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This book attempts to create awareness about the UN-MDGs and how various ICT can be harnessed to appeal to different demographics. Current empirical evidence suggests that MDG awareness is relatively low particularly in developed countries, and that the levels of MDG awareness vary considerable across socioeconomic variables or demographics from United Nations perspective. It also examines how ICT can be used to bring about technical and social innovations strengthen livelihoods, support economic development, water and climate resilience and improve the education and health sectors and enhance development opportunities. Several studies are highlighted that reinforce the view that government support and private sector expertise and funding are important factors in ICT-based e-government solutions in developing countries.

The book also builds on the thesis that a strong connection between competencies in mathematics, science, and information communication/technology is required to build logical concepts and critical thinking skills. It also examines the opportunities and barriers of promoting students’ learning skills, including communication, cooperation, collaboration and connection using the Wiki tool under the blackboard platform. Finally, the book also highlights the challenges involved in application of ICT in education. This is significant for educators in order to surmount these obstacles and consequently successfully incorporate ICT into the educational system.

The chapters present the relevant literature on ICTs and the perceived barriers to ICT integration in basic education. They also focus on the implications of incorporating ICT in the basic educational system. The challenges confronting the integration of ICT in education are equally identified with a view to ensuring a more efficient application of ICT in attaining education for all.



Chapter 1. Learning, Communication and Interaction via Wiki: An Australian Perspective

This chapter examines the opportunities and barriers of promoting students’ learning skills, including communication, cooperation, collaboration and connection using the Wiki tool under the blackboard platform. A Wiki tool was implemented in two postgraduate units in an Australian university to develop and improve students’ professional and personal skills, i.e. communication, leadership, time management, problem-solving and decision-making. A Wiki tool becomes essential in teaching and learning, to promote students’ skills, and control their own learning and access to knowledge, cutting-edge technology and news nationally and internationally. To implement this for students in developed and developing countries, universities and the higher education sector must recognize and achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) which were signed by 189 United Nation member states in September 2000, the second goal of which is related to education. This chapter provides empirical evidence, gathered through mixed methods, from 88 students who have been exposed to Wiki as a teaching tool. Student’s feedback indicates that the use of Wiki in the higher education setting is valuable and gratifying as it enables students to develop and enhance several skills, including communication, collaboration, interpersonal, writing, reading, and search/research, problem-solving and decision-making, all of which are required for both their current studies and their futures in the real-world workplace. In addition, students show their satisfaction with the Wiki’s tool, as it develops specific skills for the current study and for the future workplace, i.e. cultural awareness and cutting edge.
Tomayess Issa

Chapter 2. ICT Diffusion Trajectories and Economic Development: Empirical Evidence for 46 Developing Countries

In economic theory, technology is treated as a crucial factor contributing significantly to economic development. Seminal works of Schumpeter (Theory of economic development. Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick, 1934, J Econ Hist 7:149–159, 1947), Baumol (Am Econ Rev 76:1072–1084, 1986), Gerschenkron (Economic backwardness in economic perspective. Belknap Press, Cambridge, MA, 1962) or Abramovitz (J Econ Hist 46(2):385–406, 1986) emphasize the special role of technological progress in the process of economic development. The objective of the study is twofold. Firstly, using panel data, we analyze diffusion trajectories of ICTs in developing countries, assessing dynamics of the process. Secondly, we hypothesize about the existence of quantitative links between the adoption of ICT and economic development. The time framework for the analysis is the period 2000–2011. Statistical data are derived from the World Telecommunication/ICT Indicators Database (2012), World Development Indicators (2013), and Human Development Report (2013).
Ewa Lechman

Chapter 3. An Empirical Analysis of Gendered Differences in MDG Awareness Across Sources of Information

Awareness of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) relies heavily on the way information about MDGs is propagated. The various types of media that are sources of MDG information include newspapers, news and current affairs, magazines, detailed technical reports, books, internet and friends. These information sources appeal to different demographics. Current empirical evidence suggests that MDG awareness is relatively low particularly in developed countries, and that the levels of MDG awareness vary considerably across socio-economic variables or demographics. In this chapter, the research problem of the variation in MDG awareness, among males and females, across seven types of sources of information is considered. The research question is, therefore: to what extent does MDG awareness vary across gender groups, across types of information sources? Data from the World Value Surveys (2005–2008) are analysed using a sample of 86,877 respondents. Evidence of gendered differences in MDG awareness is sought using t-tests of differences in proportions. Factors likely to influence MDG awareness are identified using logistic regressions and reported through the use of odds ratio. The results have implications for promoting and monitoring MDG progress locally and globally.
Elkana Ngwenya

