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Über dieses Buch

This volume constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference of the Immersive Learning Network, iLRN 2018, held in Missoula, MT, USA, in June 2018.

The 12 revised full papers and the two revised short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 57 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on environmental sciences, climate change, immersive technologies; immersive technologies in cultural heritage; immersive technologies in primary and secondary education; games and game design.



Environmental Sciences, Climate Change, and Immersive Technologies


Virtual Learning Environments for Promoting Self Transformation: Iterative Design and Implementation of Philadelphia Land Science

The objective of this design-based research study was to develop, implement and refine Philadelphia Land Science (PLS), an interactive web-based experience designed to support learning framed as identity exploration over time, leading to identity change around environmental science and urban planning careers. PLS was developed using Projective Reflection (PR) and tested with high school students at a science museum in Philadelphia as part of a larger on-going study funded by the National Science Foundation (Foster 2014). Projective Reflection (PR) frames learning as identity exploration and change to inform the design of games and game-based learning curricula to facilitate intentional change in learners’ (a) knowledge, (b) interest and valuing, (c) self-organization and self-control, and d) self-perceptions and self-definitions in academic domains/careers. Change is tracked from a learner’s initial current self, through exploration of possible selves (measured repeatedly), to a learner’s new self at a desired specific end-point (Shah et al. 2017). PLS was constructed through the modification of the virtual internship Land Science, and capitalized on the strengths of its design features, which were informed by the Epistemic Frames Theory (Shaffer 2006). The paper introduces two iterations of PLS and concludes with implications for design and implementation of games for facilitating identity change. Implications are discussed for advancing research on learning and identity in immersive virtual environments.
Aroutis Foster, Mamta Shah, Amanda Barany, Mark Eugene Petrovich, Jessica Cellitti, Migela Duka, Zachari Swiecki, Amanda Siebart-Evenstone, Hannah Kinley, Peter Quigley, David Williamson Shaffer

Embodying Climate Change: Incorporating Full Body Tracking in the Design of an Interactive Rates of Change Greenhouse Gas Simulation

The ELASTIC3S project creates novel immersive simulations aimed at exploring in detail the connection between purposeful gesture and learning transfer across science content domains. This paper describes the theory and design behind the most recent addition: a dynamic, two-participant, gesture-controlled rates of change simulation addressing climate change through the lens of the greenhouse effect. Leveraging a flexible “one-shot” gesture recognition system and a 3-screen immersive simulation theater, participants work together to explore a representation of the greenhouse effect while embodying concepts of rates of change and dynamic equilibrium.
James Planey, Robb Lindgren

Prompting Connections Between Content and Context: Blending Immersive Virtual Environments and Augmented Reality for Environmental Science Learning

Outdoor field trip experiences are a cornerstone of quality environmental science instruction, yet the excitement and distractions associated with field trips can overwhelm learning objectives. Augmented reality (AR) can focus students’ attention and help them connect the concept rich domain of the classroom with the context rich experiences in the field. In this study, students used an immersive virtual pond, and then participated in a field trip to a real pond augmented by mobile technologies. We are interested in understanding whether and how augmenting a field trip with information via handheld mobile devices can help students connect concepts learned in the classroom with observations during the field trip. Specifically, we are curious about how augmentation allows students to “see the unseen” in concepts such as photosynthesis and respiration as well as apply causal reasoning patterns they learned about in the classroom while using an inquiry-based immersive virtual environment, EcoMUVE. We designed an AR supported field trip with three different treatments: (1) a ‘visual’ treatment in which students were prompted to consider content or perspectives from EcoMUVE using videos and animations (2) a ‘text’ treatment in which students were prompted to consider content or perspectives from EcoMUVE using text and images, and (3) a ‘control’ treatment that did not specifically prompt students to think about content or perspectives from EcoMUVE. We used a mixed-methods research approach and collected data based on pre, mid, and post surveys; student responses to prompts captured in the notes and log files during the field trip; a post-field-trip survey; and performance on an in-class written assignment. On the field trip, we found that students in all three treatments more frequently referred to visible factors and direct effects than to invisible factors and indirect effects. There were few discernible differences between the text and visual prompted treatments based on responses in the notes and log files captured during the field trip. After the field trip, students exposed to the prompted treatments were more likely to describe invisible factors such as wind, weather, and human impacts, while students exposed to the control treatment continued to focus on visible features such as aquatic plants. These findings provide insights to designers who aim to support learning activities in outdoor and immersive learning environments.
Amy M. Kamarainen, Meredith Thompson, Shari J. Metcalf, Tina A. Grotzer, Michael Shane Tutwiler, Chris Dede

