Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
In recent years, the presence of human-use compounds in the aquatic environment has been recognized as an important issue in environmental chemistry. Among them, illicit drugs have been described as a new unexpected group of water contaminants with potent psychoactive properties and unknown effects to the aquatic environment.
The presence of these drugs in water resources is of rising concern and several studies are being conducted all over the world estimating discharged levels of drugs of abuse. In this chapter, a summary of the last works studying and reporting the occurrence of illicit drugs in water resources is performed. Up to now, drugs of abuse have been already detected in wastewaters and surface waters in the USA, Italy, Germany, the UK and Spain. These drugs reach wastewater treatment plants either unaltered or in their main metabolite form. Depending on the removal efficiencies, they can persist through wastewater treatment and be detected in receiving waters, which in some cases are used for drinking water production. The presence of these compounds in raw waters and their elimination through the drinking water treatment must be considered as an issue with regard to the quality of water supplies.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Baselt, R.C. (2004). Disposition of toxic drugs and chemicals in man. (7th ed.). Foster City, CA: Biomedical Publications.
Boleda, M. R., Galceran, M. T., & Ventura, F. (2007). Trace determination of cannabinoids and opiates in wastewater and surface waters by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography, 1175, 38–48. CrossRef
Boleda, M. R., Galceran, M. T., & Ventura, F. (2009). Monitoring of opiates, cannabinoids and their metabolites in wastewater, surface water and finished water in Catalonia, Spain. Water Research, 43, 1126–1136. CrossRef
Bones, J., Thomas, K. V., & Brett, P. (2007). Using environmental analytical data to estimate levels of community consumption of illicit drugs and abused pharmaceuticals. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 9, 701–707. CrossRef
Castiglioni, S., Zuccato, E., Crisci, E., Chiabrando, C., Fanelli, R., & Bagnati, R. (2006). Identification and measurement of illicit drugs and their metabolites in urban wastewater by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 78, 8421–8429. CrossRef
Chiaia, A. C., Banta-Green, C., & Fink, G. (2008). Eliminating Solid Phase Extraction with Large-Volume Injection LC/MS/MS: Analysis of Illicit and Legal Drugs and Human Urine Indicators in US Wastewaters. Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 8841–8848. CrossRef
Daughton, C.G. (2001). Illicit drugs in municipal sewage: proposed new non-intrusive tool to heighten public awareness of societal use of illicit/abused drugs and their potential for ecological consequences. In C.G. Daughton & T. Jones-Lepp (Eds.), Pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment. scientific and regulatory issues (pp. 348–364). Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.
Gheorghe, A., van Nuijs, A., Pecceu, B., Bervoets, L., Jorens, P. G., Blust, R., et al. (2008). Analysis of cocaine and its principal metabolites in waste and surface water using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography -ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 391, 1309–1319. CrossRef
Huerta-Fontela, M., Galceran, M. T., Martin, J., & Ventura, F. (2008). Occurrence of psychoactive stimulatory drugs in wastewaters in north-eastern Spain. Science of the Total Environment, 397, 31–40. CrossRef
Huerta-Fontela, M., Galceran, M. T., & Ventura, F. (2007). Ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of stimulatory drugs of abuse in wastewater and surface waters. Analytical Chemistry, 79, 3821–3829. CrossRef
Huerta-Fontela, M., Galceran, M. T., & Ventura, F. (2008). Stimulatory drugs of abuse in surface waters and their removal in a conventional drinking water treatment plant. Environmental Science and Technology, 42, 6809–6816. CrossRef
Hummel, D., Loeffler, D., Fink, G., & Ternes, T. A. (2006). Simultaneous determination of psychoactive drugs and their metabolites in aqueous matrices by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Environmental Science and Technology, 40, 7321–7328. CrossRef
Jones-Lepp, T. L., Alvarez, D. A., Petty, J. D., & Huckins, J. N. (2004). Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 47, 427–439. CrossRef
Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dinsdale, R. M., & Guwy, A. J. (2007). Multi-residue method for the determination of basic/neutral pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in surface water by solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography, 1161, 132–145. CrossRef
Kasprzyk-Hordern, B., Dinsdale, R. M., & Guwy, A. J. (2008). The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, personal care products, endocrine disruptors, and illicit drugs in surface water in South Wales, UK. Water Research, 42, 3498–3518. CrossRef
Postigo, C., Lopez de Alda, M. J., & Barcelo, D. (2008). Fully automated determination in the low nanogram per liter level of different classes of drugs of abuse in sewage water by on-line solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical Chemistry, 80, 3123–3134. CrossRef
United Nations Office of Drug and Crime (2007). World Drug Report 2007, from www.unodc.org/unodc/world_drug_report.html, 1.
van Nuijs, A. L. N., Theunis, L., Dubois, N., Charlier, C., Jorens, P. G., Bervoets, L., et al. (2008). Cocaine and metabolites in waste and surface water across Belgium. Environmental Pollution, 157, 123–129.
Zuccato, E., Castiglioni, S., Bagnati, R., Chiabrando, C., Grassi, P., & Fanelli, R. (2008). Illicit drugs, a novel group of environmental contaminants. Water Research, 42, 961–968. CrossRef
Zuccato, E., Chiabrando, C., Castiglioni, S., Bagnati, R., & Fanelli, R. (2008). Estimating community drug abuse by wastewater analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116, 1027–1032. CrossRef
Zuccato, E., Chiabrando, C., Castiglioni, S., Calamari, D., Bagnati, R., Schiarea, S., et al. (2005). Cocaine in surface waters: a new evidence-based tool to monitor community drug abuse. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source, 4, 1–7. CrossRef
- Illicit Drugs in the Urban Water Cycle
Maria Teresa Galceran
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 3
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen