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As long as certain commodities and services are deemed illegal by the state, illicit markets will exist if there is significant demand for them. Prohibition gives illicit materials a higher price, as risk-takers form cartels and indulge in criminal operations to make as much money as possible. This has been true throughout history in most corners of the world. This chapter will discuss moments in history when the state tried to ban certain goods for the purpose of morality. Most of the time, the result has been the formation of black markets to supply the good.
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N. W. Philcox, An Introduction to Organized Crime (Charles C. Thomas Publisher: Springfield, 1978), pp. 6–7.
L.W. King “Code of Hammurabi,” http://avalon.law.yale.edu/ancient/hamframe.asp, accessed May 7, 2017.
Louise Shelley “Illicit Trade” in Handbook of Globalization and Development, ed. Kenneth A. Reinert (Edward Elgar Publishing: London, 2017), 112.
L.W. King “Code of Hammurabi,” accessed May 7, 2017 http://avalon.law.yale.edu/ancient/hamframe.asp.
Moises Naim Illicit: How Smugglers, Traffickers and Copycats are Hijacking the World Economy (Doubleday: New York, 2005), p. 4.
Georgios A. Antonopoulis “The Dragon’s shadow: an introduction to the special issue on ‘Chinese organized crime,’” Trends in Organized Crime (vol. 16, no. 1, 2013), p. 1.
Oyster Bay Conference on Organized Crime (1965), quoted in N. W. Philcox, An Introduction to Organized Crime (Charles C. Thomas Publisher: Springfield, 1978), 4.
Center for Strategic & International Studies (CSIS), Russian Organised Crime. Washington, DC: CSIS, 1997, pp. 23–24.
N. W. Philcox, An Introduction to Organized Crime (Charles C. Thomas Publisher: Springfield, 1978), p. 18.
Michelle Chen, “A Cultural Crossroads at the ‘Bloody Angle’: The Chinatown Tongs and the Development of New York City’s Chinese American Community,” Journal of Urban History, 40, 2 (2014): p. 360.
Norman W. Philcox, An Introduction to Organized Crime, p. 20.
Ibid., p. 5.
Mark Thornton, The Economics of Prohibition (University of Utah Press: Salt Lake City, 1991), pp. 120, 125.
Scott H. Decker and Margaret Townsend Chapman, Drug Smugglers on Drug Smuggling: Lessons from the Inside (Temple University Press: Philadelphia, 2008), pp. 34–35.
Peter Andreas, Smuggler Nation: How Illicit Trade Made America (Oxford University: New York, NY and Oxford, 2013).
Norman H. Clark, The Dry Years: Prohibition and Social Change in Washington (University of Washington Press: Seattle, 1988), p. 7.
Quoted in Norman L. Clark The Dry Years: Prohibition and Social Change in Washington, p. 66.
Ibid., p. 67.
“Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Sixtieth Congress: Argument of Hon. Richard Bartholdt, Representative from Missouri, in Opposition to the Several Bills to Restrict Interstate Commerce in Certain Cases” Libertarianism.org, April 10, 1908, 2017 https://www.libertarianism.org/publications/essays/wet-dry-richard-bartholdt-against-prohibition, accessed June 20, 2017. The Congressman had the foresight to see how the eventual “war on drugs” would fail as well.
For an in-depth look into the subject of prohibition, please refer to Lisa McGirr, The War on Alcohol: Prohibition and the Rise of the American State (New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York, 2015).
John Dickle, Blood Brotherhoods: A History of Italy’s Three Mafias (PublicAffairs: New York, 2013), p. 192.
Ibid., p. 226.
J. O’Brian, “The St. Valentine’s Day Massacre” Chicago Tribune, February 14, 2014, accessed June 23, 2017.
Peter Reuter, “The Decline of the American Mafia,” Public Interest, (Summer 1995): p. 89.
Quoted in Beto O’Rouke and Susie Byrd Dealing Death and Drugs: The Big Business of Dope in the U.S. and Mexico (Cinco Punto Press: El Paso, 2010), pp. 77–78.
Peter Reuter “The Decline of the American Mafia” Public Interest, (Summer 1995): p. 90.
Karst J. Besteman, “Alternative Perspectives on the Drug Policy Debate,” in The Drug Legalization Debate, ed. James Inciardi (Sage: London, 1999), p. 151.