Immersive Analytics for the Ecological Cognitive Stimulation Approach

The continuous attenuation of the old people’s cognitive functions is one of the most common problems encountered nowadays. However, the absence of curative treatments for the mild cognitive impairment like Alzheimer’s disease pushes the specialists to propose alternative solutions, for medicinal treatments, which can be based on tele-operating robots, remote monitoring platforms and software applications for cognitive stimulation.
In this paper, we move from the classic cognitive methods of the stimulation related to the old person to ecological solutions that exploit the person’s data to propose adaptive activities. Ecological solutions use environment, connected objects data and person profile, for building activities of the cognitive stimulation that adapts to the corresponding situation. To build activities, efficiently, we propose to exploit immersive analytics potential to analyze and visualize the available huge amount of data through constructing virtual environments for the simulations, leading to better decisions that may influence the life of the persons.
Maroua Ayadi, Nouha Arfaoui, Jalel Akaichi

An Immersive System for 3D Floods Visualization and Analysis

Climate change has serious implications on our environment. Examples of such natural risks are massive rainfalls and the rise of ocean levels. Millions of people are exposed to the risk of extreme floods and storms. It is therefore crucial to develop analytical tools that allow us to evaluate the threats of floods and to investigate the influence of mitigation and adaptation measures, such as stronger dikes, adaptive spatial planning, and flood disaster plans. The objective of our work is to present a flood management system that aims to model and visualize floods. It provides realistic images to help users in understanding and interpreting these disaster scenarios. In order to investigate the applicability in practice, we illustrated the use of our system for real-world data in a case study for the city of Paris, France.
Marwa Massaâbi, Olfa Layouni, Wided Ben Moussa Oueslati, Fahad Alahmari

The Next Generation of Disaster Management and Relief Planning: Immersive Analytics Based Approach

Managing the risks of natural disasters can be enhanced by exploring social data. The need to swiftly extract meaningful information from large amounts of data generated by social network is on the rise especially to deal with natural disasters. New methods are needed to deeply support immersive social data analytics. Moreover, big data analysis seems to be able to improve accurate decisions to disaster management systems. The aim of this research is to determine critical cases and to focus on immersive sentiment analysis for big social data using Hadoop platform and machine learning technique. In one hand, we use MapReduce for the introduced data processing step. In the other hand, we apply support vector machine algorithm for the sentiment classification. We evaluate the performance of the performed classification method using the standard classification performance metrics accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure and Microsoft Power BI as a visualization tool.
Radhia Toujani, Yasmin Chaabani, Zeineb Dhouioui, Hanen Bouali

Immersive Technologies in Cultural Heritage


The Making and Evaluation of Picts and Pixels: Mixed Exhibiting in the Real and the Unreal

Museums publicly display collections in a physical space to relay narratives and concepts to their audiences. Progressive technologies in an exhibition can bring in varying demographics and gather higher footfall for a museum as well as present digital heritage interpretation in an innovative manner. A mixed media exhibition can facilitate subjects with limited physical resources or difficult to display pieces as well as the visual landscape the objects were found within. A combination of Virtual Reality headsets, 3D digitized objects, digitally reconstructed archaeological sites alongside traditional object displays as methods of interpretation substantiate research in techniques and usability as well as challenges of recoup cost and digital literacies. This paper investigates the methodology, technology and evaluation of the mixed media exhibition Picts & Pixels presented by Culture Perth and Kinross and the Open Virtual Worlds research team at the University of St Andrews at the Perth Museum and Art Gallery in summer 2017.
Catherine Anne Cassidy, Adeola Fabola, Elizabeth Rhodes, Alan Miller

Fidelity Perception of 3D Models on the Web

Cultural heritage artefacts act as a gateway helping people learn about their social traditions and history. However, preserving these artefacts faces many difficulties, including potential destruction or damage from global warming, wars and conflicts, and degradation from day-to-day use. In addition, artefacts can only be present in one place at a time, and many of them can not be exhibited due to the limited physical space of museums. The digital domain offers opportunities to capture and represent the form and texture of these artefacts and to overcome the previously mentioned constraints by allowing people to access and interact with them on multiple platforms (mobile devices, tablets and personal computers) and network regimes. Through two experiments we study the subjective perception of the fidelity of 3D models in web browsers in order to discover perceptible resolution thresholds. This helps us create models of reasonable graphical complexity that could be fetched on the biggest range of end devices. It also enables us to design systems which efficiently optimise the user experience by adapting their behaviour based upon user perception, model characteristics and digital infrastructure.
Hussein Bakri, Alan Miller, Iain Oliver

Immersive Technologies in Primary and Secondary Education


Mathland: Constructionist Mathematical Learning in the Real World Using Immersive Mixed Reality

