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01.11.2014 | Original | Ausgabe 6/2014

Wood Science and Technology 6/2014

Impacts of fiber orientation and milling on observed crystallinity in jack pine

Zeitschrift:
Wood Science and Technology > Ausgabe 6/2014
Autoren:
Umesh P. Agarwal, Sally A. Ralph, Richard S. Reiner, Roderquita K. Moore, Carlos Baez

Abstract

Influences of fiber orientation and milling on wood cellulose crystallinity were studied using jack pine wood. The fiber orientation effects were measured by sampling rectangular wood blocks in radial, tangential, and cross-sectional orientations. The influence of milling was studied by analyzing the unsieved and sieved milled wood fractions (all <1,000 μm). Fiber orientation effect was manifested in both X-ray and Raman measurements and was dependent upon the orientation of the sampled wood blocks. In Raman, the observed crystallinity was similar between the blocks sampled on the tangential and the radial faces. However, the estimated values were 5.5 % lower compared to that measured in a powdered sample pellet. Moreover, in these sampling modes, the orientation of the block with respect to the direction of the electric vector of the laser made a difference only for the tangential mode of sampling. When a wood block was sampled on the cross-sectional face, the observed Raman crystallinity was 3.9 % higher from that of the pellet. The observed crystallinity did not significantly differ with change in sample orientation with respect to the electric vector direction. In contrast, the Segal-WAXS study of the blocks indicated that compared to the pellet, the estimated crystallinities in the radial, tangential, and cross-sectional sampling modes were 5, 2, and 11 % lower, respectively. This suggested that the radial and the tangential faces of the blocks can be used to estimate the crystallinity of wood. With regard to the effect of milling on Raman and Segal-WAXS estimates, the wood crystallinity did not depend upon the particle sizes of the fractionated samples and was similar to that of the original unfractionated ground wood.

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