Chapter 4. Global Evidence of Age-Structured Differences in MDG Awareness Among Users of Personal Computers

One of the major challenges facing the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is the level of MDG awareness. High levels of MDG awareness require information and communication technology (ICT) for propagating, promoting and monitoring goals, programs and achievement of goals. The use of ICT in promoting MDGs relies on access to and the extent of use of personal computers (PCs). Exposure and use of PCs varies considerably, across age cohorts. It is paramount, therefore, to examine any evidence of age-structured differences in MDG awareness across use of PCs. Data from the World Value Surveys (2005–2008) are examined, drawing from a sample of 50,773 respondents. The link between MDG awareness and PC use is examined using t-tests of differences in proportions of MDG-aware respondents. Determinants of MDG awareness among PC users, in seven age groups, are identified using odds ratios (ORs) from a logistic regression model of MDG awareness. The results obtained are of global significance given that the impact of the ICT revolution on achieving MDGs is considered to rely significantly on PC use and access to broadband. These results have implications for promoting and monitoring achievement of MDG targets.
Elkana Ngwenya

Chapter 5. Finding Weighted Positive Influence Dominating Set to Make Impact to Negatives: A Study on Online Social Networks in the New Millennium

In the new millennium, information and communication technologies (ICTs) such as the internet and mobile phones have been developed rapidly. These new technologies have changed people’s communication patterns and provided new ways of maintaining online social networks which play ever-important roles in shaping the behavior of users on the web in the new millennium. ICTs also offer new computational models and data to investigate the dynamics and structure of exploiting the relationships and influences among individuals in online social networks. As an example, users on Wikipedia can vote for or against the nomination of others to adminship; users on Epinions can express trust or distrust of others. These facts illustrate that the relationship among the users of online social networks can be either positive or negative. The chapter will investigate negative as well as positive relationships of users in online social networks. We will focus on a novel dominating set named Weighted Positive Influence Dominating Set (WPIDS) problem arising from some social problems.
Guangyuan Wang, Hua Wang, Xiaohui Tao, Ji Zhang

Chapter 6. A Conceptual Interdisciplinary Plug-and-Play Cyber Security Framework

Malicious cyber activities are no longer a matter of if but of when, and in our increasingly interconnected world, threats to our national sovereignty can come from unexpected sources and directions—a 360°globalised challenge. Cyber threats are increasingly important and strategically relevant in both developed and developing countries. Cyber security is one of the highest priority items on the global policy and national security agendas, and an increasingly challenging policy area for governments. Our thesis is that cyber security is no longer the preserve of any single country, entity, (industry) sector or disciplinary field because of the nature and extent of an increasingly connected and sophisticated technological and user bases. There is, therefore, a need to bring together perspectives and approaches from different disciplines and countries, and investigate what we can do singularly and collaboratively to secure our cyberspace and future. This essay proposes a conceptual framework that allows theories from different disciplines and different strategies, techniques and best practices to be “plugged-and-played” when studying/understanding and responding to malicious cyber activities. Three potential research topics are also identified to seek to provide more evidence to support the proposed framework.
Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo

Chapter 7. Mobile Phone and Development: Synthesis on New Misuse Perspective

The chapter takes a critical look at the ways mobile phone misuse has been handled in the discipline. It raises the awareness that some mobile phone misuses exist that have not been looked into because they are difficult to be defined, and hence detected. It raises awareness on the mobile phone misuse that mobile users indulge in that are detrimental to them, despite the fact that they may be involved in this misuse knowingly or unknowingly. Two theoretical frameworks were used to surface the conceptual framework that could enhance future scholarly work. Conclusion was reached that it has become critical for mobile phone misuses users suffer from due to their own use to be critically interrogated. It was assumed that such study will allow researchers to come up with new methods and contents for socializing mobile phone users into how to use their mobile phones profitably for developmental reasons.
Samuel C. Avemaria Utulu

Chapter 8. Incorporating ICTs in Schools for Effective Education: Challenges and Prospects

