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2023 | Buch

Impact of Artificial Intelligence, and the Fourth Industrial Revolution on Business Success

Proceedings of The International Conference on Business and Technology (ICBT 2021)


Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the International Conference on Business and Technology (ICBT2021) organized by EuroMid Academy of Business & Technology (EMABT), held in Istanbul, between 06–07 November 2021.
In response to the call for papers for ICBT2021, 485 papers were submitted for presentation and ‎inclusion in the proceedings of the conference. After a careful blind refereeing process, 292 papers ‎were selected for inclusion in the conference proceedings from forty countries. Each of these ‎chapters was evaluated through an editorial board, and each chapter was passed through a double-blind peer-review process.‎
The book highlights a range of topics in the fields of technology, ‎entrepreneurship, business administration, ‎accounting, and economics that can contribute to business ‎development in countries, such as ‎learning machines, artificial intelligence, big data, ‎deep ‎‎learning, game-based learning, management ‎information system, ‎accounting information ‎system, knowledge management, entrepreneurship, and ‎social enterprise, corporate social responsibility and sustainability, business policy and strategic ‎management, international management and organizations, organizational behavior and HRM, ‎operations management and logistics research, controversial issues in management and organizations, ‎turnaround, corporate entrepreneurship, innovation, legal issues, business ethics, and firm ‎gerial accounting and firm financial affairs, non-traditional research, and creative ‎methodologies.
These proceedings are reflecting quality research contributing theoretical and practical implications, for those who are wise to apply the technology within any business sector. It is our hope that the contribution of this book proceedings will be of the academic level which even decision-makers in the various economic and executive-level will get to appreciate.



Implementation of Artificial Intelligence, IoT and Innovative

Success Factors Affecting the Adoption of Artificial Intelligence and the Impacts of on Organizational Excellence: A Case to be Studied in the MENA Region, and Turkey in Particular

AI adoption behavior requires firms’ preparedness, zeal, and high management support. Adoption is depicted by technology as an affected notion by the technologies internal and external gathering to the corporation in addition to their realized utility, organizational and technical harmony, and learning curve, pilot test experimentation, and intelligibility/illusion (Awa and Ojiabo 2016). The research provides supplementary comprehension image regarding adoption success agent, the anticipating defiances; the effect on organizational excellence and post-adoption benefits. The study utilizes the descriptive analytical tactic and data collection resources of both primary and secondary resources. Primary resources used mixed data collection instruments of both questionnaires and interviews. Secondary sources included literature review from pertinent previous studies, research papers, periodicals, books and references. The research sample draws from Turkish private business sector firms in health care, education, marketing and advertising organizations, services outlets, financial organizations, general trading & commerce institutions and telecommunications firms. In order to analyze the data, structural equation modeling was implemented. Total of (11) agents were suggested to critically influence AI adoption. The outcomes exhibit that three agents, namely correspondence, executive support, and observability, directly influence AI adoption. Organization’s technical capacity and perceived relative advantage impact compatibility, but they are indirectly related to AI adoption. Competitive pressure impacts relative advantage of Artificial Intelligence technologies, yet it is relevant to the adoption of Artificial Intelligence indirectly. However, the experimental impacts in this study imply that trialability factor is not linked to AI adoption. It should be noticeable that this factor, in other situations, might still exert influence.

Nour Alserr, Murat Adil Salepçioğlu
Innovative Software Tools for Effective Management of Financial and Economic Activities of the Organization

The formation of information support for the management of sustainable development of the organization is studied. The essence of accounting policy as a tool of information support, which takes into account the economic, environmental and social aspects of sustainable development. The purpose of the accounting policy, which is carried out through the implementation of tasks in terms of subsystems of the system of accounting and analytical support for sustainable development (accounting, analytical and subsystem of non-financial information). Levels of legal regulation of its formation and implementation (international, state, branch and micro level) are established. The components of accounting policy (organizational, methodological, technical) and their content are determined. The stages of formation and implementation of accounting policy (preparatory, basic, final) are substantiated. A method of assessing the quality of accounting policies for the formation of information support for sustainable development of the organization on the basis of clear criteria. The elements of the accounting policy are defined, which should be assessed in detail when determining the level of its quality. The necessity of formation of the accounting policy of the organization taking into account factors of sustainable development for the purpose of effective management of economic, ecological and social aspects of activity is proved.The practical significance of the obtained results lies in the possibility of applying the developed methodology of accounting policy quality in the formation of the order of accounting policy as a regulatory document, as well as in the internal audit of financial and economic activities of the organization.

Fedun Igor, Stetsenko Sergii, Tsyfra Tatiana, Vershygora Dmytro, Valchuk Bohdan, Andriiv Valentyna
The Diffused Hotel as an Innovative Form of Tourism Development (Case of the Sub-basin of the Gjanica River. Fier Region, Albania)

Tourists flow in Fier region is mainly from other regions of Albania, but in recent years there is an increase of tourists coming from Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Italy, France, etc. Most of them are one day tourists with highest flow in summer season aiming the seacoast. In 2002, the number of tourists registered in the sub-basin of Gjanica river was 52,939 including here 5,008 on the beaches of the region and 47,931 in the Divjaka National Park. In 2015 the number of tourists in the region was 20% higher and in the list of destinations was added also the archaeological park of Apollonia.Considering the natural and cultural resources of the Gjanica river sub-basin, this article tries to analyze the potentials and opportunities to implement the Diffused Hotel model in the study area with the aim of increasing its attractions and to extend tourists stay for more than one night. The objective of the study is therefore, from one side to give an interpretative context of the evolutionary dynamics of innovation in the tourism sector by focusing on the evolutionary perspective, and on the other side to analyze the synergies between the hotels spread in the study area.To enhance local assets, the article analyzes the possibility of using an open source WebGIS application for the dissemination of online cartography relating to routes dedicated to alternative tourism 2.0.

Esmeralda Laci, Sonila Papathimiu, Sabri Laci
Exploring the Financial System of Madrasas in Gujarat with Focus on Sources of Funds and Its Utilizations

The Main focus of this paper is to explore the financial system of Islamic educational institutions (Madrasas) of Gujarat specially where the income of these institutions comes from and how this fund is utilized. Madrasas are the main providers of Islamic education in India. From the conquest of India by Muslims majority of Islamic teachings is completely free till now because children from very low-income families almost exclusively populate madrassas. Unfortunately, since the British control, the Madrasas’ financial system has been completely overlooked, and both the number of donors of waqf land and the number of waqf properties have been steadily diminishing, though in some states like Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal few Madrasas receive financial aid from the government. This paper tries to explore the income and expenditure of the Madrasas in Gujarat state where Madrasas does not get any financial help. This study adopts qualitative research which includes annual audit reports of these institutions. It also gathers information from library and electronic resources. This research shows that Madrasas in Gujarat are more dependent on public funding in terms of Zakat, Sadaqah, Fitra, Fidya, Lillah (general donation), while wages, electricity, repairing, food, gift, program and exam, collection, travel, and hospitality of the guest are the main expenses associated to operate the Madrasas. This is one of the early studies that give analysis on the financial system of Islamic educational institutions in Gujarat.

Ibadurrehman Patel, Rusni Hassan
Delivering Future-Ready Financial Management Course for Non-finance Students Using Internet of Things (IoT)

It is evident that the impacts of COVID-19 crisis on education inevitably require a myriad of innovations on the delivery of conventional financial management courses in higher-educational institutions. The Future-Ready Financial Management Course (FRFMC) was one of a plethora of innovations that was developed to uncover the gap in the current curriculums. It also aims to cultivate and expand the abilities of students by enriching teaching contents and optimizing teaching methods through the Future-Ready Curriculum using a modified Attracting, Informing, Positioning and Delivering model. The development of FRFMC is extremely important as it can be used a means to attract non-finance students background to show interest in studying finance. Furthermore, the FRFMC dramatically changed the way higher-educational institutions, specifically educators in a financial management course to engage more efficiently and effectively with their new batches of digitally native and technologically savvy students. The reality is, many students are now on remote learning mode, highly depending on technology especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. While many students are considered sophisticated users of technology, few non-finance students are found struggling to learn the basics of finance for entrepreneurs. The FRFMC intends to cater to both groups of students. A number of 431 questionnaire surveys were collected among the non-finance student of Universiti Malaysia Kelantan and observations was adopted as the mechanisms to examine the students’ experience during the FRFMC implementation. The findings show that financial management courses can indeed be taught in a more innovative and effective way in order to draw the interest of non-finance students to take up more technical courses in the future.

Tahirah Abdullah, Siti Afiqah Zainuddin, Noorul Azwin Md Nasir, Nadzirah Mohd Said, Mohd Rushdan Yasoa’, Siti Fariha Muhamad, Mohd Nor Hakimin Yusoff
E-Agribusiness Description and TAM Adoption to Understand Traders’ Behavioral Intention to Utilize ICT

In Malaysia, Electronic Agribusiness is still in the early stages whereby the usage and acceptance of E-Agribusiness are still new among local traders in Kelantan. Many individuals are unaware of the purpose and benefits that may be obtained by utilizing the E-Agribusiness application. The objective of this study is to determine the user’s behavioral intention of E-Agribusiness in Kelantan. The information and communication technology (ICT) have played an increasingly important role in all parts of modern life, influencing socioeconomic growth in areas such as education, administration, commerce, medical care, and agriculture. The technology acceptance model (TAM) can be a useful tool for predicting and evaluating the adoption of these new technical instruments. This paper is anticipating to provide academics, and other researchers with theoretical guidance when selecting which factors should be including in TAM extensions. The paper will utilize quantitative approach method to examine the adoption and the usage of a new technology application system and the focus group was a market trader in Kelantan. The finding will give advantages not only traders but also agro-food industries, and wholesalers by explaining how much potential of selling their goods to consumers, using this kind of technology in keeping with the sophisticated world of today. Therefore, the finding of this research is also expecting to provide the other way of selling products using the traditional method, by shifting to the modern and advanced method, and it can give impact towards an effective E-Business and E-Agribusiness solutions. Furthermore, this paper has the potential to influence local traders and other businesses to utilize this innovative technology to advertise their products in the most efficient way.

