bridges were identified near to liquefaction locations. Consequently, a site investigation and advanced analysis for providing the subsurface liquefaction potential information plays important rule in infrastructure design related to structural damage analysis. The aim of this paper is to use of the tomography surface waves method in order to investigate the liquefaction potential in 2-D and 3-D subsurface profile. These seismic surveys were conducted on deep loose sand and sandy soil deposit located inside Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta (UMY)’s campus, Indonesia which consists of. The liquefaction potential profile was analyzed and generated from combination of the shear wave velocity and soil properties information. Two earthquake scenarios, 6.3 and 8 Mw, were used to simulate the sensitivity of 2-D profile for identifying the liquefaction potential in each soil layer. The results show that the liquefaction potential widely occurs in observed sandy soil and sand deposit layer for stronger earthquake. Finally, the tomography surface waves method is becoming an effective tool for observing liquefaction potential profile in the site investigation, particularly for the purpose of geohazards analysis in the concept of sustainable environmental development.

Sri Atmaja P. Rosyidi

An Analysis of Biogas Productivity with Fixed Dome Type for Supporting Household-Base Energy in Nongkojajar, East Java-Indonesia

Indonesia is a developing country endowed by various potential renewable energy resources. Among them is biogas which basically can be produced from the decomposition of biomass by the biochemical processes. Java is the most densely populated island in Indonesia and consumes almost 67% of the national energy supply. This study was carried out under supervised government and founded by IDBP (Indonesia Domestic Biogas Program) for developing sustainable rural renewable energy supply. Many in-ground type of fixed dome biogas reactors have been established in the dairy production field owned by the Cooperative (KPSP) Setia Kawan Nongkojajar, Pasuruan East Java. An individual household of cooperative member was provided by a reactor of 8 m3 of subtract. Every reactor was assembled by financial sharing mechanism between a farmer and a financial body. The main objective of the study is to determine the effectiveness of the bioreactor in biogas production for knowing the consumption and electrification in rural area community. A batched feeding mechanism was applied using a feedstock composed proportionally from cow dung and water. The reactor was optimized in order to produce sufficient biogas production in terms of its quality [methane purity] and quantity [daily volume] to meet the energy requirement in the surrounding rural area. The result shows that the optimum productivity of biogas reached if the value of TS 16.9 kg/m3, HRT in 15 day, bioreactor temperature 23 °C, volume of biogas 3.6 m3, 67.6% CH4 and 29.4% CO2 with 0.8 of bioreactor effectiveness.

Aminatus Sa’diyah, Katrin Klingenberg, Ridho Hantoro

Business-Oriented Technological System Analysis (BOTSA) at Eindhoven University of Technology: An Innovative Learning Method to Foster Entrepreneurship

BOTSA is an innovative teaching method for students with technical background in the field of sustainable energy technologies and an interest in entrepreneurship. Two core features of this method, namely the connection between a technological analysis and a business case as well as the involvement of clients and business coaches, are explored in this paper. Case studies and results of evaluations among students who used this method to analyze their technological innovation are used to demonstrate the value of these two features and consequently the method as a whole.

Mara Wijnker, Han van Kasteren, Henny Romijn

Calcium Phosphate-Carbon Nanotube Composites for Load—Bearing Bone Implant Application

The limited supply of bone graft is a major problem in human organ transplantation costing lives of many worldwide. Calcium phosphate (CaP) material has been considered the most favorable and best substitute in tissue engineering and orthopedics, thanks to its good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. However, one of disadvantages of this material is its limited clinical applications for non-load-bearing bone implant due to low strength and brittleness. The objective of this study was to develop high mechanical strength calcium phosphate ceramics mechanically suitable for load-bearing bone implant application. Chemical and physical approaches have been undertaken to solve the mechanical weakness of calcium phosphate ceramics by doping with zinc (Zn) and compositing with carbon nanotube (CNT), respectively. The starting powders have been synthesized via sol-gel method. After uniaxial pressing, the compacted samples were sintered using conventional pressureless sintering. The samples were studied in terms of the phase stability, relative density, Vickers hardness, fracture toughness as well as in vitro test in SBF solution. The results showed that hydroxyapatite is the main phase and β-tricalcium phosphate is the secondary phase of obtained powders. The composites have relative density 93.34 ± 0.50% with a Vickers hardness as high as 5.00 ± 0.02 GPa and 2.78 ± 0.01 MPa.m1/2 fracture toughness, which are in the range of human cortical bone’s mechanical properties. Bioactivity test in a simulated body fluid for 1, 7, 14 and 30 days showed that the samples were covered by apatite cell since the first day, and the density of apatite increased by immersion time. Thus, from mechanical and bioactivity characteristic viewpoint, this CNT reinforced Zn-doped calcium phosphate is mechanically and biologically suitable for load-bearing bone implant applications.

