Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Selecting the right partner is important for the success of alliances and joint ventures. For international joint ventures (IJVs) from diverse cultures the partner selection process can become complicated. Prior studies have investigated the alliances and joint ventures to develop a set of objective criteria for evaluating potential partners. This paper reports the study of IJVs formed by Singapore firms in Peoples Republic of China and India. The intent was to develop a methodology for identifying partner selection criteria in a cross-cultural setting. The findings reveal that the partner selection process follows a different logic in Confucian societies. Trust has been established to be essential for developing enduring co-operative relationships. The paper explores the concept of trust in relation to commitment and control in the context of the Confucian culture. We discover that trust is critical to partner selection. Cultural differences do not significantly alter the partner selection criteria for Singapore firms. Results support the view that while Chinese may depend on networks for social solidarity, social trust does extends beyond the family and is necessary for harmonious and successful joint ventures.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Adler, I., & Hlavacek, J. (1976). Joint Ventures for Product Innovation. New York: AMA.
Al-Khalifa, A., & Peterson, E. (1999). The partner selection process in international joint ventures. European Journal of Marketing, 33(11/12), 1064–1081. CrossRef
Arino, A., Abramov, M., Skorobogatykh, I., Rykounina, I., & Vila, J. (1997). Partner selection and trust building in west European–Russian joint ventures. International Studies of Management & Organization, 27, 19–37.
Awadzi, W. (1987). Determinants of joint venture performance: A study of joint ventures in United States. Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University.
Axelrod, R. (1984). The evaluation of cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
Beamish, P. (1993). The characteristics of joint ventures in the People’s Republic of China. Journal of International Marketing, 1(2), 27–48.
Beamish, P., & Banks, J. (1987). Equity joint ventures and the theory of the multinational enterprise. Journal of International Business Studies, 18, 1–16. CrossRef
Bigley, G. A., & Pearce, J. L. (1998). Straining for shared meaning in organization science: Problems of trust and distrust. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 405–421. CrossRef
Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social Life. New York: Wiley.
Bleeke, J., & Ernst, D. (1991). The way to win in cross-border alliances. Harvard Business Review, 69(6), 127–135.
Boisot, M., & Child, J. (1996). From fiefs to clans and network capitalism: Explaining China’s emerging economic order. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(4), 600–628. CrossRef
Bradach, J., & Eccles, R. (1989). Authority and trust: From Ideal types to plural forms. Annual Review of Sociology, 15, 165–190. CrossRef
Brown, L. T., Rugman, A. M., & Verbeke, A. (1989). Japanese joint ventures with western multinationals: Synthesizing the economic and cultural explanations of failure. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 6, 225–242. CrossRef
Browning, L. D., Beyer, J. M., & Shelter, J. C. (1995). Building cooperation in a competitive industry: SEMATECH and the semiconductor industry. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 113–151. CrossRef
Buckley, P., & Casson, M. (1988). A theory of cooperation in international business. In F. Contractor, & P. Lorange (Eds.) Cooperative strategies in international business. Lexington: Lexington Books.
Buono, A. (1997). Enhancing strategic partnerships. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 10, 251–266. CrossRef
Butler Jr., J. K. (1991). Toward understanding and measuring conditions of trust: Evolution of a conditions of trust inventory. Journal of Management, 17, 643–663. CrossRef
Carney, M. (1998). The competitiveness of networked production: The role of trust and asset specificity. Journal of Management Studies, 15, 457–479. CrossRef
Caves, R. (1982). Multinational enterprise and economic analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cavusgil, T., & Evirgin, C. (1997). Use of expert system in international marketing. European Journal of Marketing, 31(1), 73–86. CrossRef
Chen, M. (1995). Asian management system. London: Routledge.
Chen, R., & Boggs, D. J. (1998). Long term cooperation prospects in international joint ventures: Perspectives of Chinese firms. Journal of Applied Management Studies, 7, 111–126. CrossRef
Cullen, J. B., Johnson, J. L., & Sakano, T. (1995). Japanese and local partner commitment to IJVs: Psychological consequences of outcomes and investment in the IJV relationship. Journal of International Business Studies, 6, 91–115. CrossRef
Dacin, M., Hitt, M., & Levitas, E. (1997). Selecting partners for successful international alliances: Examination of US and Korean Firms. Journal of World Business, 32(1), 3–16. CrossRef
Daniels, J. (1971). Recent foreign direct investments in the United States. New York: Praeger.
Das, T., & Teng, B. (2000). Instabilities of strategic alliances—An internal tensions perspective. Organization Science, 11, 77–101. CrossRef
Davidson, W. H. (1987). Creating and managing joint ventures in China. California Management Review, 29(4), 77–94.
Demirbag, M., Mirza, H., & Weir, D. T. H. (1995). The dynamics of manufacturing joint ventures in Turkey and the role of industrial groups. Management International Review, 35(1), 35–51.
Doney, P. M., Cannon, J. P., & Mullen, M. R. (1998). Understanding the influence of national culture on the development. Academy of Management Review, 23, 601–620. CrossRef
Doz, Y. L. (1988). Technology partnerships between larger and smaller firms: Some critical issues. In F. Contractor, & P. Lorange (Eds.) Cooperative strategies in international business (pp. 403–424). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Eiteman, D. K. (1990). American executives’ perceptions of negotiating joint ventures with People’s Republic of China: Lessons learned. Columbia Journal of World Business, 25(4), 59–67.
Ellram, L. (1991). A managerial guide for the development and implementation of purchasing partnerships. International Journal of Purchasing and Material Management, Summer, 10–16.
Fox, A. (1974). Beyond contract—Work, power and trust relations. London: Faber and Faber.
Franko, L. G. (1971). Joint venture survival in multinational corporations. New York: Praeger.
Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The social virtues & creation of prosperity. New York: Prentice Hall.
Gambetta, D. (1988). Can we trust. In D. Gambetta (Ed.) Trust: Making and breaking cooperative relations (pp. 213–238). New York: Basil Blackwell.
Genesan, S. (1994). Determinants of long-term orientation in buyer–seller relationships. Journal of Marketing, 58(2), 1–19. CrossRef
Geringer, J. M. (1991). Strategic determinants of partner selection criteria in international joint ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 22, 41–62. CrossRef
Gibbons, P. T., Calingo, L. M. R., Toh, T. S., & Zutshi, R. K. (1994). Achieving an organization’s strategic intent through alliance formation. Proceedings of the 4th MIT-NTU Conference, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, July.
Glaister, K. (1996). UK–Western European strategic alliances: Motives and selection criteria. Journal of Euromarketing, 5(4), 5–35. CrossRef
Glaister, K., & Buckley, P. (1997). Task-related and partner-related selection criteria in UK international joint ventures. British Journal of Management, 8, 199–222. CrossRef
Gomes-Casseres, B. (1989). Ownership structure of foreign subsidiaries: Theory and evidence. Journal of economic Behaviour and Organization, 11, 1–25. CrossRef
Gouldner, A. (1973). The norm of reciprocity. In A. Gouldner (Ed.) For sociology; renewal and critique in sociology today (pp. 226–259). Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Gulati, R., Khanna, R., & Nohria, N. (1994). Unilateral commitments and the i0mportance of process in alliances. Sloan Management Review, 35(3), 61–69.
Gulati, R. (1995). Does familiarity breed trust. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 85–112. CrossRef
Gugler, P. (1992). Building transnational alliances to create competitive advantage. Long Range Planning, 25(6), 10–17. CrossRef
Habib, G. (1987). Measures of manifest conflict in international joint ventures. Academy of Management Journal, 30(4), 808–816. CrossRef
Hamel, G. (1991). Competition for competence and inter-partner learning within international strategic alliances. Strategic Management Journal, 12, 83–103. CrossRef
Hamel, G., Doz, Y., & Prahalad, C. K. (1989). Collaborate with your competitors and win. Harvard Business Review, 67(2), 133–139.
Hamilton, G. G., & Biggart, N. W. (1988). Market, culture and authority: A comparative analysis of management and organization in the Far East. The American Journal of Sociology, 94(5), 52–94. CrossRef
Harrigan, K. R. (1985). Strategies for joint ventures. Lexington: Lexington Books.
Harrigan, K. R. (1988). Joint ventures and competitive strategy. Strategic Management Journal, 9, 141–158. CrossRef
Hicks, G. L., & Redding, S. G. (1983). The story of the East Asian economic miracle. Part 2: The Culture Connection. Euro-Asia Business Review, 2(4), 18–22.
Hofstede, G. (1993). Cultural constraints in management theories. The Academy of Management Executive, 7, 81–94.
Hosmer, L. T. (1995). Trust: The connecting link between organizational theory and philosophical ethics. Academy of Management Review, 20, 379–403. CrossRef
Hung, C. L. (1994). Strategic business alliances between Canada and the newly industrialized countries of Pacific Asia. Management International Review, 32(4), 45–61.
Jenner, W. J. F. (1992). The Tyranny of history: The roots of China’s crisis. London: Penguin.
Johnson, J., & Cullen, J. (1996). Setting the stage for trust and strategic integration in Japanese–US cooperative alliances. Journal of International Business Studies, 27, 981–1004. CrossRef
Kanter, R. M. (1988). The new alliances: How strategic partnerships are reshaping American business. In H. Sawyer (Ed.) Business in a contemporary world (pp. 59–82). New York: University Press of America.
