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The damage tolerance of composite structures is intimately linked to the morphology and extent of flaws or damage. Impacts are a commonly occurring source of threat to composites that can produce a “seed” damage state which inherently controls the subsequent durability and damage tolerance of the affected structure. Transverse impact to composites is of particular concern due to the possibility of exciting damage modes that are difficult, or even not possible, to visually detect from the exterior (impact-side) surface. Some examples of such damage are delamination, backside-only fiber failure, debonding of internal substructure (e.g., stringers and stiffeners, doublers, joints), and crushing and separation of sandwich panel core. Impact damage is highly dependent upon the nature of the threat and conditions associated with the impact event. This chapter will provide an overview of impact damage threats that are common to composite aircraft structures and describe the relationship of these threat sources to the damage that is seeded. An historical overview of the impact damage tolerance methodologies developed by military aircraft programs, and subsequently widely adopted across the composite structures community, is also provided.
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- Impact Damage of Composite Structures
John C. Halpin
Gabriela K. DeFrancisci
- Springer US
- Chapter 5
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