Mathematical experiences are intrinsic to our everyday lives, yet mathematics education is mostly confined to textbooks. Seymour Papert used the term ‘Mathland’ to propose a world where one would learn mathematics as naturally as one learns French while growing up in France. We built a Mixed Reality application that augments the physical world with interactive mathematical concepts to enable constructionist mathematical learning in the real world. Using Mathland, people can collaboratively explore, experience and experiment with mathematical phenomena in playful, applied and exploratory ways. We implemented Mathland using the Microsoft Hololens and two custom controllers to afford complete immersion through tangible interactions, embodiment and situated learning. Our preliminary study with 30 participants shows that a considerable percentage of participants found Mathland to not only be engaging (83%), but also efficacious in the areas of collaborative learning (92.8%), problem solving (96.6%) and mathematics education (90%).
Mina Khan, Fernando Trujano, Pattie Maes

Learning Child Development Through Immersion in Ill-Structured Problems Using a Virtual Environment

Preservice teachers have a difficult time bridging theory and practice, particularly when some course work is theory intense, like Child and Human Development. Proponents of clinical practice and field experiences for teacher candidates suggest that more practice in real world contexts is essential to learning to become a teacher. These are not always available, and sometimes, alternatives need to be considered. This paper describes the design and implementation of a learning experience that provides one alternative. What is proposed is an approach to problem-based learning that utilizes ill-structured problems set in a virtual environment designed to simulate a real school. Justification for the design include contextually based simulations from Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Model of Human Development, and relevant constructs found in the literature on problem based learning, ill-structured problems, and the use of multi-user virtual environments. Lessons learned from the first iteration include design updates and instructional considerations for strengthening the bridge from theory to practice.
Leticia De León

Using HMD-Based Immersive Virtual Environments in Primary/K-12 Education

Head-mounted displays (HMD) are becoming more affordable and immersive content more available. Consequently, the home-use of fully immersive virtual environments (IVE) has the potential for increasing significantly in the years to come. Studies suggest that primary/K-12 education can largely benefit from IVE. The existing literature reviews about this topic are almost a decade old, when access to virtual reality was restricted or did not specifically focus on this education level and setting. In this context, this article presents a literature review about learning outcomes from using fully HMD-based IVE in primary/K-12 education. It highlights relevant studies, identifies gaps, and provides insights for future research.
Anna Carolina Muller Queiroz, Alexandre Moreira Nascimento, Romero Tori, Maria Isabel da Silva Leme

Games and Game Design


Facilitating Undergraduate Experimental Game Design: A Pilot Study with Celestial Harmony

Encouraging undergraduate students and other novices to engage with game design experimentation requires the creation of a space where they can research without fear of failure. Creating a safe space requires addressing the class format for both production and grades. We conducted a pilot study with a group in a capstone game design course, seeking to create this safe space for experimentation by framing our roles not as expert instructors but partners in learning, where we offered guidance and mentorship to the groups while retaining student autonomy in much of the game design decisions. In this paper, we identify three key strategies for making students feel more comfortable in an experimental space that is also integrated into a required course. These three strategies are: modifying the grading schema, encouraging rapid prototyping, and providing frequent feedback. Though this guide is focused on experimental game design, many of the lessons we describe could be applied to courses in other fields where experimentation or loosely-defined works are the objective.
Emily Johnson, Anne Sullivan

Social Resiliency in Digital Games

This paper offers an insight of social resiliency in digital games based on ten years of observations from conference presentations on various digital games and virtual reality simulations. The paper articulates the issue of disruptive innovation and its relationship to the driving need for future college and university graduates to be prepared to face challenges associated with complex problems. The paper outlines five key success factors associated with digital game-based learning and their relationship to social resilience. Finally, the paper concludes by discussing several key implications on how future game-based learning designers may be better able to tackle the problem of managing disruptive innovation. Researchers may draw upon this paper’s observations to help frame ways in which future digital games may be better suited for instructional purposes when trying to address challenges of disruptive technology.
Kevin Feenan

Listen and Play: Auditory-Motor Interaction in a Bard’s Tale Video Game

Serious video games represent an immersive way of learning, providing an interaction between learning and game-play. Serious games have shown to be motivational and train the player to acquire certain skills. However, designers should find a balance between pedagogical goals and game-mechanics. Recent investigations show the learning benefits that players obtain by playing music-video games and how these games can support players to improve their musical skills due to embodied music cognition. In the current study, we develop a music-video game to improve the pitch recognition of players. We use the LM-GM model to assess the design of the video game. Moreover, a pilot case study was conducted where the participants performed the video game and answered a Game Experience Questionnaire. Thus, we analyzed the player experience and preliminary results display a relation between learning and game-play. Nevertheless, more studies are needed for appraising the learning effects.
Katya A. Alvarez-Molina, Aaron Jöllenbeck, Rainer Malaka


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