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Based on the 2018 International Joint Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management (IJCIEOM) conference that took place in Lisbon, Portugal, this proceedings volume is the first of two focusing on mathematical applications in digital transformation. The different contributions in this volume explore topics such as health care, social technologies, mathematical programming applications, public transport services, new product development, industry 4.0, occupational safety, quality control, e-services, risk management, and supply chain management. Written by renowned scientists from around the world, this multidisciplinary volume serves as a reference on industrial engineering and operations management and as a source on current findings for researchers and students who focus in business models, digital literacy and technology in education, logistics, production and information systems, and operations management.



Performance Measurement System to Continuously Improve a Brazilian Industrial Engineering Program: A Process to ABET Accreditation

There is an increasing claim for managing Engineering Programs through competences. By the mid-1990s, the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) recognized that the international challenge of competitiveness was in part a problem of competencies in engineering education and has adopted a revolutionary approach, proposing the concept of student outcomes. The ABET content model to Student Outcomes is well known, but to define a process to make this content coherent within the institution is not a trivial thing. An important element for achieving ABET criteria is the establishment of a continuous improvement process through outcomes assessment, which will be the focus of this paper. A framework to continuously improve the performance in the context of Engineering Education is proposed. Such a framework is based upon a set of performance measurement literature and ABET criteria. The framework is tested at PUCPR Industrial Engineering (IE) Program, located in Brazil. The initial stages of development and implementation of the assessment process to continuous improvement of PUCPR’s IE Program are presented. As a result, it is possible to have a complete view of continuous improvement ABET process, including performance measurement system.
Gabriela Lobo Veiga, Edson Pinheiro de Lima, Fernando Deschamps, Rafael Rodrigues Guimarães Wollmann

Internet of Things (IoT): Technological Indicators from Patent Analysis

The Internet of Things (IoT) is a computing concept that describes the idea of everyday physical objects being connected to the Internet and being able to identify themselves to other devices. The connection of the various devices occurs over the Internet for the exchange of information in the industry. Currently, it is one of the most important topics in the technology discussion because it helps the digital transformation. In addition, IoT is one of the cornerstone industry 4.0. It decentralizes analysis and decision making, allowing responses to occur in real time. This study mapped the technological development on Internet of Things using patent indicators from documents indexed in the Derwent Innovations Index database between the years 2010 and 2017. We evaluate the patent activity, the role of countries and the main technological subdomains. Among the main results, the year 2016 stands out with 4647 patent documents. China stood out with 79.80% of patent documents linked to IoT and approximately 50% of the patent documents analyzed are linked to the technological domain of electronic-electricity.
Meire Ramalho de Oliveira, Angela Emi Yanai, Diogo Soares Moreira, Cláudia Daniele de Souza, Carlos Eduardo Gomes de Castro

Flexibility Practices in Disaster Response—A Process Approach Based Evaluation

Organizational systems based on flexible processes are gaining increasing importance because they do not present a predefined sequence of actions. The prevention, relief, assistance and reconstruction actions carried out by government agencies that seek to avoid or minimize the disasters’ consequences can be classified as flexible processes. The objective of this article is to propose an evaluation process capable of identifying and classifying these agencies’ actions as flexible processes, for meeting the guidelines from the organizational engineering initiatives previously developed. The method was created using as reference the Cambridge Process Approach, and it was validated by a group of experts. This assessment method was applied in a real case study. Finally, the method displays the flexibility degree of the actions implemented in the real case. In this research, the procedures created by the Brazilian Protection and Civil Defense agencies and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), from the United States, were analyzed and compared.
Rafael Duarte, Leticia Gorte, Fernando Deschamps

A Literature Review of Mathematical Programming Applications in the Fresh Agri-Food Supply Chain