G. Gunawan, Iis Sopyan

CFD Studies on the Flanged Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine with Optimized Curvature Wall

The Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine (DAWT) offers potentials to cope with the wind availability situation like in Indonesia, i.e. with yearly average of 3–5 m/s. In this paper, computational CFD studies to get insight into the role of adding a flange (at the trailing edge of previously proposed diffuser with interior wall model [1]) to the wind velocity intensification inside the diffuser. Two models of flange are investigated, i.e. the flat-flange and airfoil-shaped flange. The role of angle-of-installment that provides the maximum velocity inside the diffuser is also reported. Results show that the additional flange to the trailing-edge of the diffuser will more step up the air velocity inside the diffuser. The installment of flat-flange will additionally increase the air velocity up to 29% higher. Meanwhile by optimizing the position of flange’s angle, a more step up in velocity up to 3% can still be harvested (i.e. max at ϕ = 60°). An even higher additional velocity (in compare to the installment of flat-flange) can be harvested by installment of flange with airfoil-shape, i.e. up to 31% (max at ϕ = 72°).

M. Nurur Rochman, Aulia Nasution, Gunawan Nugroho

Developing Academic Executive Information System Uses Kimball Methodology: Case Study in an Indonesia Higher Education System

Muhammadiyah University of Magelang (UMM) has integrated academic information systems in terms of both data and applications. This system has been constructed 6 years ago and has been used by the service level to the policy level. However, until today, there is no data can be presented in an appropriate format for the decision-maker, since the data are functionally separated. In addition, reporting data is not easily used by decision-makers because it does not apply the concept of the data warehouse. So that the information can be used by decision-makers, the data warehouse must be constructed using appropriate methods. In this paper, Kimball methodology is chosen because the design starts from user needs. The methodology causes the system to be able to present complete and appropriate data presentation as well as the user wants. UMM Academic Executive Information System (EIS) has been successfully constructed using the data warehouse. As a result, the system is able to present the integrated data and is able to demonstrate factual data from a variety of dimensions as required by decision-makers. By using the EIS, the decision-maker can trace the problem source that happened in their education system.

Asroni, Noor Akhmad Setiawan, Sri Suning Kusumawardani

Effect of Reservoir Sediment Flushing from Wlingi and Lodoyo Reservoirs on Downstream River Water Quality

In order to cope with severe sedimentation problems in Wlingi and Lodoyo reservoirs in the Brantas River basin, East Java, Indonesia, sediment flushing has been conducted since August 1990, immediately after the eruption of Mt. Kelud in February 1990. The sediment flushing has been conducted mostly during the rainy season by coordinated gate operation to recover the reservoirs’ capacity. The largest and most intractable downstream environmental impacts associated with sediment release from reservoirs are caused by reservoir emptying and flushing. When sediment flushing measure is performed, environmental effects should be considered comprehensively. To understand the adverse environmental effects of sediment flushing in Wlingi and Lodoyo reservoirs on the downstream reaches, an investigation was carried out to study water quality before, during, and after the sediment flushing operation. This study was conducted to investigate the adverse environmental effects on the downstream reaches’ water quality of Wlingi and Lodoyo reservoirs based on the sediment flushing operation conducted on 17-19 March 2009.

Fahmi Hidayat, Surya Budi Lesmana, Ery Suhartanto

Entrepreneurship Creativity: An Implication for Architects’ Competitiveness and Sustainability

The success of an entrepreneur and architect often linked directly or indirectly to the philosophy of creativity. The entrepreneurs greatly add to the success of firms and organisations as architects contributed to the built environment worldwide. Both architect and entrepreneur oftentimes connected in the skills of creativity and design. The research methodological approach employed is a critical literature review regarding entrepreneurship, creativity and design as related to the need for an architectural enterprise development. In addition, the paper reviewed the process nature of entrepreneurship in conjunction with the creativity and problem solving skills inherent in both designers. Shapero and Sokol’s entrepreneurial event model employed to provide a supportive explanation on the individual (architect and entrepreneur) behaviour process which may lead to an entrepreneurship creative process. Implications suggested as well as architect–entrepreneur professional practice in the current competitive economy recommended.

