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Growth of immobilized cells can be viewed as an alternative to growth of free cells in many instances. In others, immobilization confers a precision of control over the process not possible in free growth. Immobilization of cells can sometimes be considered to be a lower cost alternative to immobilization of enzymes. In this volume, immobilization procedures based on mechanical means and bonding of various types are examined, with detailed application examples. These applications include microorganisms, plant and animal cells, sub-cellular organelles and multiple enzyme systems. Particular attention is devoted to enzyme properties in immobilized cells and the properties of the carrier. The volume should provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the subject, together with copious references. As well as serving as a research monograph, it could be used to provide reference material for a graduate course. Special thanks are due Mrs. JENNIFER KERBY for her dedicated work in the preparation of the manuscript, and IT-CHIN HSIEH for bibliographical assistance. COLIN R. PHILLIPS Toronto, July 1988 YIU C. POON v Table of Contents 1 Introduction. 1 References . 9 2 Methods of Cell Immobilization 11 2.1 Mechanical Immobilization . 11 2.1.1 Mycelial Pellet and Mat 11 2.1.2 Encapsulation .. 48 2.1.3 Dialysis Culture. . . 49 2.1.4 Entrapment. .... 50 2.2 Covalent Attachment 61 2.3 Ionic Attachment 62 2.3.1 Flocculation 62 2.3.2 Adsorption . 64 References . 66 3 Special Problems and Extended Applications . 75 3.1 Special Problems and Techniques .

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
That living microorganisms can attach to each other and to solid surfaces in the form of films is well known [1]. Such attachment occurs in dental plaque, algal and fungal slimes, bacterial film on soil particles [2], on plant or animal tissues such as intestine and rumen [3] and in chicken crop epithelia [4]. The same effect is also observed in the tendency of many bacteria to assume chain structure. Cell adherence, a phenomenon of great importance in monolayer cell culture because it allows easy manipulation of growing cells, has recently been reviewed [5, 6].
Colin R. Phillips, Yiu Cheong Poon

2. Methods of Cell Immobilization

Abstract
Methods of cell immobilization roughly parallel those of enzyme immobilization and can best be classified by the nature of the mode of attachment, that is, as mechanical, chemical or ionic. In mechanical immobilization, the cells are localized by means of physical barriers. In chemical immobilization, covalent bonds are formed among cells or to a solid phase. In ionic immobilization, electrostatic, van der Waal’s or London forces of attraction are present. Cells can also attach themselves to solid supports in the course of natural growth, using a combination of these means. This classification is obviously not clear-cut but does serve the purpose of organizing the diverse methods of immobilization available. In Table 2.1, examples of cell immobilization are classified by mode of attachment.
Colin R. Phillips, Yiu Cheong Poon

3. Special Problems and Extended Applications

Abstract
Although immobilization is normally applied to fermentations involving enzymes or microbial cells, there are many related areas in which the same principle is used. These areas, which are outside of the present scope, include tissue culture, immunology, dialysis, genetic engineering and affinity chromatography. In this chapter, special problems and techniques encountered in immobilization work are discussed, together with extensions beyond microbial cells and to multiple enzyme systems.
Colin R. Phillips, Yiu Cheong Poon

4. Properties of Immobilized Cell System

Abstract
In general, the range of microbial cells used in immobilization approximately coincides with that used in fermentation processes, and reflects the desire to improve economically important processes by attaching the microorganisms to solid supports. Of the class of bacteria (Schizomycetes), the three orders of Pseudomonadales, Eubacteriales and Actinomycetalis are most frequently encountered and represented by the genera Pseudomonas, Acetobacter, Azotobacter, Rhizobium, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Corynebacterium, Escherichia, Bacillus, Clostridium, Nocardia, Actinomyces, and Streptomyces [1].
Colin R. Phillips, Yiu Cheong Poon

5. Kinetics and Reactor Design for Immobilized Cells

Abstract
Design procedures for immobilized cell reactors are analogous to those used for solid-catalyzed chemical reactors, with the major difference being that immobilized cell kinetics are used instead of chemical kinetics. The extensive literature for the design of chemical reactors is not reviewed here; for this, the reader should refer to one of the many excellent texts in the area, for example, [1–3]. In this chapter, special considerations for immobilized cell reactors are discussed. Special considerations for immobilized enzyme reactors have been discussed by Pitcher [4].
Colin R. Phillips, Yiu Cheong Poon

Backmatter

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