Fatin Najihah Nik Muhammad, Nur Ain Ayunni Sabri, Noor Raihani Zainol
Factor Accepting Internet of Things (IoT) Among Generation Y

With the rapid advancements in the Internet technology, many retailers are embracing Internet of things technology in their operation. The usage of IoT is to enhance customer experience and improve efficiency. The rise of usage IoT in retail sector is believed to associate with the increasing number of generation Y in spending online. Therefore, there is urge in investigating factor affecting IoT among generation Y in purchasing online. This study will extend the UTAUT Model by analyzing the perceived risk, perceived trust, interactive communication and attitude towards accepting IoT technology among generation Y.

Saidatul Afifah Auni Saipuddin, Noorshella Che Nawi, Wan Mohd Nadzrol Wan Nasir, Noorul Azwin Md Nasir, Mohd Zubir Md Zin, Bahaaeddin Aleereni
The Effect of Digitalization of Cooperative on Better Transparency and Competitive Advantage

This study attempts to provide insights into how the digitization process might improve cooperative transparency and competitive advantage. A thorough assessment of related and pertinent publications on cooperative digitization, transparency, and competitive advantage was conducted. The cooperative as a kind of economic institution could benefit from the new and current features in the business environment, which have provided a smooth road for the digitalization process. Because corporate operations cannot be carried out physically, and resource and transaction mobilization are limited, digitalization is required during uncertain economic times. Whereas, for the cooperative, gaining the faith and confidence of its members is a major priority. The practitioner will be more motivated, and the digitalization process will be enhanced if they have a better knowledge of how the digitalization process may improve both transparency and competitive advantage.

Siti Afiqah Zainuddin, Nadzirah Mohd Said, Tahirah Abdullah, Mohd Nor Hakimin Yusoff, Mohd Rushdan Yasoa’, Siti Fariha Muhamad, Noorul Azwin Md Nasir, Zul Karami Che Musa
Implementation of the E-portfolio in Teaching Practices in Malaysia IPTA

Electronic Portfolio is currently a benchmark for teaching practice. All available information can be distributed to anyone without restricted receptiveness by utilizing the system. For example, E-Portfolio manifests students’ artwork to lecturers to share their knowledge and experience online. In addition, the platform allows students to exhibit their competency, marketability, self-confidence, and visibility in previous, current, and future without a natural appearance. E-Portfolio has provided various benefits not only for students, lecturers but the whole community of learning. This researches implement the development process of e-portfolio contents and the challenges for implement E-Portfolio in the teaching practices system in Malaysia.

Nurul Ain Mohd Daud, Ashardi Abas, Faridah Hanim Yahya, Syaza Hazwani Zaini
Towards Managing Covid-19 Using Artificial Intelligence and Big Data Analytics

Coronavirus Diseases (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus that becomes world pandemic with 200 countries recorded affected, and nearly 1 million people died. Starting from Wuhan in December 2019, within three months, the spread across global with high reproduction rates (R Rates). There is evidence in one case, it spread to more than 100 people and creates his pandemic cluster. As the pandemic contributes to a large volume of data, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Big Data Analytics (BDA) play a huge role in understanding the pan-demic to help necessary action can be deployed. Researchers and developers are increasingly using artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing to track and contain coronavirus and gain a more comprehensive understanding of the disease. So far, due to new diseases, there is a limited study to cover how AI and BDA will help in fighting COVID-19. Therefore, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the existing and potential of using AI and BDA to manage the COVID-19 outbreak based on COVID-19 Outbreak Life Cycle phases; detection, spread, management, recovery. We also presented the challenges needed to be overcome for BI in BDA in the fighting. To conclude, these findings show the necessity of AI and BDA as a critical tool to understand COVID-19 and there a lot of ongoing intensive works have been carried out to cope with COVID-19.

Azwa Abdul Aziz, Elissa Nadia Madi, Nik Nurul Nadia Nik Pa, Mokhairi Makhtar
The Influence Model of Business Data Analytics on Decision Making in the Telecommunication Industry: “A Quantitative Study Using PLS-SEM”

This paper depicts the field of Business Analytics (BA) from a decision-making prescriptive, that is the science of using statistical techniques and technologies to scrutinize past data for obtaining new insight about businesses and perform better decisions in all levels. BA was recently highlighted in most novel research studies. Business analytics is a comprehensive and broad technology that has gotten a lot of interest from academics and practitioners recently (Yadav et al. 2016). The fields of business analytics are changing the world significantly, as a data science field, business analytics is leading significant/organizational managerial insight and awareness in terms of affecting both knowledge and management efforts.This paper focuses on exploring the rigorous managerial effects of business analytics, its influence and insightful adoption, and innovative applications in the telecom industry. However, the impact of business analytics on decision making in vibrant sectors is not examined and yet not apparent. To close this disparity, the author proposed a framework based on reflecting the importance of business analytics on decision making. The study formulated a number of hypotheses and used a quantitative technique that includes the collection of survey data from managers working in telecom companies. Data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). The sample consisted of (200) senior managers from two different telecommunication companies. The findings suggest an apparent influence of business descriptive and predictive, and prescriptive analytics on the performance management in the telecom industry and the decision-making process, leading to improved insightful decisions. The study proposes a comprehensive model that can add managerial influence for decision makers in vibrant industries urging to adopt analytical data systems and identifying their value. The use of business analytics in the telecommunications industry can be viewed as an input to assist in various aspects of their industry.

Dalia Al-Eisawi
An Early Drowning Detection System Capable of Locating Swimmers in Real Time

Drowning is the second leading cause of unintentional injury death for children aged 1–14 years. This paper presents the development of an early drowning detection system based on the Bluetooth Low Energy technology and the received signal strength-based localization method that allows lifeguards to monitor the position of swimmers in real time. Swimmers wearing Bluetooth tags are monitored by four Bluetooth beacon scanners installed in the swimming area. The wearable Bluetooth tags periodically send beacon signals to the Bluetooth beacon scanners. Locations of swimmers are estimated using an improved RSSI-based algorithm. The radio links between Bluetooth tag and beacon scanners will be interrupted when the victim is submerged under water for certain duration. Sirens placed in the monitored area are then triggered to alert lifeguards about drowning accident. The proposed system helps to narrow down the search area and reduce the rescue time when drowning occurs.

Luong Vinh Quoc Danh, Tran Nhut Khai Hoan, Huynh Van Pha, Nguyen Thi Tram
How Artificial Intelligence Revolutionizing Digital Marketing

In the last decade, the use of Artificial intelligence in the digital marketing has remarkably increased. Although it is a push for digital marketers, in fact, all applications of artificial intelligence affected the complexity of maintaining business competitiveness. The author aim to investigate the new techniques of maintaining competition and insure efficient usage of AI at its full potential. Thus, this qualitative study analyses what strategies could be used to succeed and standout from other digital marketers while considering what AI brought in new insights into the digital marketing field.

Atheer Khalid Alansari, Allam Hamdan, Bahaaeddin Alareeni

Digital Marketing, Branding, E-commerce and Social Media

Galvanizing Digital Marketing Implementation in Small Businesses

Effective marketing has always been one of the imperative factors to business sustainability in line with IR 4.0 and Society 5.0. It brings a vital concern, myriad challenges, and benefits to the world, including the development of local and global businesses, including small businesses. Predominantly, small businesses still face high sustainability start-up issues which needs to be studied further. By consolidating the current findings, this study aims to identify the direct effects of the internal factors of culture, technology, human and external factors of competitiveness, politics, and social, on digital marketing implementation as drivers among small businesses, in moving towards Society 5.0 era. This study employed the primary data of 218 small business owners from diverse industries that was collected via survey and self-administered questionnaire through a simple random sampling technique. The findings of descriptive and multiple regression analysis showed a significant positive relationship between internal factors of technological capacity, human capability and digital marketing implementation. Further on, external factors of competitiveness and political issues significantly linked to digital marketing adoption. While organizational culture (internal) and social factors (external) insignificantly connected to digital marketing implementation among small businesses. This current study sheds light by providing the critical authorities alertness on the importance of small businesses to employ digital marketing in their business since it generates a competitive edge in facing the inevitable challenges of the Society 5.0 era.

Syamsuriana Sidek, Hazrina Hasbolah, Nurul Azwa Mohamed Khadri, Munirah Mahshar, Fadhilahanim Aryani Abdullah, Yusrinadini Zahirah Md. Isa Yusuff, M. Mohd Rosli
The Predilection of Courier Service Selection During Cybershopping in Malaysia

Cybershopping activities directly create competitiveness within the logistics industry, including courier service providers. These sectors are getting tremendous attention during unprecedented Covid-19 pandemic. The courier service is becoming a crucial activity not only in manufacturing, warehouse and trading but also for individuals. There are certain inclination factors of service quality based on the SERVQUAL model that can contribute to a high level of selection over courier service in the customer’s perception. Perceived of SERVQUAL by consumer should be a vitally-important element to maintain customer satisfaction and loyalty. This article aims to study the predilection that led to courier service selection, during their online shopping in Malaysia context. This study aims to examine relationships between SERVQUAL dimensions of Responsiveness, reliability, assurance and courier service selection. A total of 346 screened respondents throughout Malaysia were conveniently collected via electronic questionnaire. Descriptive, reliability, validity and normality of the data were tested with IBM SPSS Statistics. The key findings of multiple linear regression analysis highlights that all hypotheses were supported by the study. The obtained results confirmed statistically significant relationships among responsiveness, reliability, assurance and courier service selection. This research offers significant insights into service quality in terms of responsiveness, reliability, and assurance by service providers in order to increase the possibility of courier service selection retention during cybershopping in Malaysia.

Syamsuriana Sidek, Hazrina Hasbolah, Yusrinadini Zahirah Md. Isa Yusuff, Nurul Azwa Mohamed Khadri, M. Mohd Rosli, Ruslee Nuh, Aizan Mohd Hanafiah
Exploring Aggravating Factors Towards Digital Wallet Acceptance: An Approach from Online Shoppers

In recent years, the world has experienced the transformation of the technology and the era of globalization or even brought about numerous tools that extremely important today. Through the incentive of RM30 that had been announced by the government spur towards awareness to use e-payment in daily transaction. This study aims to examine main aggravating factors towards digital wallet acceptance among online shoppers in Malaysia by consolidating the TAM model. The quantitative research was completed through questionnaires distributed to collect data. At random 270 respondents were selected. The data collected was analysed by using the Statistical Packages for Social Science Version 26 (SPSS Version 26) software based on the descriptive analysis, reliability analysis, and correlation analysis. The findings revealed that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and security have significant relationships towards the dependent variable (acceptance of digital wallet). This research offers significant insight for regulators to put much effort in introducing this new mechanism and promoting its benefit as well as enlarging the sustenance network.

Hazrina Binti Hasbolah, Syamsuriana Binti Sidek, Nurul Azwa Binti Mohamed Khadri, Yusrinadini Zahirah Binti Md. Isa Yusuff, Zailani Bin Abdullah, Fadhilahanim Aryani Binti Abdullah
The Evaluation of the Physical Comfort Factors in a Coffee Shop from Two Generations of Age

This study explores the physical comfort factors from two generations of Age towards the preferable coffee shop. The study will evaluate the factors that contributed to the physical components in a coffee shop and categorized them into groups of clusters. The measurement was taken from the questionnaire distributed to 121 respondents of 18 to 29 years old and 109 respondents of 30 to 49 years old compared to generations. The method applied to achieve the objective was Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) using SPSS 25 with Principle Component Analysis (PCA). The findings indicated common and different factors for both generations regarding physical comfort factors about a coffee shop. The constructs derived from 21 items have been clustered into four factors: Facility, Atmosphere, Layout, and Decoration. The group of 18 to 29 years old has selected the various numbers of tables and seats as their highest factor of physical comfort while the group of 30 to 49 years old has chosen the cleanliness as a priority of physical comfort factor. The common factors for both generations were Facility and Layout. This study contributes to understanding the factors of physical comfort in a coffee shop in the design industry and service marketing business.

Siti Aisyah Muhammad, Tengku Fauzan Tengku Anuar, Nur Athmar Hashim
What Factors Influence the Consumers’ Attitudes Towards SMS Advertising: The Case of the Palestinian Banking Sector

The aim of this study is to investigate the factors that influence consumer attitudes toward SMS advertising in the Palestinian banking sector from the perspective of the banks’ customers. To identify these influential factors, an empirical study was conducted utilizing a survey questionnaire to collect primary data. The data was obtained from 372 bank clients and analyzed using a multiple regression approach. The results identified a relationship between (entertainment, informativeness, irritation, and creditability) and consumer attitudes toward SMS advertising, implying that it is important for marketers to interact with their clients via SMS for advertising purposes. While this article builds on prior research, it also provides results that can aid academics and practitioners in their pursuit for SMS advertising success.

Mohammed Salem, Samir Baidoun, Abdullah Elkhoudary, Mohammed El Harazin, Alhasan Salama, Majd Almajdalawi, Ashraf Ismail
Factors Influencing Customer Revisit Intention to Mamak Restaurants in Penang

In line with the growth of the food service industry, unlimited choices of ethnic restaurants are increasing in Malaysia and since Malaysia is a multi-cultural country, consuming cross-ethnic food is deemed a common phenomenon in the country. The most popular choice of food service establishments in Malaysia is Mamak restaurants, which have increasingly generated revenue that contributed approximately RM8 billion to Malaysia’s economy. This study was undertaken to examine customer revisit intention to Mamak restaurants in Penang. Data were collected from customers who revisit the randomly selected Mamak restaurants in Penang. The respondents were given 384 questionnaires, which later recorded a 97.7% response rate, attributing to 375 usable questionnaires for data analysis. The findings showed that the three variables of food quality, service quality, and environment are the factors related to customer revisit intention. This study has provided insights into customer revisit intention to revisit Mamak restaurants in Penang, which benefits the restaurant industry to be able to practically adapt customer revisit intention and achieve competitive advantage.

Nik Alif Amri Nik Hashim, Nor Maizana Mat Nawi, Nurzehan Abu Bakar, Marlisa Abdul Rahim, Abdullah Muhamed Yusoff, Mohd Hafzal Abdul Halim, Shah Iskandar Fahmie Ramlee, Mohammed Ruqaimi Remeli
Consumer Preferences on Packaging Materials of Food Spread Products

As opposed to today’s packaging trends, the key focus of packaging used to be on the covering and safety aspects of the product. At the same time, nowadays, consumers are looking for packaging that offers convenience, reliable functionality and also appearance. In addition, major improvements in food distribution have affected food packaging due to environmental issues, including the globalization of the food supply, consumer preferences for fresher and more convenient foods, as well as a preference for healthier and higher-quality foods. Consumers are requesting that food packaging materials be more natural, disposable, potentially biodegradable, and recyclable. Thus, this survey is mainly aiming to investigate the customer’s opinion and view on the types of packaging and the criteria of the packaging of food spreads available in the market. Biodegradable plastic tube packaging was suggested in this survey in order to introduce a new form of packaging for food spreads products. A survey was conducted to discover answers to unique and relevant questions about the opinion of consumers and view on the types of packaging and the criteria of the packaging of food spreads. The survey questions covered a wide variety of subjects. The questionnaire was answered by 152 female and male respondents. A survey was conducted via online using Google Form. Findings from the study showed mix responses and opinions on the packaging preferences of the food spread products with more than 50% of the respondents agreed with the conception of plastic tube food spreads packaging. The choice and preferences are based on the individual’s personal likings and experience of use of the current products in the market. The choice of selection of the types and preference of the packaging of food spreads does not correlate with the consumers’ demographic with no significant difference (p ˃ 0.05). The choice and preferences are based on the individual’s personal likings and experience of use of the current products in the market. The data obtained were also highly consistent and valid as the value was proven through Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α = 0.957) which was bigger than 0.8. It can be concluded that plastic tube packaging can be a potential form of new packaging for food spreads products in the future market that could add value to the food products particularly. The marketing function of consumer packaging seems to be recognized among practitioners, yet academic research in this area is still quite limited. Therefore, this study is the first to provide broad information about Malaysian consumers’ perception of food spread packaging materials, properties and sustainability. Findings from this study can contribute to further detailed consumer studies in product-specific packaging designs and application.

Ikarastika Rahayu Abdul Wahab, Vanessa Carmel Lopez, Norlaila Azua Roslan, Saranya Muthu
Organisational Culture and Dynamic Marketing Capabilities in the Digital Age of Pandemic Crisis

In the wake of the unprecedented global pandemic of Covid-19, most businesses are pressing on sustaining their business continuity as they are forced to create rigorous emergency plans to limit the impact of COVID-19. The focal point of this paper is to provide constructive reviews on the potential shifts in organisational culture and its interrelationship with dynamic marketing capabilities as a result of the digital acceleration brought by the pandemic crisis. The resource-based theory is utilised as a foundation to better understand the interrelationships between organisational culture (OC) and dynamic marketing capabilities (DMC). From this critical review, a conceptual framework was developed to grasp of the linkages between OC and DMC. The originality of this paper’s conceptual framework suggests that organisations must enhance their flexibility to obtain competitive advantage and to keep up with the rapid acceleration of the digital transformation. Organisational culture is an essential set of guidelines that contribute to the organisation's cultural network. The combination resource-based and R-A theories emphasised the relevance of intangible talents, such as human abilities, as key components of supporting dynamic marketing capabilities. Organisational culture must support employees’ spiritual development to have valued and rare workers, which can strengthen the organisational dynamic marketing capabilities and strategies. The paper’s critical reviews may be of assistance to organisations in adapting and developing a dynamic work environment in the midst of the pandemic’s rapidly approaching digital era.

Sharifah Rahama Amirul, Siti Nor Bayaah Ahmad, Sorayah Nasip
Designing Value Proposition for Indigenous Inspired Spa Strategic Marketing: A Research Proposal

In Malaysia, the wellness tourism industry is at a growth stage of development and gradually gaining popularity among the public. Indigenous wellness tourism is a relatively new notion for tourism stakeholders, and it has not yet been prioritized to promote local tourism potential. As the demand of recipients of services offered by the indigenous-inspired spa is not a unified whole, spa owners must proportionate the value of their service and products in order to make the indigenous-inspired spa more competitive in the world wellness-related market. To deliver the most outstanding and unique solution by presenting indigenous-inspired spa products and services, the spa owner must address customer expectations to eliminate their necessity as a wanted product and service that might potentially support numerous value propositions for the clients. As a response, this study aims to look into the activities of the indigenous-inspired spa to portray value to its clients. The methodology that will be used is on-site observation and in-depth interviews with Indigenous-inspired spa-goers and indigenous-inspired spa employers of the two selected case studies. Practical operational information on each element can be used to develop the best marketing strategies model for the Malaysian indigenous-inspired spa sector prospects, eventually contributing to indigenous heritage preservation.

Nor Dalila Marican, Ahmad Fahme Mohd Ali, Roslizawati Che Aziz, Mohd Fadil Mohd Yusof
Online Insurance Purchase Intention and Behaviour among Chinese Working Adults

The study examines the customers’ perception towards buying insurance online with factors taken from the theory of planned behavior like attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control among the Chinese working adults. The research collected cross-sectional survey-based data. The collected data analyzed with the structural equation modeling with SmartPLS 3.1. The study’s results offer empirical support that internet trustworthiness positively influences the attitude towards making purchases online, normative structure positively and significantly impacts the subjective norms towards internet purchase, and user internet self-efficacy significantly influences the perceived behavioral control for the internet purchase. The results confirm that the attitude and perceived behavioral control positively and significantly influence intention to purchase insurance online. Intention to purchase insurance online significantly predicts the behavior of purchasing insurance online. Current research establishes significant empirical evidence that the behavioral attitudinal beliefs build on the behavioral beliefs towards the making purchase over the internet. The subjective norms for internet purchase are not supportive, and consumers are finding less social support to buy financial products over the internet. Current work extends the theory of planned behavior with the behavior beliefs that formulates the attitudinal beliefs that leads to the development of the internet and purchase behaviors.

Naeem Hayat, Noor Raihani Zainol, Tanvir Abir, Abdullah Al Mamun, Anas A. Salameh, Munirah Mahshar
The Chronology of Impulse Buying Behaviour

Purchasing is not a novel idea. In reality, buying and selling has existed since the dawn of time, and as culture has advanced, the idea has developed in terms of shape, design, and compassion. Nowadays customers purchase items not only to satisfy their basic needs, but also as a way of life or a recreational activity that can help them meet their psychological needs. Since the 1950s, researchers have been researching consumer behaviour to better understand the idea of impulse buying. Impulse buying is the most common in modern societies, and it has drawn the attention of a variety of researchers from different fields, including marketing, consumer behavioural economics, and psychology in recent decades. Impulse buying not only occur on traditional store but it also happens on e-store due to the tremendous growth of the Internet has altered the retail environment, and changes in e-retailing, such as telemarketing, credit card and debit card use, and 24-h e-retailing availability, have increased the opportunity for impulse shopping by Internet shoppers. In result, individuals may now buy at any time and from any place as a result of this evolution. In contrast to traditional shoppers, online shoppers are more likely to indulge in impulsive purchases. Hence, impulse buying become important need to continuous study. Thus, this study provided the definition, timeline as well as categories of online impulse buying behaviour based on recent studies.

Lu Man Hong, Wan Farha Wan Zulkiffli, Noorshella Che Nawi, Shahril Nizam Md Radzi, Razman Hafifi Redzuan
Database Marketing as a Tool for Tracing Customer’s Loyalty in Malaysia Fashion Industry

Database marketing is essential in easing the process and method of identifying customers and storing their data in a digital system only. Customer’s loyalty is crucial to all business including the fashion industry due to its high competitiveness. Customers have strong buying powers and they can decide swiftly whether they want to stay with one brand or switch to other competing brands that can satisfy their product needs and wants. To build strong and long-term relationship with customers, companies today must compete aggressively to achieve competitive advantages and retain loyal customers. This study investigated the importance of database marketing in maintaining customer’s loyalty in fashion industry. Three independent variables and one dependent variable which are customer’s satisfaction, market segmentation and individual customer and customer’s preferences are tested using related software. 100 female respondents are chosen by using convenience sampling.The findings indicated that only customer’s satisfaction is significant towards the dependent variable. Market segmentation and individual customer are not significant as the p-value is higher than 0.05. customer’s satisfaction contributes significantly towards maintaining customer’s loyalty for fashion industry. Also, by maintaining a reliable and efficiently database marketing it would be much easier for companies to keep track on their customer loyalty and level of customer satisfaction.

Noraishah Kamarol Zaman, Hairiani Abdul Hamid, Zurina Omar, Rohani Jangga
Certification Mark for Sabah Handicrafts

Craft customers, particularly tourists visiting Sabah, are perplexed because they cannot make the proper decision on craft selection because the government does not guarantee the authenticity of craft objects offered in the local market. Sabah currently lacks on monitoring authority that can ensure the authenticity of native artisan items. To address this issue, a certification marks needs to be proposed to aid, safeguard and promote the growth of handicrafts in Sabah. This certification mark may be registered for through the Malaysian Intellectual Property Corporation (MyIPO) under the Trademark component. Among the objectives of this proposed Handicraft Certification are: to assist customers identify genuine local handicraft products (Sabah) through the marking “Authentic Sabah Crafts”. Secondly, to protect the interests of craftsmen and entrepreneurs in the state of Sabah. Thirdly, ensuring the reputation and quality of Sabah crafts are at a satisfactory level. The evaluation criteria for obtaining this certification are divided into five criteria, namely, motifs, patterns, colors, materials and processes in Sabah handicrafts produced by locals. This certification will help local craftsmen to further increase their knowledge of intellectual property protection and its potential that can be applied to their products. With that, the craftsmen will be more sensitive to their rights as guardians of the ancestral heritage and defend the quality of crafts in Sabah.

Tini Maizura Mohtar, Azaze-Azizi Abdul Adis, Mohd Rizwan Abd Majid, Anne Antah
Commercial Marketing and Entrepreneurial Talent Training of the Music Industry Based on 5G Technology

Through the analysis of the current situation and economic value of the development of the music culture industry based on 5G technology, the use of case studies, data analysis and comparative analysis and other research methods were used. The research shows that the music culture industry has developed rapidly in recent years, and the overall scale of the industry has increased rapidly. In 2020, the total revenue of the global recorded music industry was 21.5 billion USD (United States dollar), a year-on-year increase of 7.7%. It is predicted that by 2023, the economic volume of 5G technology penetration will exceed 4.8% of global GDP. From 2019 to 2028, global wireless media will generate a cumulative revenue volume of about 3 trillion USD. Original music ecology has been increasingly improved, and the music culture industry and other industries have achieved confluent development. The development path is to create original music factories through the mode of shared economy. Music education resources have been further integrated. It has become a trend to cultivate excellent compound music talents. Increasing the protection of the copyright of video music works has become the key to discovering and inheriting national music cultural resources.

Tonghui Sang, Cik. Kanit Sripaoraya
User-Generated Content and Its Impact on Brand Attitude and Purchase Intentions

The study aims to know the Impact of User-Generated Contents on Brand Attitude and Purchase intentions among the Customers. The study was used primary and secondary data used. The data attained from research papers, magazines, articles, and textbooks related to Attitude towards the Brands, Purchase Intensions, and User Generated Contents. The Primary data accumulated from the customers aware of the User Generated Contents The study used a simple convenience sampling technique. Overall, 600 well-structured questionnaires were dispensed, out of which 557 questionnaires were appropriately filled and returned. These 557 responses are suitable and used for the final study. The study created that customers are gathering information at the time of pre-buying behavior through online platforms. The study also initiated that the reviews Practices make known of buying decision online among the customers. The study also established a considerable impact of User Generated Content on Attitude towards Brands and Purchase intentions online among the Customers in Chennai city.

Angelena Asha Edwin Chelliah, Nishad Nawaz, Vijayakumar Gajenderan
An Empirical Investigation into the Perceived Value and Customer Adoption of Online Shopping: Palestine as a Case Study

Increased online shopping worldwide, even during the COVID-19 pandemic, has increased the need for more research to understand factors influencing its adoption and use by customers. The current research aims to investigate the influence of perceived value on customer intention to use online shopping in Palestine. A 200-Palestinian online shopper survey has been implemented. A theoretical framework has also been developed where perceived value is measured using four dimensions: social, functional, emotional, and epistemic. To analyze the collated data, the structural equation modeling is suitably conducted. The results show that all perceived value dimensions have positively influenced customer’s intention to use online shopping. Largely, the current work shows that emotional value is the most significant dimension.

Fadi Herzallah, Nabeel Al Qirim
Evaluating Factor Influencing Consumer Purchasing Intention Toward Online Shop on Social Media

This study mainly aimed to examine the factors which influence consumer purchase intention. The factors include social media influencers, Cash on Delivery (COD) payment system and consumer satisfaction. The survey was conducted on university students as online consumers of fashion products in Semarang city, Central Java, Indonesia. Purposive sampling method was used to select the samples. There were 100 questionnaires distributed online, but only 87 questionnaires were filled out by respondents. The analytical method applied for analyzing the data was Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using SmartPLS software. The results show that influencers on social media have a significant effect on consumer satisfaction, but it does not significantly affect purchase intention. COD has a significant direct effect on consumer satisfaction, but the moderating effect is not significant. Consumer satisfaction has a direct effect on purchase intention.

Mochamad Taufiq, Naili Farida, Vincent Didiek Wiet Aryanto, Ngatno
Investigating the Influencing Factors of Behavior Intention in Café Visit Context

Attending a café has become a way of life in modern culture. Café shops have evolved into not just a place to relax but also a place to work. Cafe owners in Indonesia reacted quickly to this new phenomenon by building a slew of unique cafes across the country. This study aims to see how electronic word of mouth, services-cape, corporate image, and affordability affect café behavior intentions. The setting is a well-known Indonesian café. This investigation uses a purposive sampling strategy. There are 159 people in the sample. We use an online survey via a google form link to collect data. The data analysis is using SEM. Unless the hypothesis related to affordability, our findings demonstrated support for all of our hypotheses. The affordability does not significantly moderate the association between corporate image and behavior intention. The two antecedents of corporate image, namely E-WOM and service-scape, positively affect the company image. The company image itself significantly affects behavioral intention. The impact of E-WOM on behavioral intention and services-cape on behavioral intention is also mediated by corporate image. Our interesting findings proved that affordability does not include an essential aspect in visiting café decision-making.

Indah Fatmawati, Nur Arifin Marzuki
The Impact of E-Ticketing on Behavioral Intention to Use and the Moderating Role of Information and Communication Technology Tools

This study is an attempt to measure the most important factors affecting the behavioral intention to use e-ticketing, considering the mediating effect of (Information Communication Tools (ICT) on the relationship between the following independent variables (perceived convenience, perceived ease of use, facilitating conditions, Perceived Usefulness, information quality, perceived security, perceived privacy, customer technical support, and infrastructure) and dependent variable (behavioral intention to use). The result revealed that the following independent variables (perceived convenience, information quality, perceived privacy) don’t have direct impact on the dependent variable (behavioral intention to use). While the following variables (perceived ease of use, facilitating condition, perceived usefulness, perceived security, and infrastructure) have direct positive impact on the dependent variable (behavioral intention to use). The analytic results showed that concerning the (ICT) tools, two categories of (ICT) were revealed, the (ICT) tools as a moderator for the first category (low skills) moderate the relationship between perceived convenience and behavioral intention to use, while for the second category (high skills) (ICT) tools moderate the relationship between (customer technical support, infrastructure) and behavioral intention to use. The study a survey scheme and data were collected using a structured questionnaire from a sample of (254) internet users. The analytical statistics were derived using AMOS® 20.0 software package.

Laila Mohammad Ashour, Sima Ghaleb Magatef, Qadri Kamal Alzaghal
Determinants of Intention to Continue Usage of Mobile Shopping Apps: Empirical Evidence from Morocco

The objective of the study was to explore determinants predicting the intention to continue the use of mobile shopping apps by consumers in Agadir city, a model combining the ECM and TAM models has been suggested in this research. The research utilized the convenience sampling to gather data from 155 respondents having prior experience with mobile shopping app. The Structural Equation Modeling technique was applied to analyze the data using SmartPLS 3.2.8 software. The study theoretically extends the literature of M-commerce continuance usage, and practically, it will help the M-commerce services providers to understand factors determining customer continuingly using mobile shopping apps.