Mudashir Gafar, Rozilah Kasim, David Martin

Green Energy Approach for Batik Industry in Order to Increase Productivity and Maintain a Healthy Environment

Batik is a piece of cloth applied by means of a dye-resist technique using “batik-wax” as the resisting medium. Indonesian batik was designated by UNESCO as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. As part of the acknowledgment, UNESCO insisted that Indonesia has preserved their heritage. This fact should be grateful and responded with efforts to develop and preserve Indonesian batik. One effort to develop and preserve Indonesian batik is to adopt green energy technologies in the production process. As generally in Indonesia, batik industry is currently still a class of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). One of the quite popular in Indonesia is Bantul batik. Of the many batik SMEs in Bantul, there are two SMEs that have the potential to develop, namely Ida Lestari Batik and Arjo Munir Batik. The issue of the SMEs is that the production process is still using kerosene stoves, while the price of kerosene is very expensive and difficult to obtain. Therefore, in this paper the application of environmentally friendly energy sources for the production process of batik is described. The energy source is the installation of solar home system. The system is used to distribute electrical power to the batik electric stove. The use of solar home system and batik electric stoves is more practical and economical than kerosene stove. Another advantage is to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and help preserve the environment with the use of green technology.

Ramadoni Syahputra, Indah Soesanti

Optimization Potential Value Added of Sunda Strait Bridge Construction in Accessibility Function Model

In the implementation of Sunda Strait Bridge (SSB) development as a public transportation facility, there is a consistent purpose with the acceleration vision and the expansion of Indonesian Economic Development that is “Creating an Independent, advanced society, equitable and a prosperous Indonesia Community”, as measured qualitatively in the document of MP3EI (Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesian Economic Development). In order to optimize the connectivity program in the national territory, it is necessary to measure the quantitative value of the MP3EI document substance in the accessibility functions model to accelerate the country development in achieving its prosperity. The main indicator of the accessibility measurement is subjective and qualitative, therefore it is necessary to carry out quantitative assessment to identify the accessibility, thus the difference between those with and without the construction of Sunda Strait Bridge can be measured. The current study is a case study of the accessibility function modeling of the geographic transportation covering five model countries, namely Indonesia (Suramadu Bridge), Japan (Akashi Kaikyo Bridge), Korea (Incheon Bridge), China (Hangzhou Bridge), and Malaysia (Penang Bridge). The purpose of this study is in the context of the determination of value-added gap measurement tool, and as a control function in an effort to minimize the regional connectivity failure due to the bridge infrastructure construction. Value-added gap is the accessibility value which is constantly growing and becoming a priority, so it is necessary to optimize the activity management control on the variables and the identified function accessibility. The main research focuses on the indicator formulation of value added in the functional accessibility that takes into account various aspects of both qualitative and quantitative. The validation results were obtained from the questionnaires survey and interviews. The data were obtained from two (two) sources, the qualitative methods which derived from the questionnaire surveys and interviews result combined with the quantitative methods which the data obtained from BPS (Statistics Indonesia), coupled with references from various sources, and the entire data were then holistically tested using dynamic modeling system with Powersim Studio 7 software. The results of research analysis are of the form of quantitative formulation policy especially in transportation management, where the construction of Sunda Strait Bridge can increase the accessibility value in line with the increase in the value of GRDP, and if it is not with it, the accessibility value is low. Therefore to support the strengthening national territory connectivity to achieve the maximum result, it is absolutely necessary to construct the Sunda Strait Bridge.

W. Wangsadinata, D. Ma’soem, D. M. Lestari

Rainwater Harvesting System Implementation for Domestic Water Use: The Environment and Financial Benefits

Rainwater harvesting (RWH) system is a technology that focuses on sustainability and supports the sustainable environment development. The implementation of RWH systems provides many environment and financial benefits. Some of the environment benefits of RWH system are as follows: reduce the surface runoff, reduce the burden of soil aquifer, and provide the availability of clean water. This study analyzed the RWH system implementation benefits in both environment and financial sides. The financial benefits of RWH system implementation are calculated based on rainwater that can be used to replace the need for clean water. The environment benefits are defined by the reduction in main water tap use and the reduction in generated roof runoff volume. This study used a simple RWH system that uses the roof as a catchment area, the pipeline as a distribution system, and the tank as a storage system. The water use is for domestic potable and nonpotable for a household with up to four occupants in Bandung. The catchment area is taken up to 70 m2. A water balance model for various scenarios was developed to calculate the algorithm of the system. The costs taken in RWH system include the construction, installation, maintenance, and operational costs. The analysis shows that the implementation of RWH systems provides advantages over the use of conventional systems. It can save clean water usage up to 54.92% and provides runoff reduction up to 71.53%. RWH system requires additional costs approximately 0.66% from the value of the house. It was found that it is possible to achieve payback in RWH system implementation under several scenarios.

