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This book gives a comprehensive overview of blockchain programming and its implementation in the wide range of blockchain-based applications such as cross-border payment, digital banking, and digital identities. The consistent thrive of the blockchain phenomenon and the ecosystem of e-business use cases have led to the Industrial Revolution in the e-business world, and it is demonstrated in this book. The digital advancement, interference, and transformation being brought through the influence of the blockchain advancements are creating waves across e-business verticals. The book caters to academics, industrial practitioners, and entrepreneurs working in the field of blockchain technology and programming.



Introduction to Cryptography in Blockchain

Since ancient times, there has been a need to protect information considered confidential or secret, with the aim of keeping it out of the reach of a possible enemy or adversary. This has been done in various ways: by preventing physical access to it, by disguising its nature, or by using cryptographic procedures to transform it to prevent access to its content. The aim of cryptography is not to hide the existence of a message, but rather to hide its meaning, a process known as encryption.
Javier Bermejo Higuera, Juan Ramón Bermejo Higuer, Juan Antonio Sicilia Montalvo, Rubén González Crespo

Quantum-Safe Cryptography and Security

The state-of-the-art information protection is at the threat posed by Quantum computing. If we look at the current state-of-the-art data protection techniques, then we will find that they are under serious threat by Quantum computing. And we hence have two aspects. One is Quantum Cryptography, and the other is Post Quantum safe Cryptography.
Bharat Rawal, Alexander Peter

How Profitable Is Bitcoin Mining?

Bitcoin is now as popular as any other currency. However, it is suspense, the Proof of Work. Is Bitcoin sustainable for the long term, and what are the factors that can protect it from being sustainable? Is it just the “Finance”? Or the complexity as well matters? Or we have a limit that will one day make it not usable anymore? Or it’s harmful to the environment? The top expert does say that we cannot have more than 21 million Bitcoin. They, however, quote as per current. However, they confirm that we can have more than 21 million Bitcoin. And hence there is no limit with Bitcoin. Fiat Currencies originated in 1971, and now we have realized that it has limitations, and the world is registering the loss each second considering the requirement for a centralized system in each body. Hence, we all want to leave the Fiat currency system now.
Bharat Rawal, Alexander Peter

Generative Adversarial Network-Based Visual-Aware Interactive Fashion Design Framework

Fashion image generation is the task of generating realistic fashion images from a real dataset distribution. Due to the subjectivity of design, fashion industries have always been striving to meet customers’ needs. Although image generation techniques have become more advanced through time, the results are prone to visual inconsistencies, enormous artifacts, uncontrolled generation, and poor quality at large. This study aims to scale up the image generation process by integrating into the GAN for multiple fashion attributes such as color, shape, and texture to existing architectures. To accomplish this, 12,000 Ethiopian fashion images were collected from different sources. As deep learning is a data-intensive approach, image augmentation was used to enlarge the dataset to 90,000. Standard pre-processing was applied to normalize inputs to a common scale, compute average color, create a binary segmented mask, and label the dataset. The conditional inputs added in the proposed architecture are an average color, a segmented binary mask, and a 512-texture dimension organized as TensorFlow records fed to the existing progressive growing GAN generators. The discriminator was assigned to estimate the average color and classify the generated images. Besides, two experiments were done using the same dataset and training configuration, namely StyleGAN and its conditional version. Improved results were obtained from the three experiments with the evaluation metrics Fréchet inception distance, and perceptual path length 41 and 1500, respectively. Moreover, the human evaluation user study was performed to assess the user capability on identifying real and generated images and to examine the closeness of these images by using Google Forms in both paired and unpaired evaluation settings with the confusion rates of 46% and 47.6%, respectively. In general, the performance evaluation of the implemented conditional progressive growing generative adversarial network along with multiple conditional inputs shows an improved result was achieved. As a result, fashion design could be generated using such a GAN method.
Ashenafi Worke Dessalgn, Rajesh Sharma, Yun Koo Chung, Akey Sungheetha

