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The book provides an introduction to the mechanics of composite materials, written for graduate students and practitioners in industry. It examines ways to model the impact event, to determine the size and severity of the damage and discusses general trends observed during experiments.



Introduction to the Mechanics of Composite Materials

This chapter recalls the basic notions of stress and strain, the equations of motion of linear elasticity, and the constitutive equations for linear isotropic and orthotropic materials. Then, we introduce some of the most commonly used criteria for predicting failure inside a lamina and the delamination of the interface between adjacent layers. Finally, we discuss two types of approaches used to predict the propagation of delaminations.
Serge Abrate

Mechanics of Plate

In most structural applications, composite structures can be idealized as beams, plates or shells. The analysis is reduced from a three-dimensional elasticity problem to a one-dimensional or two-dimensional problem based on certain simplifying assumptions that can be made because the structure is thin. This chapter presents the basic assumptions made in the development of several commonly used plate theories. The simplifying assumptions deal with various ways of approximating the transverse normal strain and the transverse shear strains. The present discussion also applies to beam theories and shell theories where parallel developments take place. Knowledge of the basic elements of these structural theories is required for the development of mathematical models for modeling the impact event.
Serge Abrate

Impact Dynamics

This chapter presents an introduction to the impact dynamics problem based on simple analytical models that are used by many investigators and that allow to investigate the effects of various factors. The insight gained through this exercise is helpful in the development of numerical models for more complicated geometries and support conditions.
Serge Abrate

Impact Response of Laminated and Sandwich Composites

With increasing use of composites in transportation, military ground and air vehicles, ship structures, infrastructure, sporting goods and the power industry, the understanding of impact and dynamic behavior is critical to composite designers and end-users. A wealth of knowledge has been published on dynamic impact response of composite materials and structures. Yet, with continually emerging materials and processes, there is a lack of systematic structure-property-performance relationships that provide guidelines on dynamic impact behavior of composites.
This chapter deals with the impact response of composites for the regimes of low, intermediate and high velocity. Material models used in finite element modeling of impact problems in composites are described. Using LS-DYNA as a finite element modeling platform, the modeling of progressive damage in laminated and sandwich composite, and its correlation to experiments for quasistatic shear punch and high velocity impact is described in detail. High strain rate impact behavior and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of impact damage are also addressed. For each of these topics, details of test equipment, test methodology, instrumentation and test parameters, past and recent work are covered. This chapter is interrelated to two other chapters in this book, Chapter 3, and Chapter 7, and the information in the present Chapter complements the other two.
Uday K. Vaidya

Vehicle Crashworthiness Design — General Principles and Potentialities of Composite Material Structures

Increasing demands from customers, government concern and national and international regulations put occupant safety at the forefront of vehicle design considerations. The safety level of a passenger vehicle, put in evidence by the number of stars (up to five stars) obtained in the European New Car Assessment Program (EuroNCAP) or in the US New Car Assessment Program (USNCAP) rating tests, are at present a very important point in the market promotion strategies for automotive manufacturers. The USNCAP is under mandate from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA).
Giovanni Belingardi, Giorgio Chiandussi

The Impact Resistance of Fiber Metal Laminates and Hybrid Materials

This chapter discusses the impact properties of fiber-metal laminates, stacked arrangements of thin metal layers and composites plies. Initial attention focuses on the strain rate sensitivity of the constituent materials, including the rate sensitivity of the composite-metal interface. This is followed by a review of the low velocity impact response of FMLs where such things as failure mechanisms and scaling effects are considered. Finally, the high velocity impact response of FMLs is considered.
W. J. Cantwell, R. Day

Ballistic Impacts on Polymer Matrix Composites, Composite Armor, Personal Armor

Throughout recorded history, humans have used various types of materials to protect themselves from injury in combat or other dangerous situations. In recent decades, the appearance of high-performance fibers and ceramics has allowed the development of protection against ballistic impact, with some exceptionally lightweight and protective characteristics. This chapter, divided in two parts, provides a review of the design and use of lightweight composite amours. The first part contains preliminary information of interest for the understanding of the second part, in which the characteristics of the various composite armours are described, as well as the methodologies for analysis and simulation.
R. Zaera
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