This work presents a literature review of mixed integer programming (MIP) applications in the fresh agri-food supply chain (ASC). The agricultural products attract great attention because it is an issue related to public health, subject to strict regulations and inspections. Due to the strong need to increase the efficiency of the supply chain, the planning models have become of increasing importance to producers and companies. Among the concerns of ASC problems, perishability is very critical for horticultural products, whose shelf life is significantly lower than of traditional crops, like grains and other vegetables. This research comes up first with a tertiary study of ASC publications, i.e., a review of reviews to investigate the core themes that have been studied. Thus, a secondary study on the primary literature was conducted. The use of mathematical models for applications in crop planning can be found since the early 1950 years, even in a tenuous way, but it became more widespread during the decade of 1980, with growing interest in the 1990s. In particular, the perishability of fresh products and risk management are two themes which have gained importance and visibility among recent research and publications, highlighting the relevance of the present study.
Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami, Maico Roris Severino, Lie Yamanaka, Meire Ramalho de Oliveira

A Bibliographic Review on Social Technologies

Social technology is an area of solidarity economy that aims to create and use knowledge to promote the economic and social inclusion of excluded populations. Since the literature on this subject is still very restricted, the aim of this article is to investigate the advance of scientific knowledge on social technologies through bibliometric indicators of scientific production and to make a bibliographical analysis on the main articles published in Scielo Citation Index and the proceedings of Encontro Nacional de Engenharia de Produção—ENEGEP. Among the results of the research, the low number of documents published in relation to other areas of research and the notoriety of Brazil in this field of research stand out with 69.7% of all publications. In this way, it is possible to perceive that this field of knowledge is still incipient and that many documents are published in books, proceedings of specific events and journals not indexed in the Web of Science or Scielo.
Meire Ramalho de Oliveira, Lie Yamanaka, Maico Roris Severino, Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

The Importance of Education in Enhancing the Innovation Capacity in Serbia

Innovation is seen as a critical driver of economic performance and essential instrument for business performance improvement of companies especially for emerging economies and economies in transition. Serbia is a country with innovation performance well below the EU27 average, and now it is challenged to keep the growth. To enhance innovation potential is not only about financial resources, it is also about appropriate skills and knowledge. Education can be one of the main pillars to help enhance innovation capacity since knowledge is a fundamental factor in the innovation and assimilation of new technologies. The role of Serbian higher educational institutions, in this process, is very important. On the one side, universities have to ensure appropriate education, but on the other side, companies should recognize the importance of educated professionals in the field of innovation. The aim of this paper was assessing the company’s needs for professionals in the field of innovation and how companies perceive the importance of education in this field. Based on the results, we proposed a set of competences that should be covered by the study program.
Bojan Lalic, Danijela Ciric, Danijela Gracanin, Zoran Anisic

Descriptive Evaluation in the Public Transport Service—A Study About of the Satisfaction of Customers

The service sector has great socioeconomic importance in the current globalized world, so companies need to be in the business of dealing with the changes that occur in the market, especially changes related to the profile of their consumers. Therefore, it is important to measure and evaluate the quality offered by service providers. For companies that provide public services, although there is no competition during the period of validity of contracts, it is indispensable to evaluate and measure the quality of what is offered to their customers. In this sense, the present study aims to describe and analyze the customers’ expectations and perceptions levels referent to the public transport service as well identify the most important attributes of these services from customer’s opinions. To achieve the results, a questionnaire was applied to 238 users of collective transport using a Likert scale of 5 points to measure their expectations and perceptions. It was concluded that the attributes that most cause dissatisfaction to public transport users are those related to safety and lack of space within buses for so many passengers, especially at peak times. For the fulfillment of these challenges posed by the economic and political pressures on public expenditure, it is essential to understand the customers’ expectations, to promote improvements in the service.
Júlio Cesar Valandro Soares, Agenor Sousa Santos Neto, Mayara Alves de Souza, Vitória Barros Brandão, Amanda Mendonça de Oliveira

New Product Development in the Context of Industry 4.0: Insights from the Automotive Components Industry

The advent of Industry 4.0 is imposing several changes and challenges to companies and industries. Connectivity, software dependence, and deep interdependency between companies in global optimized supply chains are some aspects that will be prevalent in any industry. In this context, new product development (NPD) has been changing to fit this new context. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted in seven companies in the automotive components industry to understand how NPD processes have been changing. The impact of software is particularly noteworthy. Indeed, the automotive components industry has been greatly boosted by the incorporation of software (mainly in terms of electric/electronic components). The development of software, in some cases, can represent between 60 and 80% of product development costs. Such incorporation of software makes the development of software and of automotive components to have more and more similarities. In this context, there is a clear tendency to reduce the development time, increase complexity, and make several iterations (sprints) to verify if the product is in accordance with what the customer or the market demands.
Jorge Oliveira, Manuel Nunes, Paulo Afonso