Plasma Chain and Blockchain Security Model

Open-source development has become popular in recent years. Many major technology companies are moving towards this form of development, where they can invite contributions from the community. The surge in recent years can be attributed to many solutions that have been adopted to overcome the problems that come with open-source development. Distributed versioning systems have allowed people to work collectively, and a variety of services enable the development to get organized despite the open nature. Still, open-source development heavily depends on early contributors which is a significant issue that needs to be tackled.
Vanita Jain, Arun Kumar Dubey, Anurag Choubey

Blockchain, Smart Contracts, and Decentralized Applications: An Introduction

Blockchain, a most common synonym for distributed ledger (Tschorsch and Scheuermann in IEEE Commun Surv Tutor 18:2084–2123, 2016), is an emerging platform. Blockchain is used to support transactional services within a multi-party business network. The aim is to enable a significant reduction in cost and risk for all involved parties through the creation of novel and enhanced business models. Data maintained within the distributed ledger can only be accessed through the execution of a smart contract (Seijas, Scripting smart contracts for distributed ledger technology, International Association for Cryptologic Research, 1156, 2016) that governs a transaction with rules. The core driving idea for designing the architecture of a blockchain platform is to guarantee that no single business party can append, modify or delete any record residing within the ledger without going through the necessary consensus from other business parties within the network. This empowers the system and ensures the data is immutable. Examples of such data include but are not limited to legal and financial trails. Given the aforementioned important features, blockchain technology is a revolutionary trending technology with the ability to offer tremendous disrupting changes to different industries. Gartner’s 2016 research report (Gartner, Gartner’s 2016 hype cycle for emerging technologies special report, 2016) identified blockchain as one of the key platform-enabling technologies to track. While there is currently a lack of widely identified and accepted standards for blockchain technology, there is a rising agreement that blockchain is currently entering its height of extravagant expectations. The report anticipated that it would take 5 to 10 years for blockchain technology to be easily and widely adopted. Nowadays, almost five years later most blockchain efforts, especially the ones applied to business environments, are still in the early stages not reaching the widely adoption stage also not realizing a widely accepted standard so far. In this book chapter, an attempt will be made to cover the main concepts of blockchain, its underlying technologies, Smart Contracts, and Decentralized Applications (DApps).
Ahmed A. Hassanein, Neamat El-Tazi, Noha Nagy Mohy

A Contingent of Blockchain-IoT - An Organized Review

The physical objects start to act intelligent and smart, also by self, automatic, integrating, etc., because of many evolving new technologies called IoT, AI, CC, fog computing, CPS, BPM, SOA, etc. All these aspects can be achieved with security and privacy with the collaboration of BC. As all we are robots? Of course not but machines and electronic gadgets are acting smart in our day-to-day life because there will be no people without the Internet and a phone nowadays. Thus the new aspect of new technology BC, IoT characteristics, functionalities, definitions, types, infrastructures are discussed in detail below. The use cases of BC have been defined. The integration of the BC-IOT combo has been defined.
R. Anusha, J. Jayashree, J. Vijayashree

A Secured Data Processing Model for Monitoring the Student’s Performance Using Decentralized Application

In a competitive world mostly in the education sector, many students are struggling to find their exact role and strength. To enrich the capacity of each student, this proposed system will help in monitoring their growth in their interested area. The major focus of the proposed system is to prove the knowledge from their own perspective. The detailed description of enhancing their growth is determined in such a way that each processing is open to the student and the organization by using a decentralized application. The entire system is developed using the blockchain process where the dataset is focused on the student database where each outcome is compared with the previous document used by the ledger and smart contract. Here, an application is designed on the basis of system processing to calculate their strength and weakness in their own area of interest. For example, if a student is concentrating on placement then he/she should involve in the training sessions and practical sessions so that the student dataset consisting of evaluation on the scorecard is stored in the blockchain ledger where everyone can view and send the suggestions to improve the score of next time. Though this process helps in making their interesting area a better one and a successful one, a smart application will be created so that a detailed analysis can be made in an efficient way. The only thing is end-user needs to show interest in a specific way. The graph is generated so that the end-user can utilize the processed data for their future use. This gives the betterment on making the student to follow regularly to meet the success in their path.
N. Pooranam, R. Lakshmana Kumar, G. Ignisha Rajathi