Brahim Bighrissen
The Importance of Brand Love on SMEs Context in Indonesia

SMEs play a key role in national economies around the world. In Indonesia, SMEs are the backbone that supports the country’s economy. For this reason, a strategy is needs to strengthen the SMEs brand to be stronger and develop. The creation of brand love in Indonesia in the context of SMEs is still unclear. This paper aims to explore how brand love strategies can strengthen the SMEs and does brand love produce valuable marketing result to SMEs? The method used for this paper is based from literature reviews from journal articles, books and online news which are related with research area. A review of the relevant literature can show how the role of creating brand love can help strengthen the relationship between consumers and brands in the context of SMES and makes consumers will love local products. In addition, the creation of brand love in consumers can create an engagement and create long-term relationships and will make consumers loyal to the brand. For SMEs, brand love is important to strengthen brand loyalty. Such a conceptual understanding of the importance of brand love, paired with a number of propositions for empirical work can serve to guide future research into this important field.

Wan Laura Hardilawati, Noor Hasmini Abd Ghani
The Impact Brand Experience on Guest Budgeting Hotel in Indonesia

This study aims to determine the impact of brand experience on budget hotel customers in Indonesia. The small and medium-sized hotel business in recent years has experienced growth, supported by low-cost flights that have transformed this hotel. In addition, backpacker tourists and the staycation phenomenon have become a consumer phenomenon today. In addition to competitive prices and service quality, budget hotels are sufficient to meet consumer needs. The rapid development makes the budget hotel management pay more attention to the facilities provided considering that the consumer experience is individual and direct involvement. On the other hand, the consumer’s background on the experience of a service is very different even though they are faced with the same type of hotel. This study selects budget hotels in Indonesia, especially the island of Bali, which is a favorite destination for foreign and local tourists. On the other hand, the island of Bali has many budget hotels that reach tourist attractions and the center of the crowd. It was found that Brand Experience greatly affects the existence of budget hotels and the promotion system at budget hotels does not have a budget like star hotels, so from this condition the experience of the brand has an impact on increasing customer loyalty to a brand.

Siti Hanifa Sandri, Noor Hasmini Abd Ghani
Moderating Effect of Hedonic Motivation on Predictors of Online Impulse Buying

Based on the SOR model, this study explores the e-commerce context. The effect of website stimuli (content richness, trust, and sales promotion) is explored on pleasure and arousal, leading to impulse buying. The study also emphasized the moderating effect of hedonic motivation. Through random probability sampling, we collected 344 samples and applied Structural equation modeling (Amos 26.0) to test the hypotheses. Results obtained confirmed that website stimuli positively impact Pleasure and Arousal. We found Arousal impacts impulse buying behavior but not pleasure. Similarly, moderating effect of hedonic motivation was tested. It was found hedonic motivation moderates the impact of website stimuli (content richness, trust, and sales promotion) on arousal but not on pleasure.

Usha Rani Nagar, Hari Shankar Shyam, Lakshmi Sivaswamy
A Study of Barriers to E-Commerce Adoption Among Cooperatives in Morocco

This paper aims to identify and empirically examine the main factors hindering the cooperatives to adopting Ecommerce solutions in Agadir region. The conceptual model developed was based on previous researches. The research utilized the convenience sampling to gather data from 102 cooperatives. The Structural Equation Modeling technique was applied to analyze the data using the software of SmartPLS version 3.2.8. The research findings reveal that technical, economical and external barriers are the critical factors inhibiting Ecommerce adoption among cooperatives.

Brahim Bighrissen
E-commerce in China and Latin America. A Review and Future Research Agenda

This study reviews scientific publications in China’s e-commerce and influence on Latin America’s market. The study took China, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, Chile, Argentina and Uruguay as variables. This study also offers an overview of Chinese platforms with presence and use in Latin America’s business. This research uses a qualitative approach, using a paper review (2001–2020) within the Scopus and Web of Science databases. This study shows China’s e-commerce lessons for Latin American e-markets and Latin-American e-commerce challenges. The cross-cultural research in this field is immature. The authors help to close the gap in providing Latin American businesses with knowledge in e-commerce and how to put into practice the learned lessons from China e-commerce.

James Manuel Pérez-Morón
Measuring Customer Satisfaction Using Marketing Mix Strategy on Insurance Clients

Satisfaction carries the meaning of a customer’s assessment of the product or service where the products and services provided meet or do not meet their needs and expectations. This study was meant to test the customer satisfaction among life insurance clients in Malaysia that subscribed to several life insurance providers such as Takaful, Prudential and Great Eastern. Based on convenient sampling method data was collected using a self-administered research questionnaire from 163 respondents who have subscribing for family takaful plan. Through the lenses of marketing mix strategy consisting of product, pricing, promotion, people and process, the respondents gave their rating of satisfaction against their takaful operators on items of 5-points Likert Scale items. Data analysis results indicate that all marketing strategies were positively correlated to customer satisfaction and supported all hypotheses. Thus, the study may serve as a reference for future researchers, academics and policy makers that customer satisfaction may also enhanced through several marketing strategies.

Ruwaida Rosdi, Muhamad Saufi Che Rusuli, Mohd Fathi Abd Yaziz, Noraani Mustapha, Wan Mohd Nazdrol Wan Mohd Nasir
Determinants of Electronic Word of Mouth and the Mediating Effect of Brand Image Among Airline Customers in Malaysia

Given the significance of electronic word of mouth for digital edge, this research evaluated the influence of selected determinants towards brand image and electronic word of mouth among airline passengers in Malaysia. A total of 400 random airline passengers were participated in this survey. The results showed that the components for social media marketing activities components are entertainment and trendiness. It is revealed that social media marketing activities, value consciousness, and brand consciousness can positively and significantly enhance brand image. Brand image shown a positive influence on electronic word of mouth among the Malaysian airline passengers. Thus, brand image can significantly mediate the effects of social media marketing activities, value consciousness, and brand consciousness eWOM across the sample of the study. Apart from extending the current e-marketing management literature, the study contributed to the airline companies, particularly in Malaysia, to set their marketing plans using social media, value, and brand consciousness in developing customers engagement through electronic word of mouth.

Noorshella Che Nawi, Abdullah Al Mamun, Shah Iskandar Fahmie Ramlee, Wan Mohd Nazdrol Wan Mohd Nasir, Mohd Shahril Nizam Md Radzi, Anis Amira Abd Rahman
Leveraging Digital Marketing to Empower SME Competency: A Conceptual Paper

Due to the spread of the virus Covid 19, small-medium entrepreneurs (SMEs) are facing critical conditions in sustaining their business. Huge transformation towards digital business is an alternative to support the operations of the business. With a good application, digital marketing allows entrepreneurs to extend their target market and increase the efficiency of communicating with their customers. However, SMEs seem to be left behind with a low usage rate of digital marketing tools. Considering this, the purpose of the study is to review past literature on the adoption of digital marketing and its impact on SMEs performance. Diffusion of innovation theory was discussed to describe how the adoption of technology with the intervention of digital marketing could boost the efficiency of SMEs. Three digital marketing tools that consist of website interaction, social media, and e-commerce have been found can leverage SMEs competencies. The results of this study provide a direction for future research to leverage the adoption of digital marketing tools among SMEs. Perhaps, this study can increase the awareness of SMEs to accept and adopt digital marketing in their business operations. This study is also relevant to the policymakers and public universities to conduct training on specific digital marketing tools to empower the performance of SMEs.

Azila Jaini, Jaslin Md Dahlan, Nurulzulaiha Suhadak, Noor Azrin Zainuddin

Supply Chain Quality Management Practices and Blockchain Technology

A Systematic Review of the Use of Blockchain in Higher Education

The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review in order to identify and analyse applicable blockchain technology research associated with the field of higher education. Terms including ‘college’ and ‘blockchain’ were used to assist in narrowing the scope of the research. In addition, well-known scientific databases and search engines have been used to conduct the search, these include scopes, springer, science direct, ResearchGate and science open. In the field of information technology and education, these chosen scientific databases and search engines index high quality and high impact articles. The focus of the research was only related to high quality and influential journal publications that had been found in the books, magazines, international journals, seminars and proceedings of conferences. This paper presents a vital review of blockchain technology and delves into its value in the of education and its related aspects. This study will help researchers and practitioners in identifying the areas where blockchain can be adopted and implemented effectively. A summary of possible challenges faced when implementing the technology of blockchain in higher education especially in universities. Also, this study summarises the application of blockchain technology in education.

Bahaa Razia
Impact of International Climate Policy on the Supply Management of Enterprises Producing Green Energy

The implementation of such climate-neutral measures is based on the principle of resource conservation and efficient use of available resources, namely, the possibility of re-consuming such resources as a result of their recycling. The article is devoted to assessing the impact of international climate policy on the supply management of alternative energy sources for the enterprises producing green energy. The factors of biofuel production (agricultural raw materials) have been determined. As a result of assessing the level of interaction between agricultural enterprises and enterprises producing green energy, a positive trend in the production of green energy from biofuels was established. Factor modeling is proposed for optimizing the biomass supply chain from agricultural enterprises to enterprises producing green energy. For this, the factors of the dynamics of biomass production (agricultural raw materials) and the logistics of supplying biomass to enterprises producing green energy are taken as a basis. The indicator of the efficiency of the algorithm of interaction between agricultural enterprises and enterprises producing green energy to optimize the supply chain of biomass is the cost indicator of the produced green energy.

Vasyl Brych, Olena Borysiak, Nataliya Halysh, Galyna Liakhovych, Volodymyr Kupchak, Oksana Vakun
Blockchain and Cryptocurrency: Development Without Regulation?

Blockchain is a technology based on a chain of interconnected blocks containing transaction history and user data. Blockchain permitted the creation of crypto-currency. Among its advantages: decentralization, transparency, and integrity. This technology has increased especially with the advent of covid19 with the accentuation of the wave of digitalization. Classic finance systems felt overwhelmed by events and tried to catch up with this new wave, by creating their crypto-currency, and embarking on this new world of digital finance where regulation and control are non-existent. Many central banks see the introduction of central bank digital currencies (MDBC) as a response to these challenges. But the phenomenal expansion of these crypto-currencies could present risks in terms of transmission of monetary policy, monetary creation, and financial stability. In this work, we will present the blockchain, the evolution of crypto-currency, and the reaction classic finance systems to this wave of digitalization of transactions, and especially to an absence of regulation.

