Skip to main content

Über dieses Buch

This book provides a global perspective of Indian Sandalwood categorized as ‘Vulnerable’ by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. It deals with history, distribution, propagation, chemistry, utilization, improvement, trade, and conservation in the present context. This book explores ways and means for restoring its past glory by creating awareness for its conservation and sustainable utilization. The content encompasses informative tables, appropriate graphs and figures, and illustrations with photographs and line drawings. This compendium would be useful for foresters, forestry professionals, botanists, policymakers, conservationists, NGOs, and researchers in the academia and the industry sectors.



History and Culture


Chapter 1. Indian Sandalwood’s Heartwood of History: A Global Sketch from 3000 BCE to 2020

This global environmental history of Santalum album (L) examines the origins of the use of Indian or white sandalwood in Ayurvedic medicine, Hinduism and Buddhism, and Asian regional and inter-regional trade from roughly 3000 BCE to 2020. It further traces how Indian Sandalwood’s indigenous sources in southern India and Kepulauan Nusa Tenggara (Lesser Sundas) converged as a market that fed demand across Asia, particularly to China, as an export commodity. It reflects on how colonialism and imperialism impacted sandalwood species and had a globalizing effect on Asia, the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

Christopher Cottrell

Chapter 2. Indian Sandalwood: A History of Overexploitation and Endangerment

This chapter traces the history of the decline of Indian sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) from the beginning of the colonial period through to early decades of the twenty-first century. It argues that numerous historical factors must be considered in explaining the current crisis facing the species, including early colonial exploitation to ease the British East India Company trade deficit with China, the rise of sandal spike disease in the early twentieth century and the failure of scientific forestry methods to breed the species in plantations until the mid-twentieth century. However, it was not until the 1950–1980s that massive overharvest and mismanagement by the post-colonial state-run sandalwood oil industry brought the species to the brink of extinction. This crisis continues today—as sandalwood stocks in India continue to decline alongside long-standing industries and cultural practices.

Ezra D. Rashkow

Chapter 3. Sandalwood in Indian Culture

The paper speaks about the uses and importance of Indian Sandalwood in Indian culture, namely in Classical Indian Perfumery. India is rightly believed to be the pioneer of the art and science of fragrance/perfumery in the world. Along with her numerous reserves of natural fragrant materials like agarwood, herbs, spices and flowers, Sandalwood, namely from Mysuru, has been honed to produce the world’s finest sandalwood oil extracted by distillation for over a thousand years. The paper talks about how Indian Sandalwood in the form of wood, powder and oil has been employed extensively in Indian incense making and the manufacture of natural Indian ‘Attar’ fragrance extract oil concentrates in Indian perfumery along with its wide usage in Indian spiritual rituals.

Krishnaraj Iyengar

Chapter 4. A History of Indian Sandalwood in Australia

Australia became a British colony of settlement in 1788; around 35 years later, the colony began trading in sandalwood. The trading supply chain of sandalwood was set firmly in harvesting the wild resource, initially the limited species found in the Pacific Islands and then into the local species growing in vast numbers throughout the semiarid lands of Western Australia. Sandalwood provided the fledgling Australian colonies with a very valuable trading resource that greatly assisted with easing the trade deficit and the economic future of the colonies. Today, sandalwood is still harvested from the Western Australian wild resource (Santalum spicatum), a large portion is processed and value added in Australia, while the traditional agarbatti industry is still being serviced. Plantations of both the native Western Australian species and Indian sandalwood have flourished in Australia since the late 1990s. Dedicated research trials and silvicultural development by Western Australian Government foresters paved the way for the private forestry. Private businesses were able to explore the potential benefits of plantation opportunities associated with a dwindling global natural supply. The semi-tropical climate of Northern Australia coupled with sophisticated irrigation systems, and land availability has given rise to a considerable Indian sandalwood plantation industry. Australia now has the world’s largest Indian sandalwood plantation resource. The harvesting of this resource has commenced with end products supplying various global markets and the Australian domestic market. As mature plantations are harvested and processed, they are replaced by new plantations fuelled by private investor financing.

Grant Pronk

Status of Sandalwood Across the World


Chapter 5. Sandalwood in Karnataka—Past and Present Status

Karnataka and sandalwood have a long historical association and are considered one of the prime tree species by the forest department. This chapter provides information on how sandalwood provided substantial income to the government exchequer during the British period and the erstwhile presidencies. We discuss the past and the present distribution status and various initiatives of Karnataka Forest Department to revive sandalwood population in its natural habitat for conservation and sustained utilization.