An Efficient Trust-Based Supply Chain Management Framework Utilizing the Internet of Things and Blockchain Technology

Every stage of a supply chain is monitored by Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The use of blockchain technology helps the efficient management of product supply and payment of suppliers based on smart contracts. An efficient trust-based supply chain management system is built using these technologies. It also performs an expert audit to find the real-time status of the product at different stages. This chapter describes a computational model that has been developed to determine a product’s exact status; decisions are taken based on the computed output of the model.
L. Kavisankar, V. Sivakumar, T. Balachander, M. B. Mukesh Krishnan, V. Deeban Chakravarthy, J. Selvin Paul Peter, S. Balasubramani

Blockchain Technology and Machine Learning for Fake News Detection

The era of Blockchain Technology (BT) and Machine Learning (ML) is dramatically improved in general, and particularly in the sense of human vision in the field of artificial intelligence. BT's leadership has been extended to a variety of fields that contribute to major advances in the artificial smart and machine network. Today, Fake News (FN) has become more and more popular. Due to the broad variety of free content, it is now easier than ever to generate and forge false information. Using BT with ML in FN detection makes it possible to produce a prediction system as well as broaden the scope of the classification of the news. This chapter introduces a survey of research papers on FN detection based on ML, and analyzes in terms of the database used, method and accuracy achieved. Moreover, it introduces a survey of research papers on FN detection based on BT, and analyzes in terms of some selected features. Finally, blueprint versions of the FN detection system have been introduced.
Mohamed Loey, Mohamed Hamed N. Taha, Nour Eldeen M. Khalifa

Using Blockchain-Based Attestation Architecture for Securing IoT

When the internet first came along, humans had no idea if it really will disrupt their life and the way they interact with almost everything from healthcare, education, financial services to their day-to-day lifestyle. They had no clue that it would ever have this impact. IoT and edge security is a serious challenge for all the current deployed implementations. Gartner predicts by the end of 2020 that there will be 20.4 billion IoT devices, of which 7.5 billion devices will be for business purposes and 12.8 for consumers. All these devices will be heavily interacting with many endpoints, most of which with a dynamically changing security profile. Organizations around the world are still looking for better solutions and ways to harden their systems while consistently adding new security controls. We are currently in the early phases of blockchain and there is much potential yet to come and be unlocked. In this book chapter, we are going to give an overview of the blockchain and its pillars, and we will offer a new example of integrating a blockchain with IoT to offer a robust IoT security model. In the details of the book chapter, we will show up the mainstream technologies used to accomplish the model.
Mohamed Sohail, Said Tabet, Mohamed Loey, Nour Eldeen M. Khalifa

The Forgotten Cryptocurrencies: Beyond Bitcoin

Cryptocurrencies are receiving massive attention from both the professional and academic worlds. Since the cryptocurrency crash in early 2018, scepticism has originated around them. Today, it seems that the market is gaining confidence in cryptocurrencies. But, are all cryptos the same? Is it all about Bitcoin? If not, what makes them different from each other? Supply limit, maximum block size, forks, validation algorithms, mean block time or block rewards are just examples of the differences between some of the more than 1,600 cryptocurrencies that exist today. The grey area that surrounds these new currencies is something that is still to be covered in the academic world. Users and firms willing to make use of blockchain’s currencies should understand the implications, advantages and disadvantages when betting on their cryptocurrency choice. This survey helps answer these questions and others, through an examination of the most important cryptos in blockchain’s biggest networks.
S. Fernandez-Vazquez, D. de la Fuente

Decentralized Application for the Classification of Products Based on IPFS and Blockchain

This paper describes the construction of a prototype web platform to classify and recommend products, in an unstructured format, specifically using images. The platform uses information taken from the image repository that communicates with it. Using technologies such as Blockchain and the Interplanetary File System (IPFS), it provides a new approach that offers users the benefits of these technologies to protect the quality of stored information and content access.
Carlos Hernan Cardona Taborda, Julian Gonzalez Vasquez, Carlos Enrique Montenegro Marin, Paulo Gaona Garcia
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