Risk Analysis of a Scientific Conference Organization: A Brazilian Case

Studies based on Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) technique has been considered as an effective method for risk management analysis. As a simple useful tool for preventing failures before they occur, this paper aims to contribute in increasing the quality planning of scientific conferences, evaluating interconnected stages designed to provide an adequate structure for the execution of such events. For this study, FMEA was applied based on literature review and the information provided by the organizing committee of the largest Brazilian production engineering conference. Considering the Risk Priority Number (RPN) resulting from this research, this case study shows the activities that might be considered as higher risk during scientific conferences, and what preventive action should be taken to avoid them or mitigating their consequences.
Roberto Miguel Fuentes Rivera, Jakeline Tomé da Silva, Milton Vieira Júnior, Fernando Tobal Berssaneti

QR Code Based Signage to Support Automated Driving Systems on Rural Area Roads

Automated Driving Systems (ADS) have significant potential to improve road safety and efficiency. The performance and the market adoption of ADS depend on the availability of the infrastructure that can support the operation of autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicles throughout the road networks. Rural and remote areas pose significant problems because they often lack power and communication network required for ADS functionality. There is a need for low-cost machine-readable static signage that can fill the gaps in the infrastructure. As one of the early steps to achieve that goal, this paper explores the feasibility of using Quick Response (QR) codes as static road side signage that can inform and alert machine-based onboard systems about the road conditions ahead. It specifically focuses on the applications involving the relay of data pertaining to the high accuracy roadway geometric information of intersections.
Erol Ozan

A Practical Study of the Application of Value Stream Mapping to a Pre-series Production Area

Value Stream Mapping (VSM) is a well-known Lean Manufacturing tool used to support wastes identification and value creation. The purpose of this paper is to present the application of this tool to the setting up of a new pre-series production area. To do so, a case study is presented from the automotive plastic sector. In this case study, VSM was used to improve the implementation process of a pre-series production area operating in a project manufacturing or engineer-to-order environment. The objective was to improve the industrialization process in the pre-series phase in order to ensure that the industrialization of new projects is aligned with the needs of the clients. Through the use of the VSM tool, in a representative project, significant improvements were obtained in the process, such as processing times and lead times reduction.
Joana Lamas, Carina M. O. Pimentel, João C. O. Matias

Implementation of a Software Program for the Optimization of an Oil Pump Assembly Line

Automotive companies are constantly facing new challenges and new demands such as international competition and increasing pressure to reduce costs and increase their performance. In this context, the use of certain types of software becomes a very important tool as a factor of differentiation of performance and quality compared to other companies. In this paper, a case study of a Portuguese automotive enterprise is considered in order to optimize the performance associated to a variable displacement oil pump assembly line. The objective is to implement and exploit the SAM (Suivi Arrêts Machine, in French, system for improving the means) software, a mechanism of control and monitoring of efficiency, in order to analyze which operations are more detrimental and which do not allow a determined production objective to be met. After the implementation phase, it will be necessary to define the indicators to be deduced from the software and to define the standard data collection and analysis. Afterwards, in order to disclose all the data, it will be necessary to create an animation board based on the Plan-Do-Check-Act Cycle (PDCA) to start monitoring the performance of the line and consequently increase its performance.
Leonardo F. M. Lemos, Radu Godina, João C. O. Matias

Evaluating the Impact of 5S Implementation on Occupational Safety in an Automotive Industrial Unit

Lean is becoming a world-class word that represents continuous improvement and most of all the importance of focusing on creating value. The implementation of Lean Manufacturing will lead us to improve quality, reducing costs and at the same time the elimination of non-value-added activities. For these reasons, several organizations try to adopt the philosophy. Although the application of Lean principles brings numerous benefits to organizations, at this time the optimization of the productive process is not enough. Ensuring optimal safety conditions of all the employees has been one of the top priority, exceeding “quality” or “performance” as indicators of success. In this paper, a case of study in one industrial unit of one of Europe’s largest car producers is tested and then it is evaluated how the implementation of lean tools, more specifically 5S, can contribute to the occupational safety conditions. The present work demonstrates another of the several advantages that is obtained from the use of 5S. Apart from being a powerful tool for organizing and optimizing the workplace environment, this study demonstrates that it is also essential to ensure occupational safety.
Joana P. R. Fernandes, Radu Godina, João C. O. Matias