Duane C. McBride, “Alternative Perspectives on the Drug Policy Debate,” in The Drug Legalization Debate, ed. James Inciardi (Sage: London, 1999), p. 19.
Richard Nixon, “266—Special Message to the Congress on Control of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs,” The American Presidents Project, July 14, 1969, http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=2126, accessed June 20, 2017.
Deborah J. Vagins and Jesselyn McCurdy, Cracks in the System: Twenty Years of the Unjust Federal Crack Cocaine Law (New York, NY: ACLU, 2006), pp. i–ii.
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Ashley Nellis, The Color of Justice: Racial and Ethnic Disparity in State Prisons (The Sentencing Project: Washington, DC, 2016).
“Incarceration,” The Sentencing Project, http://www.sentencingproject.org/issues/incarceration/, accessed April 2017.
Marc Mauer and Ryan King, A 25-Year Quagmire: The War on Drugs and Its Impact on American Society (The Sentencing Project: Washington, DC, 2007), p. 1.
“Drug Policy,” The Sentencing Project, http://www.sentencingproject.org/issues/drug-policy/, accessed April 2017.
Marc Mauer and Ryan King, A 25-Year Quagmire: The War on Drugs and Its Impact on American Society, p. 10.
C. Reinarman and H. Levine “Crack in Context: America’s Latest Demon Drug,” Crack in America: Demon Drugs and Social Justice (University of California Press: Berkeley, 1997), p. 2.
Reinarman and Levine “Crack in Context: America’s Latest Demon Drug” 1997, 2.
David Borden, “Drug Prohibition and Poverty,” Brown Journal of World Affairs 20, 1, (2013): p. 227.
Edna Buchanan, The Corpse Had a Familiar Face (Pocket Books: New York, 1987), p. 145.
William J. Bennett, “Don’t Surrender: The Drug War Worked Once. It can again,” in Drug War: The Policy Battle Continues, ed. Laura E. Huggins (Hoover Institution Press: Stanford, 2005), p. 81.
“Drug War Clock,” Drug Sense, http://www.drugsense.org/cms/wodclock, accessed June 23, 2017.
Peter Lupsha, “Trasnational organized crime versus the nation-state,” Transnational organized crime, Vol. 2. No. 1, (Spring 1996): p. 31.
Ibid., p. 32.
See Bruce Bagley, Drug Trafficking and Organized Crime in the Americas (Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars: Washington, DC, 2012).
Peter Reuters, “The Mobility of Drug Trafficking” in Ending the War on Drugs, ed. John Collins (London School of Economics: London, 2014), p. 33.
Mark Stevenson, “Marijuana big earner for Mexican gangs,” USA Today, February 2, 2008.
Peter Lupsha, “Transnational organized crime versus the nation-state,” Transnational organized crime, Vol. 2. No. 1 (Spring 1996): p. 28.
Victor Ballinas and Andrea Becerril, “Rubido García reconoce un crecimiento de 20 por ciento en los secuestros,” La Jornada, March 20, 2014.
Mark Stevenson “Marijuana big earner for Mexican gangs.”
Ricardo Ravelo, “Bajo la amenaza del pacto,” Proceso, No. 1606, August 12, 2007, p. 9.
José Carreño Figueras, “Sicario confiesa 800 asesinatos; Jesús Ernesto Chávez implicado en le caso Salvárcal,” Excélsior, February 12, 2014. http://www.excelsior.com.mx/nacional/2014/02/12/943392.
“Mortal Moonshine,” Top 10 Prohibition Tales, Time. http://content.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1864521_1864524_1864626,00.html, accessed May 12, 2017.
“PCP laced marijuana: creating psychosis and psychiatric commitment” Citizens Commission on Human Rights, http://www.cchrflorida.org/pcp-laced-marijuana-creating-psychosis-and-psychiatric-commitment/, accessed May 12, 2017.
Los Pepes was organized to protect people from being further harmed by Escobar.
Arthur Benavie, Drugs: America’s Holy War (Routledge: New York, 2009), p. ix.
Gerhard O. W. Mueller, “Transnational Crime: Definitions and Concepts,” Transnational Organised Crime, Vol. 4, Nos. 3 and 4 (Autumn/Winter 1998): p. 14.
- Illicit Markets: A Short Historical Summary
Hanna Samir Kassab
Jonathan D. Rosen
- Chapter 2
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