Integrated monitoring of ecosystems (IM) is an international co-operative programme (ICP) to control effects of air pollution and climate change on water, soil and biological systems. It is a part of the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP) of the United Nations Economic Commission of Europe (UN/ECE). The ICP-IM is undertaken on sites/catchments to investigate acidification, eutrophication and heavy metals with an integrated approach. In Sweden, long-term time series from forest ecosystems, with a long and stable continuity, will reveal trends and changes in processes and enable modelling to be undertaken. Investigations of acidity/alkalinity in relation to mineral and organic acids indicated the importance of atmospheric deposition. Recent results show very high inorganic nitrogen retention (99%), a net loss of sulphur originating mainly from organic horizons, and a high inorganic aluminium content in the illuvial soil horizons which could be detrimental to forests. Forest deficiency could also be caused by an observed ongoing translocation of Zn to deeper soil layers implying a movement towards increased release to surface waters.
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- Impacts from Deposition on Swedish Forest Ecosystems Identified by Integrated Monitoring
- Springer Netherlands