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Über dieses Buch

In the last 50 years the world has been completely transformed through the use of IT. We have now reached a new inflection point. Here we present, for the first time, how in-memory computing is changing the way businesses are run. Today, enterprise data is split into separate databases for performance reasons. Analytical data resides in warehouses, synchronized periodically with transactional systems. This separation makes flexible, real-time reporting on current data impossible. Multi-core CPUs, large main memories, cloud computing and powerful mobile devices are serving as the foundation for the transition of enterprises away from this restrictive model. We describe techniques that allow analytical and transactional processing at the speed of thought and enable new ways of doing business. The book is intended for university students, IT-professionals and IT-managers, but also for senior management who wish to create new business processes by leveraging in-memory computing.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

0. Introduction

Abstract
Over the last 50 years, advances in Information Technology (IT) have had a significant impact on the success of companies across all industries. The foundations for this success are the interdependencies between business and IT, as they not only address and ease the processing of repetitive tasks, but are the enabler for creating more accurate and complete insights into a company. This aspect has often been described and associated with the term real-time as it suggests that every change that happens within a company is instantly visible through IT.
Hasso Plattner, Alexander Zeier

An Inflection Point For Enterprise Applications

1. Desirability, Feasibility, Viability – The Impact of In-Memory

Abstract
Sub-second response time and real-time analytics are key requirements for applications that allow natural human computer interactions. We envision users of enterprise applications to interact with their software tools in such a natural way, just like any Internet user interacts with a web search engine today by refining search results on the fly when the initial results are not satisfying. In this initial chapter, we illustrate this vision of providing business data in real time and discuss it in terms of desirability, feasibility, and viability. We first explain the desire of supplying information in real time and review sub-second response time in the context of enterprise applications. We then discuss the feasibility based on in-memory databases that leverage modern computer hardware and conclude by demonstrating the economic viability of in-memory data management.
Hasso Plattner, Alexander Zeier

2. Why Are Enterprise Applications So Diverse?

Abstract
Today, even small businesses operate in different geographical locations and service different industries. This can create a number of challenges including those related to language, currencies, different regulatory requirements, and diverse industry expectations. For large organizations with a wider reach, the challenges are even greater. As organizations grow, they also need to keep track of huge amounts of information across different business areas. Modern enterprise applications need to be able to cope with these demands in a timely manner. In this chapter we provide a brief introduction to modern enterprise applications, describing selected tasks they perform and the business areas that they cover.
Hasso Plattner, Alexander Zeier

3. SanssouciDB – Blueprint for an In-Memory Enterprise Database System

Abstract
This chapter provides an overview of how we realize our vision of providing real-time data about a business available in real time. We show how using an IMDB, designed specifically for enterprise applications, provides significant performance advantages. We describe the particular technologies we have used and why these are the best choices for our particular purposes. Throughout the chapter we show how best to utilize the latest hardware to provide maximum performance and also how we organize data to efficiently use the large main memory of the servers on which the database runs.
Hasso Plattner, Alexander Zeier

SanssouciDB -- A Single Source of Truth through In-Memory

4. The Technical Foundations of SanssouciDB

Abstract
In this chapter we describe the detailed physical and logical foundations of SanssouciDB. Simply running an existing database on a machine with a lot of main memory and a lot of cores will not achieve the speed-up we are seeking. To achieve our goal of giving business users information at their fingertips, we need to create a database that fully leverages these technological advantages. Chief among these are the efficient use of main memory, and the parallelization of tasks to take advantage of all the available cores. In addition to these physical considerations, we can also use logical design to increase performance. We lay out data in a way that suits the operations being carried out on it and also minimize the amount of data that needs to be processed. We also need to ensure that other considerations are taken into account, such as virtualization.
Hasso Plattner, Alexander Zeier

5. Organizing and Accessing Data in SanssouciDB

Abstract
Providing enterprise users with information they require, when they require it is not just a question of using the latest technology to store information in an efficient manner. Enterprise application developers and users need ways of accessing and storing their information that are suited to the tasks they wish to carry out. This includes things like making sure the most relevant data is always stored close to the CPU, while data that is no longer required for the day-to-day running of the business is stored in slower, cheaper storage; allowing new columns to be added to tables if customers need to customize an application, and allowing developers to choose the most efficient storage strategy for their particular task. The work of an application developer can also be made easier if they are able to read and write data in a way that fits in with the business process they are modeling. Finally, users and developers also need to have confidence that their database will be available when they need it, and that they will not lose their data if the power goes out or a hardware component fails. In this chapter we describe how data is accessed and organized in SanssouciDB, to meet the requirements we have outlined.
Hasso Plattner, Alexander Zeier

How In-Memory Changes the Game

Frontmatter

6. Application Development

Abstract
In Part II we described the ideas behind our new database architecture and explained the technical details it is founded on. In this chapter we describe how we can best take advantage of the technology from an application development perspective. In Section 6.1 we discuss how changing the way enterprise applications are written to take advantage of the SanssouciDB architecture, can dramatically improve performance. We go on, in Section 6.2 to give some examples of prototype re-implementations of existing applications, to show that the use of in-memory technology can reduce the complexity of the applications, as well as improve their performance.
Hasso Plattner, Alexander Zeier

7. Finally, a Real Business Intelligence System Is at Hand

Abstract
In this chapter, we offer our most important insights regarding operational and analytical systems from a business-oriented perspective and discuss how they should be unified to create a fast combined system. We point out how benchmarking should be changed to evaluate the unified system for operational and analyti cal processing.
Hasso Plattner, Alexander Zeier

8. Scaling SanssouciDB in the Cloud

Abstract
This chapter describes why we believe that the technology used in SanssouciDB – our prototype relational database system – is a good fit for Cloud Computing. We begin in Section 8.1 by defining Cloud Computing. In Section 8.2 we describe the different types of applications that are suited for the cloud. Section 8.3 takes a provider’s point of view and describes the type of infrastructure required to offer cloud services. We also examine multi-tenancy, replication, choice of hardware, and energy efficiency. In Section 8.4, we finally offer our conclusions regarding how in-memory computing will play an ever-increasing role in Cloud Computing.
Hasso Plattner, Alexander Zeier

9. The In-Memory Revolution Has Begun

Abstract
This final chapter demonstrates that our vision of an in-memory database for large-scale enterprise applications is already in the process of becoming reality. The first product that implements many of the concepts of SanssouciDB is the new in-memory data management solution released by SAP at the end 2010. Companies can begin using in-memory applications today and benefit from a massive performance increase. We show how this transition can occur seamlessly and without disruption. The chapter closes with first customer proof points by presenting application examples.
Hasso Plattner, Alexander Zeier

Backmatter

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