A. N. Arunkumar, Dipak Sarmah

Chapter 6. Status of Sandalwood in Tamil Nadu

Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album), yielding the most priced wood, is predominantly distributed in the states of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka forests. In the historical time frame, the harvest of Sandalwood trees from forest and village series was guided chiefly by the prevalence of spike disease and the species vulnerability to smuggling. The species enjoys abundant natural regeneration in ideal forest tracts through avian dispersers, but various natural and anthropogenic factors challenge subsequent establishment into the mature crop. The artificial propagation of Sandalwood in the past was met with only partial success. The State Government and the Forest department responded with many legal, policy, administrative and scientific management interventions to face the escalating problems from organized smuggling of Sandalwood after the 1980s with mixed results, which are described. The future of sustainable Sandalwood management lies in protecting the existing natural stock and promoting Sandalwood cultivation outside forest areas.

T. Sekar

Chapter 7. Marayoor Sandalwood Reserve—The Last Bastion of Indian Sandalwood

Marayoor Sandalwood Reserve (MSR) situated in Kerala is the only area in India having the largest population of sandalwood. We provide information about the associated history of the area, the number of trees existing and protection measures in reducing the illegal felling of trees and its auctioning. This iconic sandalwood area has become an important habitat for sandalwood conservation in India.

A. N. Arunkumar, Geeta Joshi, Surendra Kumar

Chapter 8. Santalum album: Current Status, Research and Future Perspectives in Sri Lanka

Santalum album L., which is believed to be introduced to Sri Lanka several hundreds of years ago, is growing well in all climate zones other than higher elevations in the wet zone. Its natural populations are widely seen in homegardens and associated lands, especially in the Uva Province which is located in the higher elevations of the intermediate climate zone. Only limited research has been conducted on this valuable species in Sri Lanka, varying from plantation establishment to oil content and constituent analysis. Still, many areas in the S. album-related industry remain unstudied. There were no records on S. album plantation establishment in the past until the last 10 years when the commercial cultivations were started.

S. M. C. U. P. Subasinghe

Chapter 9. Status of Sandalwood in Indonesia and Neighbouring Countries

Sandalwood is an important species in Asia that has been traded several centuries ago among Indonesia, India, China and several other countries. The high demand for sandalwood and its limited presence only in East Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Timur, NTT) slow reforestation efforts, poor community-friendly policies, ambiguities in laws related to ownership and trade of sandalwood, limited sources of sandalwood seeds, lack of institutional support to sandalwood farmers and restrained funds to support research hamper sandalwood conservation. This condition was realized by the Indonesian Government who then made a master plan intending to restore sandalwood to its past glory in NTT by 2030. A series of efforts that have been made in the master plan is starting to show encouraging results, and it seems that the plan to restore sandalwood to NTT might be realized. The existence of sandalwood in Indonesia is not only in NTT, the main area of sandalwood, but has also spread to other places such as Java Island (DI Yogyakarta, Central Java, and East Java) and Sumatra Island (Aceh). Apart from Indonesia, sandalwood is also found in India, Timor Leste, Nepal, and China and Melanesian regions such as Fiji and Vanuatu. This chapter will discuss the status of sandalwood in Indonesia and neighbouring countries.

Vivi Yuskianti, Rekha R. Warrier

Chapter 10. The Current Status of Indian Sandalwood Plantations in Australia

The Western Australian Forest Department’s pioneering Indian sandalwood research work commenced in the early 1980s. This early work has given rise to the world’s largest plantation sandalwood supply companies which are based in Western Australia. The Australian private sector continues to invest and become more entrenched in the commercial growing of Indian sandalwood, simultaneously the Western Australian government has steadily decreased its research focus and efforts. The last of the government research plantations was established in the Ord Valley, Kununurra, in 2004, and the last government research plantation trees were harvested in 2019 and sold into the commercial market.

Grant Pronk

Biology of the Species


Chapter 11. The Botany of Sandalwood

This paper presents a brief taxonomic history, detailed nomenclature and description, illustrations, habitat, phenology, common/local names, uses and nativity of Santalum album L. A global checklist of all currently accepted species and varieties of the genus Santalum is provided with taxonomic details, and distribution is appended to serve as precursor materials for an urgently needed global taxonomic revision of the genus Santalum.

M. Sanjappa, A. N. Sringeswara

Chapter 12. Anatomy of Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album L.)

Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is one of the most valuable tropical hardwoods in the world, known for its fragrant heartwood and essential oil. Due to its overexploitation in the past, it is categorized as ‘vulnerable’ and listed in International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of threatened species. The global shortage and high market price of sandalwood have always been a reason for frequent adulteration and import of cheaper substitutes of this prized material. To resolve adulteration problems, wood identification techniques using light microscopy and image analysis have always been essential tools for timber authentication and utilization. Besides wood (stem and root) anatomy, anatomical features of bark and haustoria could be essential components in understanding the issues of forest forensic and functional attributes of sandalwood haustorial–host interactions, respectively. In this chapter, the anatomical characteristics of bark, stem wood, root wood and haustoria are described based on the investigation carried out on the availability of sandalwood trees and xylarium samples in the Navsari Agricultural University, Gujarat, India. The study showed that stem wood and root wood in S. album look alike apart from vessel diameter in root wood, which appeared to be slightly more prominent and more frequent than vessel diameter in stem wood. However, ray frequency and fibre length in stem wood were higher than root wood. Interestingly, in the bark, distinct oil cells were observed without oil globules associated with ray parenchyma. However, there are no reports on distinct oil cells in stem wood and root wood. The oil globules in stem wood were observed in lumens of procumbent ray cells and axial parenchyma. Ray cells were heterogeneous types in stem wood and root wood while homogeneous in the bark. In stem wood, occasional rhomboidal crystals were seen in chambered cells of axial parenchyma only, while in root wood, these were observed in ray cells and axial parenchyma both. However, in the bark, occasional crystals were observed in cortical cells and axial parenchyma. Considering haustorial anatomy, the initiation of penetration peg at sandalwood haustorium and host root interface confirmed young haustoria's transition to mature haustoria.

Satish Kumar Sinha, R. Vijendra Rao

Chapter 13. Seed Biology

The chapter focuses on the flowering, fruiting, germination, dormancy and seed storage behaviour of Santalum album. Genetic, as well as climatic factors, influence flowering and fruiting. The trees flower once, twice or throughout the year. Flowering time and duration vary in different areas. Work on seed germination and dormancy is discussed in detail. The seeds have morphophysiological dormancy which can be overcome by treating with gibberellic acid. The viability of seeds can be prolonged by storing dried seeds at low temperature.

Geeta Joshi, A. N. Arunkumar, Rekha R. Warrier

Chapter 14. Pollination Biology of Sandalwood

In this chapter, we focus on the current status of knowledge on the floral biology of Santalum album and the role of flower visitors in its pollination and fruit set. Flowers are bisexual, actinomorphic and epigynous, borne on axillary or terminal panicles. Based on the position of stigma, three types of flowers are observed: pin (stigma above the level of anther), thrum (stigma at a lower level) and homostylous (stigma and anther at the same level). A flower lasts for about three days, and its colour gradually changes from pale green or white to dark red with age. Though the ovary has 2‒4 embryo sacs, only one matures. From flowering to fruit maturation, it takes 80‒85 days, and the berries are eaten by birds, especially the Asian Koel, which may also be involved in the dispersion of seeds. There appear to be some contradictions concerning pollination, though many workers suggest that S. album is an obligate outcrossing species. However, the per cent fruit set under open pollination conditions appears to be very low, indicating a deficit in pollinators. Of the 46 species of flower visitors recorded, syrphids, calliphorids and honey bees have been reported as the most frequent visitors. However, there have been no studies to identify efficient pollinators, as most of the reports are subjective and are not supported by hard data. We also discuss the methods to be followed in sandalwood pollination studies.

A. S. Hareesha, V. V. Belavadi, K. B. Tharini

Chapter 15. Host Plant Influence on Haustorial Growth and Development of Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album)

Selection and management of hosts have remained one of the most important silvicultural research topics, since the discovery of the parasitic nature of sandalwood (Santalum album) in 1871. It is well recognized that the selection and planting of appropriate host trees for sandal plantations are desirable to improve the returns. Sandalwood, a hemiparasite, parasitizes roots of almost all plants, and a significantly higher rate of carbon assimilation rate is observed in sandalwood growing with the host than the parasite growing without a host. Host plants with the nitrogen-fixing ability, light shade and fast-growing species appear to be the most suitable hosts. Considerable differences in xylem solute transfers between the sandalwood and different hosts have been documented, and such differences have been used together to discriminate host species that are distinctly superior to other hosts in terms of parasitic overall benefit. The most important host quality index for sandalwood is the production of biomass per haustoria and overall haustorial biomass production. Sandalwood exhibits host specificity at different developmental stages of the plant, and the hosts are classified into the pot (primary), intermediate and long-term host. Sandalwood seedlings with a suitable pot host increase the field survival rate. Intermediate hosts are generally a fast-growing short-lived perennial that serves between the pot host and field host. The main role of an intermediate host is in stimulating the early growth rate of sandalwood plantation. The intermediate host will wither away or become insignificant when sandalwood parasitizes on the field host. Field host is expected to last throughout the life of sandalwood and provide stable support for the growth of the tree. Morphological, anatomical and physiological characters of sandalwood haustoria are well studied. Haustorium is composed of the hyaline body, penetration peg and the ellipsoidal disc. The haustoria help the plant to access host resources through either direct vascular continuity or interfacial parenchymatic cells. Sandalwood haustoria lack direct phloem or xylem connections with its hosts. The flow of water and nutrients from the host occurs primarily via host xylem element pits to the interfacial parenchyma of the parasite. Substantially high amounts or endogenous phytohormones are found in the haustoria compared to either the host of sandalwood roots indicate their significant role in haustorial development and function. Application of plant growth regulators in an in vitro environment has been observed to increase the number of haustoria. The sandalwood is a debilitating parasite, and the host damage increases with good hosts; hence, sandalwood may not be a suitable agroforestry partner for ‘suitable’ hosts.

Delphy Rocha, A. V. Santhoshkumar

Propagation and Cultivation


Chapter 16. Nursery Practices, Plantation Technology and Hosts of Sandalwood (Santalum album L.)

It is imperative to standardize nursery practices for production of quality planting material. In Santalum album, studies have been carried using different potting media, screening ideal primary, intermediate and secondary hosts, optimizing biofertilizers and supplementary nutrition. By integrating the best nursery practices, quality seedling parameters can be identified. This chapter reviews various factors for the production of seedlings in the nursery and provides information about plantation management.

T. S. Rathore, D. Annapurna, Geeta Joshi

Chapter 17. Insect Pests of Indian Sandalwood

Establishment of extensive Sandalwood plantations has been progressively increasing recently. Many insects attack Sandalwood plantations as well as while it is being raised in large quantities as seedlings in nurseries. Although some insect species are observed in nearly all locations, many others are of only local significance. Relatively few insect species cause significant injury and are only a problem when the population exceeds damaging thresholds. This review attempts to consolidate information on the insect pest problems associated with Sandalwood, feasible management measures identified so far as well as the research gaps which needs addressing in future.

John Prasanth Jacob

Chapter 18. Diseases, Diagnosis and Their Management of Indian Sandalwood

Sandalwood (Santalum album L) is a small tropical and a semi-root parasitic tree native to southern India of Southeast Asia. Sandalwood is affected by fungal diseases, viz., leaf spot, powdery mildew, collar rot, canker and wilt. However, the phytoplasmal sandalwood spike disease (SSD) is likely to be the most destructive of sandalwood and SSD is known to be transmitted through dodder, grafting and insect vectors. Histochemical tests using stains, immunological techniques viz., enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, dot immunobinding assay, immuno microscopy, Western blotting and nucleic acid based techniques viz., PCR, qPCR, nested-PCR help in detection of SSD in early stages of plant growth which would help in formulating the effective management practices.

B. N. Ashwini, Gunda V. N. S. Madhu Kiran, A. S. Padmaja, N. Nagaraju

Chapter 19. Indian Sandalwood Cultivation Prospects in India

Sandalwood (Santalum album L) is a hemiparasite requiring the support of a primary and secondary host for its optimal growth which can be exploited in agroforestry. It has almost all the attributes required for a multipurpose tree species in agroforestry. Farmers also recognize the requirement for quality planting stock material (QPM) of sandalwood. Farmers across India have been experimenting with various horticultural species as long term secondary hosts in sandalwood plantations. There is also increasing recognition for intercropping with suitable annual crops in the interspaces of plantations as it can be a source of interim income for sustaining plantation expenses during the long gestation period. Available data on sandalwood-based agroforestry practices’ financial viability show a positive trend that can promote this venture. Liberalization of rules leading to an open market economy from the current monopsony practices may further encourage sandalwood agroforestry in India.

S. Viswanath, Sandeep Chakraborty

Tree Improvement and Biotechnology


Chapter 20. Tree Improvement of Sandalwood in India with Special Emphasis on Heartwood and Oil—An Analysis

Indian sandalwood is one of the species in India which has been extensively worked since 150 years. From tree improvement perspective, the first country-level sandalwood survey was carried out during the late 1970s which provided a considerable information about distribution and variation. In this chapter, we review the studies carried out related to variability in morphological traits with emphasis on commercially important traits—heartwood and oil along with various trials carried out on with tree improvement programmes. We are of the opinion that for reinitiating any tree improvement strategies, the base population would be from the plantations that have been established outside its natural habitat as there is considerable reduction in natural population.

A. N. Arunkumar, A. Seetharam

Chapter 21. Heartwood and Oil Content Variation in Sandalwood Accessions from Diverse Origins

Heartwood and oil in sandalwood are the two main commercial traits. These are influenced by several factors, such as genotypes, age and management practices. A study was carried out to assess heartwood and oil in 20-year-old clonal accessions (n = 37) collected from the diverse origin. It was observed that in 14% of the accessions, heartwood had not formed, revealing the extent of variability. The study cautions plantation growers to consider this issue, while growing sandalwood and recommending harvesting by the age of 10 or 15 years may not be a commercially viable option.

A. N. Arunkumar, Geeta Joshi, Y. B. Srinivasa, A. Seetharam

Chapter 22. Micropropagation in Sandalwood (Santalum album L)

The change in cultivation rules for sandalwood has encouraged the establishment of plantations. This has increased the demand for quality planting material. Traditionally, the species is propagated through seeds. Production of clonal planting material of high oil yielding genotypes can be achieved through micropropagation. This chapter reviews research work on micropropagation through various modes of regeneration, endosperm culture, cell suspension, protoplast culture, synthetic seed production and genetic transformation studies in S. album.

T. S. Rathore, Mamtha Rangaswamy, Biniya Goyal

Chapter 23. Genetic Diversity Analysis of Indian Sandalwood

Santalum album L. (Santalaceae R. Br.) is an evergreen parasitic tree, representing the genus Santalum in India. The species is valued for its fragrant heartwood as well as essential oil. In the past few decades, the sandalwood population has been dwindling due to several factors, including exploitation for economic gains due to its high valuation in the market, resulting in removal of the superior individuals from the population and thereby a decline in the genetic diversity. This necessitates to capture genetic diversity of sandalwood, and the conserved genetic resources can be utilized for further tree improvement and to initiate and develop effective conservation strategies. The present chapter analyses and discusses the various diversity studies on Indian sandalwood.

Renuka S. Joshi, Pooja Bharti, P. Mohana Kumara

Chapter 24. Photosynthesis in Indian Sandalwood

Photosynthesis is an important process having direct relevance on the growth and development of trees, and information generated on this process in sandalwood is limited. As reported in many crop, plants and trees growth performance can be effectively assessed with the help of the photosynthetic process. Hence, this process is measured to determine biomass production efficiency. There are studies on variation in sandalwood genotypes and associated hosts for photosynthetic traits. However, there are no reports on key factors governing photosynthesis. This chapter elucidates research developments in sandalwood photosynthesis.

A. N. Arunkumar, K. N. Nataraja

Chapter 25. Omics in Sandalwood

Indian Sandalwood (Santalum album) is known for its aromatic heartwood and fragrant essential oil. For targeted tree improvement and manipulation of oil biosynthesis, biochemical pathways are to be identified. Unfortunately, due to high demand the population is dwindling and therefore there is a need to conserve and understand the biology of sandalwood using modern tools and techniques. Recently, attempts have been made to understand the Indian sandalwood genome, and large-scale transcriptome data have been generated. The basic information obtained helped us to understand the sandalwood oil biosynthesis pathway, and more information is needed for manipulating oil constituents and artificial synthesis of sesquiterpenoids. Current status of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics is discussed in this chapter.