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is critical for attaining the second millennium development goal, geared towards providing education for all at the basic educational level. Although ICT in education has frequently been linked to higher efficiency and better educational outcome, the vision of providing easy access to education is yet to be achieved. This situation is true for Nigeria with a population of over 148 million. Regrettably, many developing counties, in Africa, are still low in ICT application and use. However, in an information age like ours, the application of ICT in education is imperative for providing students with opportunities for effective learning. For this reason, examining the challenges involved in application of ICT in education is significant for educators in order to surmount these obstacles and consequently successfully incorporate ICT into the educational system. Hence, this chapter presents the relevant literature on ICTs and the perceived barriers to ICT integration in basic education. It presents the implications of incorporating ICT in the basic educational system of Lagos State, one of the most populous cities in Nigeria. The challenges confronting the integration of ICT in education are equally identified with a view to ensuring a more efficient application of ICT in attaining education for all.
Vivian Ogochukwu Nwaocha

Chapter 9. Implementing ICT in Schools in a Developing Country: A Fijian Experience

Significant advances have been made towards the United Nations Millennium Development Goals on universal education. While there has been an increase in the number of children who now attend primary school, the quality of education remains an issue in many countries. Knowledge and the ability to use ICT are considered to be mandatory for citizens of this century. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is becoming increasingly more common in classrooms in developed countries. However, ICT use is often beyond the reach of many school communities in developing countries. While supporting these developing countries through donations of technology is a start, there is an equal if not a greater need to build teacher capacity so that the resources are effective in classrooms. The Share, Engage and Educate (SEE) project is about creating educational opportunities for learners in developing countries using ICT. Through the efforts of volunteers, the project provides technological resources to schools and engages teachers in activities that develop their capacity. The SEE project has adopted a four-phase model for ICT integration: objectives, implementation, feedback, and reflection. This chapter reports upon the project’s ongoing implementation phase in Fiji, including the approach taken to build teacher capacity and the identification of factors which have impacted upon the project’s success.
Vinesh Chandra, Ramila Chandra, David Nutchey

Chapter 10. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Applications for Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

Information and communication technology (ICT) being developed for the next generation is growing in many dimensions for customer relationship management (CRM) that is looking to enhance modern facilities with minimum cost and maximum security in network communications. The application of e-Health over the next-generation wireless network is considered to be a Millennium Development Goal (MDG). Future wireless systems and ICT facilities based on next-generation networked radio frequency identification (NGN-RFID) systems are very useful for the health MDG, which is approached through CRM values. In this research, we consider customer facilities, relationship and management techniques between healthcare management committees of particular healthcare businesses in profitable healthcare industries or the health MDG in nonprofit projects through a NGN-RFID system that collects and handles all data from the CRM. The purpose of this research is to analyze possible ICT applications based on an NGN-RFID system for CRM, which focuses on the satisfaction of customers who are loyal to healthcare agencies authorized by the United Nations (UN). CRM limitations of selected CRM values and their strategic approaches considered for health MDGs are also briefly discussed.
The health MDG should be implemented to desperate elderly people who fight for their lives. The NGN-RFID system architecture and necessary models are investigated through the research of past and present situations in CRM and a case study of healthcare industries challenged by RFID technology. Compared with other counterparts existing in the literature, the investigated theoretical analysis shows that the proposed NGN-RFID solution can improve the effectiveness of CRM. The cost and time can be reduced by means of quick interactions and decisions within the healthcare environment. The analysis also shows that a theoretical model can be constructed for the future of CRM using NGN-RFID technology that can bring about 10 % improvements in the health MDG influenced with ICT applications. Service providers of cloud computing should expect better models and solutions for future CRM, which should then be attractive to customers as well as to all kinds of industries including the health MDG. A new version of the NGN-RFID system will be useful not only for switching over new customers, but also for increasing the number of loyal customers involved in the health MDG. With these modern RFID technologies, the legacy of CRM will be enhanced without affecting its originality.
Vijey Thayananthan, Ahmed Alzahrani, Muhammad Shuaib Qureshi