Kao, J. (1993). The worldwide web of Chinese business. Harvard Business Review, 71(2), 24–34.
Khanna, T., & Palepu, K. (1997). Why focused strategies may be wrong in emerging markets. Harvard Business Review, 75(4), 41–48.
Killing, J. P. (1983). Strategies for joint venture success. New York: Praeger.
Kogut, B., & Singh, H. (1988). The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode. Journal of International Business Studies, 19, 411–32. CrossRef
Kogut, B. (1988). Joint ventures: Theoretical and empirical perspectives. Strategic Management Journal, 9, 319–32. CrossRef
Lal, D. (1998). Unintended consequences: The impact of politics on long-run economic performance. Massachusetts: MIT.
Lambert, D. M., Emmelhainz, M. A., & Gardner, J. T. (1999). Building successful logistic partnerships. Journal of Business Logistics, 20(1), 165–181.
Lane, C., & Bachman, R. (1998). Trust within and between organizations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Lane, H., & Beamish, P. (1990). Cross-cultural cooperative behavior of joint ventures in LDCs. Management International Review, Special Issue, 87–102.
Larzelere, R. J., & Huston, T. L. (1980). The dyadic trust scale: Toward understanding interpersonal trust in close relationships. Journal of Marriage and Family, 42, 595–604. CrossRef
Lei, D., & Slocum Jr., J. W. (1992). Global strategy, competence-building and strategic alliances. California Management Review, Fall, 81–97.
Lewicki, R. J., & Bunker, B. B. (1995). Trust in relationships: A model of development and decline. In B. B. J. Z. BunkerRubin (Ed.) Conflict, cooperation, and justice (pp. 133–173). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Li, J., Khatri, N., & Lam, K. (1999). Changing strategic postures of overseas Chinese firms in emerging Asian markets. Management Decision, 37, 445. CrossRef
Lorange, P., & Roos, J. (1991). Strategic alliances—Formation, implementation and evolution. Massachusetts: Blackwell.
Luo, Y. (1998). Joint ventures success in China: How should we select a good partner. Journal of World Business, 33(2), 145–166. CrossRef
Luo, Y. (2002). Partnering with foreign businesses: Perspectives from Chinese firms. Journal of Business Research, 55(6), 481–493. CrossRef
Madhok, A. (1995). Revisiting multinational firm’s tolerance for joint ventures: A trust based approach. Journal of International Business Studies, 26, 117–137. CrossRef
Mariti, P., & Smiley, P. (1983). Cooperative agreements and the organisations of industry. Journal of Industrial Economics, 31(4), 437–451. CrossRef
McKnight, D. H., Cummings, L. L., & Chervany, N. L. (1998). Initial trust formation in new organizational relationships. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 473–490. CrossRef
Mitsuhashi, H. (2002). Uncertainty in selecting alliance partners: The three reduction mechanisms and alliance formation processes. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 10(2), 109–133. CrossRef
Mohr, J., & Spekman, R. (1994). Characteristics of partnership success: Partnership attributes, communication behavior, and conflict resolution techniques. Strategic Management Journal, 15, 135–152. CrossRef
Motwani, J., Larson, L., & Ahuja, S. (1998). Managing a global supply chain partnership. Logistics Information Management, 11(6), 349–354. CrossRef
Newman, W. H. (1992). Focussed joint ventures in transforming economies. Academy of Management Executive, 6(1), 67–75.
Noordewier, T. G., John, G., & Nevin, J. R. (1990). Performance outcome of purchasing arrangements in industrial buyer–vendor relationships. Journal of Marketing, 54(4), 80–93. CrossRef
Oh, T. K. (1991). Understanding managerial values and behavior among the Gang of Four: South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong. Journal of Management Development, 10(2), 46–56. CrossRef
Oslan, G. E. (1996). Performance issues in U.S.–China joint ventures. California Management Review, 38(2), 106–130.
Ouchi, W., & Bolton, M. (1988). The logic of joint research and development. California Management Review, 30(3), 9–33.
Pan, Y. (1996). Influences on foreign equity ownership level in joint ventures in China. Journal of International Business Studies, 27, 1–26. CrossRef
Parkhe, A. (1991). Interfirm diversity, organizational learning, and longevity in global strategic alliances. Journal of International Business Studies, 22(4), 579–602. CrossRef
Parkhe, A. (1993). Partner nationality and the structure–performance relationship in strategic alliances. Organization Science, 4(2), 301–324. CrossRef
Pfeffer, J., & Salancik, G. R. (1978). The external control of organizations: A resource dependence perspective. New York: Harper and Row.
Porter, M., & Fuller, M. (1986). Coalitions and global strategy. In M. Porter (Ed.) Competition in global industries. Boston: Harvard Business School.
Powell, W. W., Koput, M. W., & Smith-Doerr, L. (1996). Interorganizational collaboration and the locus of innovation: networks of learning in biotechnology. Administrative Science Quarterly, 41(1), 116–137. CrossRef
Reed, M. I. (2001). Organization, trust and control: A realist analysis. Organization Studies, 22(2), 201–228. CrossRef
Redding, G. (2002). The capitalist business system of China and its rationale. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 19(2,3), 221. CrossRef
Redding, G. (1995). Overseas Chinese networks: Understanding the enigma. Long Range Planning, 38(1), 61–69. CrossRef
Redding, G. (1992). The capitalist business system of China and its rationale. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 19(2), 221–240. CrossRef
Rotter, J. B. (1967). A new scale for the measurement of interpersonal trust. Journal of Personality, 35, 651–665. CrossRef
Schein, E. (1996). Strategic pragmatism. Cambridge, MA: MIT.
Shapiro, S. P. (1987). The social control of impersonal trust. American Journal of Sociology, 93, 623–658. CrossRef
Shaw, S. M., & Meier, J. (1994). Second-generation MNCs in China. The China Business Review, 21, 10–15.
Silos, L. R. (1998). Management and the Tao. Quezon City, Philippine: JMC Press.
Singapore Economic Development Board (1993). Regionalisation forum Proceedings, May 21–22: Singapore.
Sitkin, S. B. (1995). On the positive effect of legalization on trust. In R. Bies, B. Sheppard, & R. Lewicki (Eds.) Research on negotiations in organizations, (vol. vol. 5, (pp. 185–217)). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Spekman, R., Forbes, T., Lynn, I., & MacAvoy, T. (1998). Alliance Management: A View from The Past and a Look to The Future. Journal of Management Studies, 35(6), 747–772. CrossRef
Stopford, J., & Wells, L. (1972). Managing the Multinational Enterprise: Organization of the Firm and Ownership of Subsidiaries. New York: Basic Books.
Swanz, D. J. (1995). Doing business in China. The CPA Journal, 65(3), 42.
Tatoglu, E. (2000). Western joint ventures in Turkey: strategic motives and partner selection criteria. European Business Review, 12(3), 137–147. CrossRef
Teece, D. J. (1992). Competition, Cooperation, and Innovation. Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organisation, 18, 1–25. CrossRef
Thompson, J. (1967). Organizations in action: Social Science Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tomlinson, J. (1970). The joint venture process in international business: India and Pakistan. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Tomlinson, J., & Thomson, (1977). A Study of Canadian Joint Ventures in Mexico. University of British Columbia: Vancouver.
Tsang, W. K. (1998). Can Guanxi be a source of competitive advantage for doing business in China. Academy of Management Executive, 12, 64–73.
Tse, D., Pan, Y., & Au, K. Y. (1997). How MNCs choose entry modes and form alliances: The China experience. Journal of International Business Studies, 28, 779–805. CrossRef
Tucker, J. B. (1991). Partners and Rivals: A Model of International Collaboration in Advanced Technology. International Organization, 45, 189–225. CrossRef
Vanhonacker, W. (1997). Entering China: An unconventional approach. Harvard Business Review, 75(2), 130–140.
Volery, T., & Mensik, S. (1997). The influence of religion, culture and relationships in ethnic Chinese, Japanese and Korean entrepreneurship. In ENDEC Conference Proceedings, Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, 203–211.
Weidenbaum, M., & Hughes, S. (1996). The Bamboo Network. New York: Free Press.
Whitley, R. (1992). Business systems in East Asia. London: Sage.
Williamson, O. E. (1985). The economic institutions of ca pitalism: Firms, markets, relational contracting. New York: Free Press.
Yan, A. (1998). Structural stability and reconfiguration of international joint ventures. Journal of International Business Studies, 29(4), 773–795. CrossRef
Yeung, 1, Y. M., & Tung, R. (1996). Achieving business success in Confucian societies: The importance of guanxi. Organizational Dynamics, 25(2), 54–65. CrossRef
Zand, D. E. (1972). Trust and managerial problem solving. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 229–239. CrossRef
Zucker, L. G. (1986). Production of trust; Institutional sources of economic structure, 1840–1920. In B. M. Straw, & L. L. Cummings (Eds.) Research in organization behavior (vol. 8, (pp. 53–111)). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
- Impact of culture on ‘partner selection criteria’ in East Asian international joint ventures
Ravinder K. Zutshi
Wee Liang Tan
- Springer US
- International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal
Print ISSN: 1554-7191
Elektronische ISSN: 1555-1938
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Wissenstransfer im Outsourcing/© WrightStudio | stock.adobe.com