Previous contributions have already shown many interactions between air, water, soil, chemicals and biotic factors. When these interactions occur at one specific site they are called vertical relationships. Besides, there are the horizontal relationships between areas that are geographically apart, which have not been dealt with extensively in this issue. Horizontal relations usually cross the country borders and thus are international, e.g. man-induced climate changes, oceanic pollution and European-African bird migration. Several international organizations keep themselves busy with environmental matters and assess whether mankind as a whole or as a group of countries is gaining or losing in environmental quality. From time to time the environmental thermometer is read and a so-called State of the Environment presented. Since the US-Council of Environmental Quality started to do so in 1970 this has become customary in the European Communities, the Council of Europe, the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development), the ECE (the UN - Economic Commission for Europe) and UNEP (the UN — Environment Programme).
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- Indicators in Complex Systems
G. P. Hekstra
- Springer Netherlands
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen