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07.09.2019 | Special Issue: 2018 CLEERS Workshop, September 18-20, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States

Impact of Lubricant Oil Additives on the Performance of Pd-Based Three-Way Catalysts

Zeitschrift:
Emission Control Science and Technology
Autoren:
Daekun Kim, Todd J. Toops, Ke Nguyen, D. William Brookshear, Michael J. Lance, Jun Qu
Wichtige Hinweise
This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the US government retains a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for US government purposes. DOE will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://​energy.​gov/​downloads/​doe-public-access-plan).

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Abstract

As alternative lubricant anti-wear additives are sought to reduce friction and improve overall fuel economy, it is important that these additives are also compatible with current emissions control catalysts. In the present work, a second-generation oil-miscible phosphorous-containing ionic liquid (IL), is evaluated for its impact on Pd-based three-way catalyst (TWC) reactivity and benchmarked against the industry standard zinc dialkyl-dithio-phosphate (ZDDP). The TWCs are exposed to the lubricant additives in an engine bench under four different scenarios: base case with no additive (NA), ZDDP-only, IL-only, and IL + ZDDP. The engine-aged TWC samples, along with the as-received TWC, are characterized through various analytical techniques including catalyst reactivity evaluation in a bench-flow reactor. The temperature of 50% conversion (T50) for the ZDDP-aged TWC increases by 11, 21, and 36 °C for CO, C3H6, and C3H8, respectively, as compared with the no-additive case. Similarly, the T50 for IL-only and IL + ZDDP-aged TWCs also increase as compared with the no-additive case. Even though the water-gas-shift (WGS) reactivity is similar for all engine-aged samples, the IL-aged TWC had higher oxygen storage capacity than the ZDDP-aged TWC. EPMA analysis reveals penetration of phosphorus deep into the washcoat for all engine-aged TWCs. Results from XRD indicate the presence of CePO4 and AlPO4 on the washcoat of IL, ZDDP, and IL + ZDDP-aged TWC samples but not on the fresh and NA TWC samples. Additionally, ICP-OES results show a large amount of phosphorus in the washcoat of IL, ZDDP and IL + ZDDP-aged TWC samples and a lesser amount in NA TWC samples.

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