Imroatul C. Juliana, M. Syahril Badri Kusuma, M. Cahyono, Hadi Kardhana, Widjaja Martokusumo

The (In-)Visible Hand: A Governance Perspective on Low-Carbon Transitions in the PRC

The multi-level perspective on sociotechnical transitions (MLP) is a framework that has been widely applied in analysing the dynamics of innovation and change in large technical systems. The model has proved useful for explaining complex mechanisms of interaction between sectors and levels but has been criticized for a lack of focus on political and governance aspects likely to form part of these dynamics (Smith et al. in Res Policy 34(10):1491–1510, 2005 [1]; Bulkeley et al. in Cities and Low Carbon Transitions. Routledge, London, 20011 [2]). This paper discusses transition dynamics from a governance perspective by analysing an empirical example of low-carbon development. Using the case study of the city of Rizhao, the paper provides a mapping of institutional governance arrangements involved in low-carbon development processes, focusing in particular on the urban planning and the shift towards energy conservation and recycling technologies in the city’s industrial sector. A couple of points are suggested in this paper. Firstly, planning arrangements, although not explicitly part of transition dynamics, influences low-carbon dynamics through broader forms of impact on development pathways. Secondly, policy and planning instruments appear to play an important role in shaping low-carbon pathways on an urban level in China, and different forms of policy tools and enforcement strategies in turn have different effects on transitions mechanisms. Third, in spite of the dominant top-down nature of China’s political system, network interactions contribute considerably to spreading low-carbon solutions on an urban level. A key importance of these links is to provide channels for information transfers that enable the local multiplication of low-carbon practices. Finally, the paper includes a theoretical discussion on whether, and in that case how, a governance perspective may complement an MLP analysis of urban low-carbon development processes.

Linda Katrin Westman

The Effective Mixture of Anatase–Rutile Nanoparticles as Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) Using Natural Dye of Garcinia mangostana and Rhoeo spathacea Extract

A synergistic effect between anatase and rutile TiO2 is known to be able to improve light harvesting and the overall solar conversion efficiency. Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) was fabricated using the mixture of anatase–rutile phase of TiO2 nanoparticles prepared through co-precipitation method with TiCl3 precursors. The particle’s sizes were 30 nm for anatase and 44.9 nm for rutile as characterized by using XRD (X-ray diffraction). The natural dyes employed were Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract and Rhoeo spathacea extract. The two selected dyes were used because of their abundant availability and good performance for being used as photosensitizer as indicated by their absorbance wavelength of 392.5 nm for G. mangostana extract and 432 and 658 nm for R. spathacea. Both dyes contain anthocyanin pigment, which is a known visible-light trapper that undergoes charge excitation, and upon complexation with a metal oxide semiconductor like TiO2, a charge-transfer process occurs. Our results show that the best performance of DSSC having anatase/rutile ratio of 90:10 (η = 0.076%) and (η = 0.063%) was obtained for samples sensitized with G. mangostana extract and R. spathacea extract, respectively. This ratio has the largest surface area and smallest particle size. The synergistic effect of the two phases is due to the ease of electron migration from rutile to anatase conduction band and larger surface area allowing more dye being able to be absorbed.

Bibit Lestari, Irana Eka Putri, Ruri Agung Wahyuono, Dyah Sawitri, Doty Dewi Risanti

The Prospective Analysis of Coastal Town Development Based on Waterfront City (Case Study: Bantan Sub-District, Bengkalis–Riau Province)

Bantan Sub-district is one of area in Bengkalis District, Riau Province. Located on the coast called the Selat Baru Beach, ecological island separated from its parent, in this case is the Island of Sumatra, remote and insular nature. Having a large number of endemic species and the diversity of high value has a relatively small catchment area so that most of the surface water and sediment flow into the sea. In terms of social, economic and cultural, small islands is unique compared to its parent island. Bantan Sub-district, the potential as a small island is extremely limited and vulnerable to environmental changes, so must be optimized utilization and carefully constructed. The advantage of this area is located adjacent to Malaysia and there is an international ferry port to Malaysia. By positioning the region directly opposite the Selat Baru Beach, the right concept for supporting any limitation in this area is Waterfront City, followed by realizing sustainable conservation of environment. But, before doing some studies to support the concept, it is very important to measure prospectively of Bantan Sub-district based on coastal town in creating a waterfront city. The method used in this study is deductive method with the intention of seeing prospectively coastal city development activities based on waterfront city. The results of analysis, coastal town development based on waterfront city in Bantan Sub-district are very prospective business to develop. The business is well positioned as a mature and profitable strategic advantage profile. This analysis is a combination between matrix ETOP and SAP position. The integration of the supporting elements can create a sustainable coastal town. As the leading sectors and capital develop, the region favored the tourism sector, especially beach tourism. With the object of coastal tourism can be a tourist attraction in the Bantan Sub-district, then this can be used as a strategic area of tourism development that will be able to bring significant profits to the advancement and improvement of the economic potential of tourism locals.