Mohamed Bechir Chenguel
Supply Chain Sustainability Management Through Blockchain Technology in Maritime Industry

Nowadays, integrating new technology into all management processes leads to significant evolution, particularly in the logistics business, which is one of the fourth industrial of Industry 4.0. Blockchain, an emerging idea, provides for the decentralized and unchangeable storing of verified data as integrated technology. The shipping industry has had to look for innovative ways to keep the accelerated growth of the planet on track, in the face of development threats and vulnerabilities from the mild development of foreign markets, expanding protectionism, correcting natural guidance, the current episode of COVID-19 pandemics. One of the successful innovations in blockchain technologies was to promote a computerized market change. It is also making the utilization of blockchain innovation in the maritime industry will empower quicker, more secure and more productive businesses. The objective of this study is to review sustainable in supply chain management through blockchain technology in the maritime industry. This work was done by discussion of literature by classifying the application according to the operation in the shipping process.

Nurhaiza Nordin, Nur Naddia Nordin, Nur Ilyana Amiiraa Nordin, Nur Faiz Nordin
The Proclivity of Green Communication for Logistics Industry: A Framework

Nowadays communication has become a strong part in transferring information. Wireless devices have thrived in number recently, which connects the world by people and objects. The demand of internet has become the backbone of our communication network recently. The energy consumption increasing drastically due to the current situation caused by pandemic COVID-19 disease which forced the economic activities to use online medium as the main platform in doing business. The extensive usage of online data for communication has contributed to the massive increasing number of high energy consumption. It has been identified that green communication is one of the alternative approaches in reduction of energy consumption. However, there exists a gap on the application of green communication in logistics industry which is to say that little research has addressed the implementation of green communication in logistics industry. The importance of having sustainable energy sources has led towards good implementation of different techniques and methods in reducing energy consumption. As logistics industry has become the backbone of our economic activity, it is important to have a good energy saving strategy in implementing a sustainable practice. This paper highlights a review of ‘Green Communication’ (GC) application especially in the usage of communication technology as the medium, with its main objectives in the implementation of good practices towards clean energy approach. This study has gone through a systematic review focusing only on ‘Green Communication’ in order to examine the current research findings regarding GC. The findings are particularly relevant for logistics industry especially for those that involve in irresistible communication networks while preparing and implementing a good and sustainable practices. To further enhance the energy efficiency for GC networks in logistics, an integrated data-driven framework is developed and exemplarily applied on logistics industry in Malaysia. This paper proposes a framework to introduce lists of factors that contributes towards GC in logistics industry.

Tengku Nurul Aishah Tengku Aziz, Shahirah Sharifuddin, S. Sarifah Radiah Shariff
The Impact of Logistics Services on Customer Satisfaction in Embracing Transaction Disruption

Every transaction in the emerging industry is disrupted in the digital era. Humans have no desire to live in a world where transactions are not disrupted. A day without shopping could be difficult, inconvenient, and even impossible. Many things in the internet shopping marketplace play important roles in the enjoyment stage. As a result, this research focuses on how logistics services may affect online shoppers’ transaction enjoyment stage. The purpose of this article is to determine the primary logistics service parameters that influence online shopper satisfaction with transaction disruption. A total of 341 people who have done online shopping transactions answered the online questionnaire through a google form. The data was analyzed using Pearson correlation and multiple regression. The findings of this study will aid online retailers in identifying methods to improve their services, particularly in terms of logistics, which will ultimately improve customer happiness.

Mohd Fathi Abu Yaziz, Muhammad Ashlyzan Razik, Mohd Ikhwan Aziz, Hasannuddiin Hassan, Dzulkifli Mukhtar, Aidanazima Abashah
A Review of Supply and Demand Digital Talents in Malaysia

The supply and demand chain regarding Information Communication Technology (ICT) or digital talents and industrial needs in Malaysia have been unbalanced due to so many factors. However, ICT has become an important sector in Malaysia’s economic development, acknowledged by the Government of Malaysia as a strategy in creating an industrial-based economy and a knowledge-based economy. The supply pool of (Degree and Diploma) graduates in ICT-related disciplines such as Computer Science, Multimedia, Animation, Information Technology, and much more still outweigh the demand pool by ICT industries. However, there is a vast disparity between the annual growth rate of ICT demand and ICT talent supply. This disparity indicates that they could be a shift of balance between ICT talents supply and ICT industrial needs demands. Hence, it is necessary to understand Malaysia’s ICT sector’s dynamics and evolution and identify the factors and challenges affecting the balance of ICT demand and supply chain. This paper using secondary data, mainly from the MSC Talents report, Malaysia Digital Economy Blueprint, and Malaysia National Policy on Industry 4.0, provide an overall landscape of ICT Talents in Malaysia. We also propose a process-based framework to bridge the gap between ICT demand and supply by using Business Intelligence technologies. In conclusion, to ensure the balance of demand and supply digital talent in Malaysia, a proper mechanism such as a talent data lake will help give the right input to the stakeholders.

Azwa Abdul Aziz, Ibrahim Abdulkarim, Julaily Aida Jusoh
The Role of Logistic Performance on Foreign Direct Investment-Growth Link: Evidence from Asian Countries

The main objective of this paper is to determine the role of logistic performance as an absorptive capacity in moderating the FDI on economic growth in Asian countries. By applying panel data from 29 selected Asian countries over the 2007 to 2018 period. The main finding of this study indicates that logistic performance is contingent on FDI-growth link in Asian countries, however, based on the marginal effect calculated as proposed by Brambor et al. (2006), logistics performance shows a significant positive impact on inward FDI instead of outward FDI. Finally, the finding shows the role of the institution on logistic performance, the results indicated that a higher quality of regulation will support the performance of the logistic system which can boost economic growth.

Nurnaddia Nordin, Nurhaiza Nordin, Nur Ilyana Amiiraa Nordin, Nur Faiz Nordin
Role of Supply Chain Collaboration and Organizational Agility on Promoting Relational Rents: A Literature Review

Nowadays, valuable, rare, imperfectly imitable, and non-substitutable (VRIN) resource that is essential for a firm to survive in a turbulent environment might reside inside an alliance. A collaboration that benefits all alliance members is an alternative strategy, where alliance members will be able to use a relational resource, without any need to invest or acquire it. Utilization of relational resource by alliance members can create a relational rent, a supernormal profit that can be enjoyed by alliance members and will not be achieved by a firm individually. Supply chain collaboration ensures a stable supply for a firm as well as lower transaction cost. Supply chain collaboration also increases the ability of the firm to sense and respond rapidly, properly, and efficiently to environmental change, which means that supply chain collaboration promotes organizational agility. An agile firm will be able to reconfigure owned resources and combined them with a relational resource that potentially results on the ability to develop products that fit the market and increase revenue and at the end may increase relational rent. Our literature review finds that supply chain collaboration has a positive effect on relational rent, both directly and through the development of organizational agility.

Bisma Jatmika Tisnasasmita, Muafi Muafi, Dessy Isfianadewi, Wisnu Prajogo
Trust Reputation in Blockchain Environment: A Review

Creating trust in online environments for users is the main goal of reputation systems. With the effort put into creating an efficient system there are some aspects that need to be further discussed. The aspects involved are the authenticity of the ratings, storage and the costly calculation methods. Blockchain offers potential in solving some of these issues and others due to its decentralized and immutable nature. The aim of this paper is to look into reputation systems and what benefits blockchain can offer and challenges that it could create.

Normi Sham Awang Abu Bakar, Norbik Bashah Idris, Norzariyah Yahya, Madihah Sheikh Abd Aziz, Nabilah Daud, Amina Abdinasir Ahmed Moallim

Tourism, Hospitality and Health Care Services: the Role of Technology

Re-interpreting ‘Luxury Hospitality’ Through Experienscape, Customer Satisfaction, and Customer Well-being

Since customers are the ultimate perceivers or definers of their experiences, so they may carry different meanings and interpretations of ‘luxury’. Some may perceive ‘luxury’ when the state of satisfaction or delight is achieved, whereas for others, ‘luxury’ may be experienced when one feels an enhancement in his/her well-being resulting from a service experience. However, service providers nowadays are also trying to enhance customer well-being which is considered something beyond customer satisfaction as per contemporary service literature. Therefore, this research aims to re-interpret luxury hospitality from the experienscape perspective to predict perceived well-being (a human-centric outcome) through customer satisfaction (a behavioral affective reaction) in the context of Malaysian beach resort hotels. Using a questionnaire as a research instrument, data was collected from beach resort hotel guests who stayed at any one of the fifteen 5-star and 4-star beach resort hotels located in Langkawi, Malaysia. A total of 306 responses were obtained from the beach resort hotel guests, using a convenience and snowball sampling approach. A significant and positive effect of functional, natural, and cultural experienscape on customer satisfaction was found, while sensory and social experienscape had a non-significant impact on customer satisfaction. Also, there was a significant and positive effect of social and natural experienscape on perceived well-being, while sensory, functional, and cultural experienscape had a non-significant effect on perceived well-being. Moreover, there was a significant impact of customer satisfaction on perceived well-being and customer satisfaction also mediates the relationship between experienscape components and perceived well-being. Our findings are theoretically meaningful as it is the first empirical research that translated ‘luxury’ through the interaction between experienscape and perceived well-being through the mediation of customer satisfaction in the context of beach resort hotels.

Maheen Iqbal Awan, Amjad Shamim, Muhammad Shoaib Saleem
Taxonomic Manifestations of the Concept “Man” in Digital Communication

The subject of communication and the meaning of words respond quickly to any changes in society. People’s views on problems, phenomena, attitudes to the environment, history, love, morality are subject to verbalization in modern media. The most current events are recorded in modern digital communication and we can say that it reflects everything new that is happening in the world. In digital communication, the varieties of current journalism look quite interesting, which attract with their pathos, metaphor, figurative means, expression of what is said. The article considers the ability of journalism to capture pragmatic values, the smallest deviations from the norm. This allows you to track the scope of concepts, the implementation of meanings, connotations and more. The paper attempts to study within the digital communication the content of the ontological concept of “man” and ways of its variability, impressiveness on the main various thematic web resources. The game of values and senses is covered on the basis of comparison of traditional, or dictionary, interpretation of the maintenance of this concept and the formed new maintenance in digital communication of mass media.

