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01.01.2014 | Original Article | Ausgabe 2/2014

Environmental Earth Sciences 2/2014

Impact of urbanization in groundwater of south Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India

Zeitschrift:
Environmental Earth Sciences > Ausgabe 2/2014
Autoren:
M. Arunprakash, L. Giridharan, R. R. Krishnamurthy, M. Jayaprakash

Abstract

Chennai is one of the four major metropolitan cities in India, and is located in the southeastern part of the country. The average rate of population growth of the city is 25 % per decade and this is recurrently reducing the green-covered area in the city. Exceptionally, during the post-economic liberalization period (i.e., between the years 1997 and 2007), the city lost up to 99 % of its green-covered areas at some parts. Subsequently, the Chennai City started to experience wide range of environmental issues, including groundwater pollution and the effects of groundwater depletion. As a consequence of these factors, a study was undertaken to determine the impact of urbanization on the groundwater quality. In the present study, groundwater samples were collected from 54 stations from the study area during the premonsoon and postmonsoon seasons for the year 2011–2012 and were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters and trace elements. The type of water that predominated in the study area was assessed based on hydrochemical facies. The study of the hydrochemical characteristics of the major ions in these waters shows that in premonsoon, the alkalis and the alkaline earth metals are found to be balanced by chlorides and bicarbonates and sulphates, respectively. Reverse ion exchange study illustrates that Ca, Mg and Na concentrations are interrelated through reverse ion exchange. Box and whisker plots illustrate the seasonal effect on the chemical parameters of the groundwater. Gibbs’ diagram reveals that the chemical composition of the groundwater in the study area is predominated by rock–water interaction. Besides, suitability of groundwater for irrigation was evaluated based on sodium adsorption ratio, Kelley’s ratio, magnesium ratio, Wilcox and USSL diagrams.

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