Puji Astuti, Mardianto Manan, Febby Asteriani, Cihe Aprilia Bintang, Dharfrimadil Akhyar

User Interface Evaluation of Indonesian Online News Portals: Case Study of Vivanews and Detikcom

Following the advance of information technology, nowadays online news portal is very popular. By accessing news portal, people can easily read news from their smartphone, smart tab, and other mobile devices. In terms of human–computer interaction aspect, news portal should serve an effective interaction between the website and the readers. News portal should be designed based on standard interface design rules, which is commonly called Eight Golden Rules. The objective of this research is to evaluate the interface of two major Indonesian online news portals, Viva News and Detikcom. Both news portals were evaluated using heuristic method based on eight criteria; consistency, shortcut availability informative feedback, design dialog, error handling, easy reversal action, sense of user control, and reduce short-term memory load. The result shows the evaluation of each news portal and the comparison between both news portals. The evaluation result is then useful to improve the usability and functionality of the portals.

Muhammad Yazid, Rizky Arya Pratama, Slamet Riyadi

Waste Prevention Effectiveness of Batik Production in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

As a form of art rooted deep in Indonesian culture, Batik has evolved to its modern form and become internationally recognized. Their production consequently has experienced an increase as global demand continues. Such an increase in popularity comes with the price of environmental waste produced when creating Batiks. This paper explores the effectiveness of green batik initiative implemented by the Indonesian government in managing the waste coming from Batik industry. In particular, the study reported in this paper covers Batik waste management in Yogyakarta. Results of the study demonstrate that although the initiative has helped in managing the waste; however, some actions by the government will still be needed to suppress the impact further to environment.

Mohammad Rianda Al Rasyid, Retno Widowati Purnama Asri

Watershed Erosion Analysis (Case Study of Citarum Upstream Watershed)

This paper presents the results of the study in partial yearly erosion rate changes, and a simulation of land use according to the pattern space. Watershed ecosystem changes are represented by the modification of land cover and adapted to the spatial conditions. The area studied is the Citarum Upstream Watershed. This study is part of a dissertation which aims to get the value of the condition of soil erosion in a few years and landscaping scenarios in the upstream subCitarum most optimal, so that the reservoir can function properly in accordance with the design life of the reservoir. Analysis was conducted using soil erosion modeled with USLE using GIS models. This analysis provides the form of a map of soil erosion in the study area spatially. In order to use this model for estimating the value of USLE and the actual distribution of soil erosion in a river basin, the approach used is to use a GIS system, where it needs information related to spatial distribution of each parameter USLE. Various spatial characteristics of each USLE parameters obtained from maps available digitally inserted in the form of thematic maps and overlays in the GIS system. Grid cell system is available on further functions significant in GIS, where for each grid cell on the map overlay can be obtained by the value of the rate of erosion per unit area of grid cell is then converted to the rate of erosion per square kilometer. Depiction of the results of the erosion rate map using the USLE method-based Arc-GIS of the obtained values shows that tert erosion increases with land-use changes that occur. The increased is extreme enough that the 4 year increased almost 50% from 6.4 million ton/year in 2006 to 31 million ton/year in 2010. The simulations performed the pattern space Citarum River Flows Regional Plan and obtained sediment 4.36 million ton/year.

Ana Nurganah Chaidar, Indratmo Soekarno, Agung Wiyono, Joko Nugroho
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Unsicherheitsabschätzung für die Berechnung von dynamischen Überschwemmungskarten – Fallstudie Kulmbach

Das vom BMBF geförderte Projekt FloodEvac hat zum Ziel, im Hochwasserfall räumliche und zeitliche Informationen der Hochwassergefährdung bereitzustellen. Im hier vorgestellten Teilprojekt werden Überschwemmungskarten zu Wassertiefen und Fließgeschwindigkeiten unter Angabe der Modellunsicherheiten berechnet.
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