Natalia Teslenko, Olga Nezhyva, Victoria Ivashchenko, Tetiana Harbuza
Economic and Commercial Value Comparison Between Syariah Compliant and Muslim Friendly Approach in Hotel Industry

The tourism sector contributes a lot to the income of a nation, provided that they can meet the travellers’ expectations. With the industry worth trillion dollars worldwide, meeting expectations of the travellers able to provide advantages for a country on gaining a significant portion of the value. With the rise on the number of Muslim travellers in the world, which contributed to the rise of halal-based tourism demand, various parties start to improve their businesses so that they can have a piece of the action. Numerous changes need to be done to the services, as the concerns of Muslim travellers extended beyond the halal status of foods served only. In recent years, various approaches have been adopted to promote Halal tourism, including the introduction of Syariah compliant and Muslim friendly recognitions on hotel industry in Malaysia. Such approaches, even though yet to receive government-level approval, have been used by numerous hotels in Malaysia. Although those two recognitions’ aim is similar, which is to be used as the attraction to Muslim travellers, but each of them carry different advantages, economically and commercially. This paper aims to look into the differences of values between Syariah compliant hotel and Muslim friendly hotels, from the aspect of economic and commercial values. The content analysis method was applied in this study to fully understand the economic and commercial value comparison between syariah compliant and muslim friendly approach in hotel industry. As a result of the economic and commercial value comparison between Shariah-compliant hotels and Muslim-friendly hotels,, they able to provide service providers on which approach that is suitable to be used, in the effort to increase not only its visibility to the world, but also the business opportunities in years to come.

Suhaila Abdul Kadir, Azizah Musa, Adi Aizat Yajid, Mohd Nazri Zakaria, Noormariana Mohd Din
Developing a Conceptual Framework: The Case of Gastronomic Tourism in Malaysia Among International Tourists from the United Kingdom

Gastronomic tourism is becoming popular among tourist destinations because most of the tourists visiting the destination are to explore and taste the local cuisine. Malaysia has an advantage in this niche tourism market because it consists of several residents such as Malays, Chinese and Indians. However, this country indicates an unfavourable condition of tourist arrivals. Hence, the present study proposes a new conceptual model comprising four constructs: perceived value, local food-related motivation, food satisfaction, and destination loyalty to mitigate the issue of destination loyalty among international tourists from the United Kingdom visiting Malaysia for gastronomic tourism. This model is crucial to serve as a guideline for tourism management, restaurant owners, and food event organizers to maximize tourists’ experience and motivation, thereby increasing international tourist arrivals to this country.

Muhamad Nasyat Muhamad Nasir, Nur Farihin Abd Hadi Khan, Fadhilahanim Aryani Abdullah, Aikal Liyani Mohd Rasdi, Noor Raihani Zainol
Preliminary Study on Factors Influenced the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Compliance on the Malaysian Firefighters

Some factors of safety culture including hazard risk assessment, employee involvement and management commitment have been identified that could reduce occupational accidents and injuries at the workplace. The failure to follow occupational safety and health compliance (OSHC) has become an issue that increases occupational accidents and injuries among firefighters at the workplace. Therefore, the objective of this preliminary study was to identify the main factor of safety culture that influence occupational safety and health compliance (OSHC) among firefighters in the Fire and Rescue Department of Malaysia (FRDM). The study was conducted using online questionnaires. The questionnaires were distributed to firefighters who worked in FRDM. This study used two types of analysis were descriptive analysis and internal consistency analysis to answer the research objectives. The results show that the questionnaire of study has the highest reliability and validity of Cronbach’s alpha. The highest Cronbach alpha value represented by co-worker support (CWS) was 0.92, followed by organizational commitment (OC) was 0.87, personal protective equipment (PPE) was 0.86, and occupational safety and health compliance (OSHC) was 0.83. The findings indicated that the excellent values of internal consistency analysis in the preliminary study on OSHC from the perspective of firefighters in Malaysia.

Yus Heary Mahmud, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail, Nor Kamilah Makhtar, Ferozah Haini Mohamed Ahmad, Nur Liyana Jaffar
Halal Tourism: A Debate Between Its Religious Values and Business Interest; A Case of Malaysia

Tourism industry plays a critical role in propelling a country’s economy. It is undeniable that most countries targeted to accelerate their revenue through the tourism industry and hotel sector. It is undeniable that halal tourism has become among the top agendas in worldwide tourism due to the growing number of Muslim travellers. This situation resulted in significant foreign earnings. As a Muslim-majority country in the world, Malaysia is striving very hard to be the best in this industry. In this vein, this paper is dedicated to study the real intention behind the acceptance of this market by the industry players and the public authorities who are responsible for the establishment and implementation of the policies and standards of this industry. Two main concerns are the surrender of religious obligation or business profit-making strategy. A qualitative study by way of interviewing public authorities’ officials and hoteliers was employed to have a clear reaction in answering this doubt. A doctrinal analysis was also employed as a main research methodology by referring to reliable authoritative sources such as government policies and standards to strengthen the analysis done. The findings showed that Malaysia enjoys a great Halal tourism potential. Unfortunately, it is still far-reaching agenda, and much more to be exploited. Analysis of the data also seems to suggest a contradictory intention between the public authorities and the industry players. The former inclines towards promoting Islam as a way of life as to uphold the slogan of Malaysia as leader in Halal hub whereas for the latter, their utmost concern is equally divided between religious obligation and business interest. Hence, this paper opens new research avenues by making significant contributions in giving clear ideas to the more practicable framework, policies, and standards given consideration of balancing the industry players’ religious obligation and business interest.

Azizah Musa, Zuhairah Ariff Abd Ghadas, Suhaila Abdul Kadir
Improvement of the Marketing Management System of Tourism and Hospitality Industry Enterprises on the Basis of Innovations

Modern tourism is a complex social and economic system, an element of which is a highly profitable diversified economic and industrial complex, which includes travel agencies, hotels and restaurants, cafes, accommodation etc. Structural changes in the economy, instability of the environment require a revision of the forms and methods of managing the market of tourism services. On the basis of the conducted study, the authors concluded that the feasibility of using innovations as an important tool for the development of tourism enterprises and enterprises of the hospitality industry. It is established that innovations act as an incentive for further development of tourism and hotel and restaurant business, allow companies not only to occupy leading positions in their market segments, but also to meet global service standards. The necessity of innovations introduction at domestic enterprises of tourist and hotel and restaurant business in order to cover a larger number of already existing and potential consumers is substantiated. It is generalized that the use of innovative technologies in the management system of tourism and hotel and restaurant business, at the present stage of economic development, is an important task that is of great interest to managers of enterprises in this field. The results of the study presented in the article can be used as a source of information to build and improve the system of investment attractiveness of enterprises in the hospitality industry.

Olena Sakovska, Raisa Kozhukhivska, Lilia Kustrich, Maryna Gomeniuk, Svitlana Podzihun
Comparative Analysis on the Socioeconomic Impact of Rural Tourism Along the West Coast of Sabah

The aims of the study are to gauge the perception of rural tourism development impact on economic, social, and environment, and to make a comparative analysis of the perception about the three aspects involving stakeholders in three locations along the west coast of Sabah. A total of 319 respondents were involved in this quantitative study. Questionnaire was used as an instrument to obtain the perceived feedback of local communities who live in the locations of study, namely Kundasang, Kota Belud and Papar. The data were analysed using descriptive analysis and ANOVA to examine the 12 measurement indicators of the study. Q1 to Q5 measured the financial and the physical economic impact, Q6 to Q9 measured the social impact meanwhile Q10 to Q12 measured the environmental impact. Overall perceptual measures indicate respondents generally agreed that rural tourism have brought positive impacts economically, socially, and environmentally, although the approval about positive social impact is slightly marginally. Despite recorded mostly favourable opinions, the comparative results for economic aspects revealed there were significant differences between at least two study locations, namely increment in economic activities, business opportunities, and property value. No significant differences were found for perceptions about increase in purchasing power and cost of living in these locations. In terms of the social and environmental impacts, there significant mean differences were found for all indicators. The resultant outcomes provide empirical evidence there were perception gaps between at least two localities about economic opportunity, resource distribution, and social benefits brought by rural tourism development to these communities. Managing the perception of stakeholders is crucial. The causes leading to these differences need to be investigated because mismanagement of perception may diminish the supports, even conflict and retaliation, for rural tourism activities by the local communities and in the long run, can disrupt and impede the growth of tourism industry. Moving forward, the study recommended some ideas to better manage perception and to bridge the perceptual gaps.

Thien Sang Lim, Caroline Geetha, Rosle Mohidin
Malaysian Hotel Strategy in Compliance with Local Authority

The paper discussed current business issues and challenges, as well as the current state of Halal tourism. From both an industry and exploration perspective, the travel industry observes the growing enthusiasm for Halal in the travel industry. Halal travel refers to any item or activity that is permissible for use or participation in the travel industry, as defined by Islamic teachings. As such, the achievement of the travel industry goal of creating and promoting Halal must be guided by the inclusion of Islamic lessons and standards in all aspects of travel industry activities. This paper examines the concept of Halal in the travel industry, as well as the components that make up the business. It illustrates a selection of currently accepted procedures in broad strokes. Additionally, the opportunities and challenges associated with developing and promoting Halal in the travel industry are discussed.

Nurshadira Mohd Raof, Dzulkifli Mukhtar, Muhammad Ikhsan Setiawan, Tan Chin Hao
Determinant Factors of International Tourists’ Length of Stay: Survival Analysis in the Case of Malaysia

Malaysian government intended to transform tourism sector into a high-yield industry through Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) by 2020. Length of stay is a variable of the special interest for Malaysia to achieve ETP, due to its positive relationship to the tourism yield. Therefore, this paper analyzes to what extent the personal demographic, travel characteristics and purpose of travel are significant in determining the tourists’ length of stay. A total of 385 completed questionnaires were used for data analysis. The results show that tourist longer stay is associate with mature, married, repeated visitation, tourist who stay in low cost accommodation, and those who travel for business and education. However, tourists short stay is associated with male, single, those who stay in 4 to 5 stars hotel, tourist travel companion with business associate, and travel for conference and event. The study is therefore advised that stakeholders like government and tour operators should consider these significant factors in planning their marketing strategies.