Chapter 11. Information Retrieval Using Rough Set Approximations

Rough set theory is a useful mathematical tool that deals with vagueness and uncertainty in data. It has been applied to many important computer scientific fields that helped to deliver the millennium development goals to the united nations, such as data mining, machine learning, pattern recognition, and expert systems. The main objective of this chapter is to investigate the applications of rough set theory in the field of information retrieval. By classifying and analyzing the existing approaches with regard to this topic, the advantages of using rough set theory become clear. Using rough set approach enables us to improve the information retrieval system performances in terms of document ranking, recall level and may provide more user oriented search strategies.
Bing Zhou, Lei Chen, Xiuyi Jia

Chapter 12. The Role of ICTs in Poverty Eradication: More Than 15 Years’ Experience from the Field

The increased uptake of information and communication technology (ICT) has enabled people to access information, make informed decisions and co-create solutions to address their individual problems, contributing to poverty eradication. Despite increasing Internet access and mobile services, less than 10 % of all communication carried out is related to business or developmental issues. Access is still limited in most developing countries, particularly in remote areas. ICT for development cannot be measured based on the spread of technology alone. People’s ability to use these technologies is pivotal. ICTs are raising the demand for new e-skills where multi-stakeholder involvement is crucial. With over 15 years of experience, IICD has gained valuable insight into how organisations and individuals can benefit from ICT and overcome key challenges: accessibility, affordability, acceptability, availability, adaptability, accountability and ability. This chapter explores how ICTs can foster new forms of innovative development that are more inclusive, participative and just.
Caroline M. Figuères, Hilde Eugelink

Chapter 13. ICT-Based Trade Facilitation and the MDGs: A Case Study of a Public–Private Partnership in Ghana

The strategic and innovative deployment and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) is important to development and the attainment of the millennium development goals (MDGs). Previous studies have suggested that ICT-based trade facilitation promotes development through better integration into global markets. Through an interpretive case study, this chapter explores an ICT-based initiative to connect members of the trading community in Ghana on an electronic data interchange (EDI) platform. More specifically, it explored the contributions of the initiative to efficient trade facilitation and discusses the broader implications for achieving the MDGs in Ghana. The research confirms that the initiative has improved operational efficiency at Ghana’s ports and borders. Furthermore, it has enabled efficient and reliable collection of duties and taxes. The findings reinforce the view that government support and private sector expertise and funding are important factors in ICT-based e-government solutions in developing countries. The chapter contends that ICT-based trade facilitation can make a significant contribution to the attainment of the MDGs in Ghana.
Godfried Bakiyem Adaba, Lazar Rusu

Chapter 14. A Case Study: From Game Programming to ICTs

Students in the U.S. perform poorly in mathematics and science tests in both U.S. and international assessments, a weakness reflected in the Information Communication and Technology competencies. The strong connection between competencies in mathematics, science, and ICT has created major concerns for educators and policy makers since poor performance in these areas endangers the future of the nation in global business. As a result, we investigated how the perspectives of noncomputer science educators changed when they learned game programming and ICT skills. The participants learned two free Web 2.0 game programming applications including Scratch and Alice and discussed one article. Online discussions and peer review processes through social network made up this mixed method study. The findings indicated that teaching and learning game programming with project-based learning as well as reflecting on teaching methods resulted in building logical concepts and critical thinking skills. The results also led to promoting ICT in the K-16 curriculum and private firms.
Li-Jen Shannon, Yaprak Dalat Ward

Chapter 15. Challenges for Mobile Governance in India: A Legal Perspective

In recent years, the governments’ use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), popularly known as electronic governance (e-governance), has been on the rise. Studies have shown that in many countries e-governance has contributed to achieving a number of the targets set out in the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) by the United Nations. However, emerging economies like India are lagging behind developed countries in initiating and implementing e-governance policy and practice. One of the primary reasons for this is a lack of resources and infrastructure with respect to computers, fixed telephone lines and Internet connectivity within the governance network. However, the meteoric rise in mobile phone subscription in India in the last 10 years provides a strong base for an alternative or complementary tool to support e-governance, known as mobile governance (m-governance). The central and state governments of India have initiated numerous m-governance initiatives, but India still faces several legal challenges with m-governance’s adoption. The Information Technology Act, 2000 (India) is able to address some of these challenges but is unlikely to fully address the complex range of issues involving mobile communication. The aim of this paper is to examine the legal issues that need to be addressed in order to create an effective legal environment for m-governance in India. The findings of this paper are likely to assist other emerging economies that are facing similar legal challenges in improving their e-governance scenario while advancing their MDGs.
Aashish Srivastava, Md Khalid Hossain


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