H. V. Thulasiram, Rekha R. Warrier, K. N. Nataraja



Chapter 26. Chemistry and Analysis of Santalum album

The chemistry of Sandalwood has been studied and reported for over a century; however, the chemical understanding of Sandalwood is ever expanding with technology and applications. Major and minor constituents of the Santalum album are discussed with reference to chemical identification. Major constituents are reoccurring in S. album heartwood independent of tree variabilities. Non-reoccurring minor compounds and their possible origin can be traced back to processing and distillation practices. Biosynthesis of Sandalwood follows an enzyme-dependant pathway, leading to the synthesis of unique sandalwood molecules. Chemical analysis of sandalwood involves the extraction of the oil by and distillation, solvent extraction or by more novel methods such as solid-phase microextraction. Analysis of sandalwood essential oil components is performed by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometer or flame ionization detector; gas chromatography is the most widespread industrial and trade analysis method, which is also standardized by an international standards organization. Novel analytical methods such as high-performance thin-layer chromatography and solid-phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography have been reported in analysing Sandalwood. This chapter is a review of current knowledge on sandalwood chemistry while also exposing future development opportunities.

Dhanushka S. Hettiarachchi, Andrew Brown, Mary C. Boyce

Chapter 27. Cancer-Preventive and Antitumour Effects of Sandalwood Oil and Alpha-Santalol

Natural products have been widely used by different cultures from around the world for many centuries for their associated health benefits and ability to prevent and reverse the development of various ailments. Medicinal value of a variety of phytochemicals is well known, and emerging literature provides evidence about their health promoting and disease fighting potential. One such natural product, sandalwood oil, is known to be part of traditional medicine by various cultures for treating numerous ailments, including cancer. It constitutes a wide variety of components including alpha-santalol. This sesquiterpene is widely investigated for its health benefits and ability to modulate different signalling pathways involved in the development of the malignant disease. For example, the antitumour and cancer-preventive properties of alpha-santalol are shown to involve cell death induction through apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in various cancer models. The current chapter summarizes our knowledge of sandalwood oil and alpha-santalol and their biological aspects attributed to the cancer-preventive and antitumour effects against various cancers with relevant clinical evidence.

Kaitlyn Blankenhorn, Abigayle Keating, James Oschal, Daniel Maldonado, Ajay Bommareddy

Chapter 28. Chandana (Santalum album L.) in Ayurveda

Candana (Sandalwood), the heartwood of Santalum album L., an evergreen tree of the family Santalaceae, is closely associated with Indian culture and traditions, particularly Ayurveda, the Indian Traditional System of Medicine. The chapter describes religious and medicinal importance of candana in Ayurveda. Various synonyms attributed to the drug in Classical Ayurveda texts and later nighaṇṭus and their meaning indicating the origin, distribution and therapeutic properties are given. Varietal differences along with their properties as described in various nighaṇṭus are mentioned. Therapeutic uses, pharmacological activities and single drug uses of candana in Ayurveda perspective are also given. Various formulations containing candana as given in classical texts and nighaṇṭus along with their curative indications are detailed.

N. Manoj Kumar, Vidhya Unnikrishnan, C. M. Harinarayanan, Indira Balachandran

Chapter 29. Sandalwood—Perfumery

Sandalwood is a valued and widely used ingredient in perfumery. It has a history of use in India that documents back to the seventh century BCE. Its use in Western perfumery is not as long, but the unique qualities of this ingredient have seen it become a key ingredient in these products. By undertaking a review of the history of perfume development, exploring how Indian sandalwood works in these compositions, the benefit that this ingredient can bring to the final product and then looking at the chemistry of the constituents of sandalwood oil will allow a better understanding on why Indian sandalwood is so valued in this purpose. A comment on the future of Indian sandalwood is offered, and while some new opportunities exist such as sustainability, origin and traceability, there are also opportunities with developing some of the well-being benefits, associated with Indian sandalwood in the East for many years, into Western perfume compositions.

