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This paper provides an overview of possible effects of language on behavior and searches for empirical evidence for and against linguistic relativity, cultural accommodation, and foreign language effects. Its contribution to research is threefold: First, it advances theory by comparing, merging, and sharpening existing theories, discussing overlaps and differences. Second, it paves the way for future empirical work on the role of language use by deriving possibilities, limitations, and requirements for empirical research, taking into account several possible effects of language. Third, it explores experimental data from three laboratory experiments, searching for convergent patterns that are predicted by the different theories.
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It should be noted that January and Kako (2007) failed to replicate any of Borditsky’s (2001) findings that support linguistic relativity, strongly arguing against evidence for linguistic relativity.
sgn() refers to the signum function.
A complete three-by-three factorial design may prove even more informative, but would increase the operative effort of the data collection significantly, with little methodological advantage.
From an operative point of view, a full random allocation to the treatment language across all language-pairings is a challenge, if not impossible. In the chosen design with three languages, all subjects would need to be trilingual at a high proficiency level.
As the experimental design excludes the cells of English processing for participants of French mother tongue and French processing for participants of English mother tongue, an additional participant of French mother tongue and English processing was excluded from analysis.
B2 categorizes an upper intermediate level in the common European framework of reference for languages.
- In Search of Cultural Accommodation, Ethnic Affirmation, and Foreign Language Effects
- Chapter 2
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