Tay Kai Xin, Mohamed Badaruddin, Parichart Visuthismajarn
Influence of Health Literacy Towards Health Communication Competence Among Kelantanese: A Comparative Study

Only 6.6% of Malaysian adults were found to have an adequate level of health literacy, though it can be considered as one of the most crucial and basic knowledge that should be possessed by every individual. Expected to be sick at least once in a lifetime, pressuring Malaysians to be literate about their health. It was known to the world of health-related research that this health literacy may help the individuals to competently communicate their health conditions to the healthcare providers, signifying the importance of this study to be conducted. This study applied a cross-sectional study design, was conducted to investigate the relationship between the domains of health literacy which comprised of health care, disease prevention and health promotion towards B40 Kelantanese health communication competence. By using a quota sampling, a total of 100 B40 Kelantanese from Kota Bharu and Bachok districts were approached, and each of the district was represented by 50 respondents. A set of self-administered questionnaires was used during the physical, face to face data collection process. The results from the correlational analysis revealed that there were significant strong positive relationships between domains of health literacy towards the Kota Bharu urban community’s health communication competence, while in Bachok, the strength of the relationships was moderate. Other than that, multiple regression analysis has also shown the opposing findings on the influence of health literacy towards the health communication competence. For Bachok, none of the independent variable can predict the communication competence while for Kota Bharu, the results showed otherwise. Health care and health promotion were the domains that can affect the health communication competence among Kelantanese who live in Kota Bharu, leaving the domain of disease prevention as a non-predictor. Furthermore, a few recommendations have been suggested for the respective District and State Health Departments as well as suggestions for future researchers.

Nur Athirah Sumardi, Ahmad Fahme Mohd Ali, Naziatul Aziah Mohd Radzi, Narehan Hassan
Mechanism of Brand Formation of the Tourism Industry During the Pandemic

The infrastructure of the hotel is important in the economy of Ukraine, the level of development of which depends on additional revenues to both local and state budgets. An effective international brand allows you to quickly overcome imbalances in certain market segments, replenish budgets at various levels, increase innovation, competition and create new jobs. The article discusses the scientific aspects of the brand’s business on the topic of hospitality. The use of foreign experience in the hotel business, which is one of the ways to improve the efficiency of hotel enterprises in Ukraine, is studied. The mechanism of formation of the tourist brand of Ukraine is determined. It is established that you approach the formation of a positive image based on the promotion of your own brand. The stages of brand formation for the subject of the tourism industry are established. It is becoming clear that we need to focus our efforts not only on promoting goods or services in the market, but also on creating our own brand that can protect a company that competes with similar goods and services. The developed mechanism will help to systematize the process of creating a positive brand. In the current state of the travel services market, a stable competitive advantage should be to achieve differences for consumers from competitors by forming a set of measures to improve service quality and image of the company, strengthen its own brand, using a customer-oriented approach to customer service. The purpose of the article is to study the theoretical and practical principles of brand formation. Develop a mechanism for forming a hotel brand. The article considers the scientific aspects of brand formation. The strengths and weaknesses of Ukraine for the formation and development of the tourist brand have been studied. The effectiveness of the use of brand promotion methods is analyzed. The mechanism of brand formation is determined.

Kateryna Kompanets, Ilchenko Victoria, Oksana Avdan, Mykola Horodetskyy
Development of PHE-Coach–A Personalized Health E-Coaching System

PHE-COACH is a system to personalize content within the health e-coaching system. This system aims to provide supporting tools for health professionals during their intervention process based on users’ information on personal data. A developed prototype knowledge-based health e-coaching system demonstrates the suitability of the technology and to prove the system’s validity and acceptance by the user. A “proof-of-concept” prototype, PHE-COACH, which confirmed the feasibility of the proposed knowledge-based approach is powered primarily by human knowledge collected from a health expert or health coach to form the knowledge base. The knowledge-based system consists of representative rules to reflect potential factors that affect selecting suitable health e-coaching strategies and goals. The prototype, PHE-COACH, utilizes multiple knowledge rules to determine suitable health e-coaching strategies and goals of the individuals.

Puspa Setia Pratiwi
An Industry Analysis and Preferred Generic Strategies in Sabah Tourism Industry: Perception of HR-Knowledge Focus Group

COVID-19 has plunged global economy to recession and impacted businesses in all sectors, with reduction of manpower and termination of employment. Business organizations, especially those in the tourism industry may need to consider to continuously providing creative and innovative ways. Porter’s five forces model has been a popular tool to assess the dynamic environment affecting business organizations. However, the practice has always being exercised by top management in the firm, and lack of perspective from HR insight. This Hence, the study attempted to collect data from a specific focus group of people, who shared the common characteristic which is with HR-knowledge, and to consolidate their perception towards the five forces model in Sabah tourism industry led to generic strategies that perceived to be applicable to the industry player. A total of 37 focus group respondents answered the questionnaire, and data was valid for data analysis. The result suggested that five forces model as one main variable (model) is found to be significant to the three generic strategies which are cost leadership, differentiation and focus strategy. Although the relations between the model was found to be significant to the strategies, it is also to be noted that each of the single force was found to be not significant. Contributions of this study are the research conducted, was participated by HR-knowledge focus group respondents, and the sixth force (influence. of government). Recommendations for future research is to include HR planning strategy as response to the relation between the five forces model and perceived generic strategies.

Datu Razali Datu Eranza, Andy Lee Chen Hiung, Jabil Mapjabil, Siti Hasnah Tanalol, Arsiah Bahron
The Structured Approach to Product Innovation Process: A Case Analysis of Cafe/Bars and Full-Service Restaurant Chains

It has been more than 20 years since the inception of Cunha and Gomez’s (2003) anthology of product innovation models and little is known empirically as to what extent their synthesising works carry such validation. Hence, we extend further this phenomenon of interest by engaging two opposite chained restaurants, namely, a renowned and well-established international Cafes/Bar restaurant and a local full-service restaurant (FSR) in Malaysia. The aim of our study is to ascertain how these two restaurant chains conduct their product innovation with a research objective is to study the process-based of their new product development (NPD). We believe that the findings of this study will shed some lights as to whether those characteristics of Cunha and Gomez’s (2003) product innovation models, namely flexible, integrative, and improvisational, have discreetly evolved in reality.

Mazalan Mifli, Mat Salleh Ayub
Factors Influencing Volunteer Tourism Awareness Among University Students

Volunteer tourism is known as an adventure that requires physical and mental abilities to help the community. However, since the difficulties related to volunteer tourism require more in-depth research, different concepts and theories were explored. Therefore, this study aims to identify the determinants of volunteer tourism awareness among university students in University Malaysia Kelantan City Campus, particularly in terms of their awareness in volunteer tourism. To achieve the best research outcome, the researchers used primary data by applying the convenience sampling method. A total of 359 university students in University Malaysia Kelantan City Campus was selected to answer the questionnaires. Overall, the study found that attitude, social influence, and perceived behavioural control significantly influence volunteer tourism awareness among university students. This study extended the knowledge of volunteer tourism awareness related to this study area in general and Malaysia in particular.

Nuratika Dolkefli, Nurulhuda Najihah Md Isa, Nurul Azarina Azfahani Mohd Aris, Syazwani Sahwandi, Nik Alif Amri Nik Hashim, Raja Norliana Raja Omar, Eni Noreni Mohamad Zain, Sathish Kumar Velayuthan
Potential Heritage Tourism of an Old Palace, Istana Sepahchendera: Understanding the Influence of Socio-Culture of Royalty

Heritage building in Malaysia consists of several typologies, and one prominent type is the palace. There are several historical backgrounds related to the architectural style of palaces in Malaysia according to the socio-culture, namely the decrees, customs, and function of spaces which result in the place typology, such as the residence palace, ceremonial palace, visiting the palace, crown prince’s palace, and more. This research aims to analyze the socio-cultural factors of Kedah royalty on the spatial organization of an old residence palace in Kedah, namely Istana Sepahchendera, built in 1883. This research used the case study method to achieve its objective following analytical literature review, measured drawings, site observation, and personal interview. The findings indicated that the socio-culture of Kedah royalty, according to the royal custom and traditions, namely the activity system, privacy, family structure, the role and position of women, and social interaction, influenced the specifics of the residence palace architecture, particularly the spatial organization, spatial relationship and the circulation of the palace. The results of the research support the relationship between socio-culture and the built environment. The consort represents how the Siamese culture adapted the socio-culture of Kedah Royalty and honored them with a palace with the vertical division of space zoning in Istana Sepahchendera. This would be an attraction for heritage tourism in Kedah and Malaysia due to the exciting relationship between Kedah and Siamese culture.

Siti Aisyah Muhammad
The Effect of Facility Aesthetics on Guest Satisfaction: The Case of Three Star Hotel in Kelantan

The aim of this paper is to explore the effect of facility aesthetics on hotel guest satisfaction. Facility aesthetics is one of the features in the servicescape physical environment. It plays an essential role in many facilities such as restaurants and hotels, which provides the first impression before customers have a chance to interact with service employees. The effect of atmospherics, or physical design and décor elements, is crucial in facility aesthetics that articulate guest beliefs, attitudes, and expectations of a service provider that increases customer satisfaction. There is a study on servicescapes conducted related to the physical environment, but currently, no study is conducted on the effect of elements in facility aesthetics towards guests satisfaction, which focuses on the hotel located in Kota Baharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. This preliminary study involved 384 hotel three-star guests in Kota Bharu, which employed a questionnaire survey as the primary data collection method. This study’s target respondents will be the customers who have visited any of the hotels in Kota Bharu, Kelantan were chosen for data collection. With 384 respondents, the data was analyzed by the process of multivariate analysis. The results of the study provide evidence that there is a linkage between facility aesthetics and guest satisfaction. Through these findings, it can be deduced servicescape through facility aesthetics dimensions influence guest satisfaction.

Derweanna Bah Simpong, Nur Azimah Othman, Nurul Fardila Abd Razak, Mohd Fadil Mohd Yusof, Hazzyati Hashim
Impact of Artificial Intelligence, and the Fourth Industrial Revolution on Business Success
herausgegeben von
Assist. Prof. Bahaaeddin Alareeni
Prof. Dr. Allam Hamdan
Electronic ISBN
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