Andrew Brown, Alexandra Mettetal, Dhanushka Hettiarachchi

Chapter 30. Santalum album Oil as a Pharmaceutical Agent

The essential oil produced by steam distillation from the heartwood of East Indian sandalwood trees (Santalum album) has been used as a traditional medicine for centuries due to its broad spectrum of biological properties. Recent biochemical studies have begun to elucidate the specific mechanisms of action of the oil and its major components. The creation of guidelines for the development of botanical drugs as a special category by regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has allowed the development of complex mixtures such as sandalwood oil as potential pharmaceutical agents. Sandalwood oil has been shown in several early Phase 2 clinical trials in the USA to give promising results. Extensive pivotal clinical studies are required to confirm the beneficial activity and favourable safety profile seen in these early human studies.

Corey Levenson

Chapter 31. Indian Sandalwood Market Trend

Indian sandalwood (Santalum album L.) is being traded since the seventeenth century. The quantity of wood and oil supplied to different countries was huge during the last five decades. The price of wood and oil was concededly low due to increased production. As the production and the supply of wood decreased from the natural forest, there was a fluctuation in price; consequently, the price increased by many folds. Because of the high price of wood, some smaller industries, especially incense, started using synthetic substitutes. Since the past two decades, companies are growing sandalwood intensively under agroforestry conditions. Likely, there may not be much fluctuations in price for wood and oil, and many industries would revert to the use of sandalwood oil.

H. S. Ananthapadmanabha



Chapter 32. Modeled Distribution of and Threats to Sandalwood in a Changing Environment

Species distribution modelling is increasingly used to help identify conservation priorities and target field studies. We modeled the distribution of Sandalwood (Santalum album L.) in India and Indonesia, two key countries within the species natural range, and compared the results with land cover, protected area network and global ecoregions map. Land use change has significantly affected the potential distribution of Sandalwood in both India and Indonesia, with 79% and 60% of the species’ predicted suitable habitats converted to croplands, respectively, and approximately only 2% of the remaining natural habitats found in protected areas. Moreover, land use change has affected ecoregions unevenly, with some ecoregions having lost over 90% of suitable natural habitats of Sandalwood and along with them likely distinct adaptive traits of the species. Ecoregions in Indonesia’s East Nusa Tenggara province, regarded as a centre of diversity of Sandalwood, are of particular conservation concern due to the minimal remaining distribution area. Furthermore, we projected the modeled distribution to future climate conditions and the results indicated that climate change is not expected to affect the Sandalwood adversely across most of its range by 2050. Instead, the species would gain new suitable areas, especially in Central and Northern India. We conclude with recommendations for the conservation and sustainable management of Sandalwood resources in the two countries.

Riina Jalonen, Hannes Gaisberger, Rekha R. Warrier, Vivi Yuskianti, Smitha Krishnan

Chapter 33. Need for Geographical Information System Enabled Conversational Assistant Driven by Artificial Intelligence for Sandalwood Cultivation Support to Indian Farmer

Cultivation of Sandalwood is increasingly attracting the farming community's attention, which has the potential to strengthen the rural economy and ecology. Diversity of information regarding silviculture of Sandalwood is high, and hence, a harmonized digital content needs to be delivered to farmers. The advent of geospatial information, coupled with improvements in machine learning and smartphone-based tools, opens up opportunities in this regard. Current deliberation focuses on applying a combination of machine intelligence and geospatial content to deliver a customized conversational assistant or chatbot for sandalwood cultivation. Such a tool will enable assessment of responses and appropriate handholding for farmers in terms of nuances of sites, growth, harvest and marketing the produce. Geoinformation content available offline and online through Bhuvan (a national geoportal of Indian Space Research Organization) and findings in plant biology of Sandalwood analysed robustly through artificial intelligence makes this approach possible. Strengths and flexibility associated with conversational assistants need to be dovetailed for transforming sandalwood cultivation, to increase the acceptance of crop and achieve a nationally relevant policy implementation and evolution.

G. S. Pujar, S. P. Reddy, T. Ravisankar

Chapter 34. Future Directions for Indian Sandalwood

In this culminating chapter of the book, we try to integrate the information from all the chapters and provide insights about the future research needs to be considered that are of paramount concern with conservation, management and sustainable utilization of Indian Sandalwood.

A. N. Arunkumar, Geeta Joshi, Rekha R. Warrier, K. N. Nataraja
Weitere Informationen

Premium Partner


    Die im Laufe eines Jahres in der „adhäsion“ veröffentlichten Marktübersichten helfen Anwendern verschiedenster Branchen, sich einen gezielten Überblick über Lieferantenangebote zu verschaffen.