Improving the Availability of a Production Line Through TPM in an Automotive Gearbox Industrial Unit

It is ever more necessary that equipment, systems, and installations operate as long as possible without failures. And when failures occur they must be as short as possible. This is when maintenance becomes actively important through the obligation of giving a quick response, efficiently, and economically. To be successful at these types of responses, it is fundamental to continually improve the practices used in maintenance activities. This paper focuses on the use of the TPM methodology combined with a few lean thinking tools in order to optimize the availability of a critical production line in a company which produces mechanical components and gearboxes for the automotive industry. To measure the success of the implemented actions and to compare the final results with the initial situation, a few indicators were used: Overall Equipment Effectiveness (OEE), Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) and Mean Time to Repair (MTTR).
Inês M. Ribeiro, Radu Godina, João C. O. Matias

Environmental, Economic, and Social Impact of Industrial Symbiosis: Methods and Indicators Review

Industrial symbiosis is an important approach to achieve sustainability and to reduce significantly wastes. It is, therefore, imperative to evaluate and quantify the real impact of industrial symbiosis in order to provide more synergies between companies and more policies to encourage this practice. This article aims to present a literature review about the methods and indicators used to assess the impact of industrial symbiosis in environmental, economic, and social context. The advantages and limitations of each of them are also listed. This review addresses the economic and environmental aspects are the most studied, all methods and indicators that have been developed, and the advantages that come from industrial symbiosis.
Angela Neves, Radu Godina, Susana G. Azevedo, João C. O. Matias

Continuous Improvement in an Industrial Unit of the Wood Industry Through Kanban

Nowadays, in order to achieve manufacturing excellence and to ensure customer satisfaction in a competitive marketplace, companies are increasingly looking for simple techniques to bring them vital gains in terms of time and money. A powerful tool to minimize average production time and to save costs is the Kanban system, which not only reduces stock levels but also ensures the efficiency of the workplace. In this investigation, there is a case study of a small company in the wood industry where the Kanban system was implemented. This case shows how such a simple tool has motivated a team to create a system of continuous improvement.
Flávia C. S. Guia, Radu Godina, João C. O. Matias

Quality Control in the Context of Industry 4.0

Palpable progress in Internet of Things (IoT) and Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are quickly turning Industry 4.0 a reality thus having a deep effect on every angle of the manufacturing industry, from logistics to quality control. The measurement for the quality control no longer will be made in a distinct metrology section, but instantaneously on the production line. Smart sensors might be able to register and transmit the recorded data yet no real added-value is obtained from this if the recorded data is not utilized to decide how to improve a process. However, the methods utilized on how to use this is a substantial challenge and it should lead engineers to make the correct decisions. The continuous circulation of information from WSNs to the decision makers and backwards is the foundation of Industry 4.0. Thus, a comprehensive analysis of the effect of Industry 4.0 on quality control is imperative.
Radu Godina, João C. O. Matias

Aligning e-service Attributes for Hedonic and Utilitarian Consumption: An Exploratory Study in the Context of Consumer Electronics

Online services, and particularly e-commerce, is developing at a remarkable pace. Consumers increasingly engage in richer interactions with virtual interfaces, employing them as effective service channels, perceived as a reliable alternative for placing inquiries and requests, often with superior levels of convenience, variety, and privacy than physical stores. The design of e-service systems, therefore, needs to continuously grow in sophistication to meet the requirements of customers’ e-purchasing journeys. Each website design decision must build on solid knowledge not only about customer personal profiles, but rather about elements concerning nature of each purchase experience, including the utilitarian or hedonic purposes of consumption. This study builds on a preliminary review on knowledge about utilitarian and hedonic consumption, to characterize the differences in the online attributes offered by major online retailers for consumer electronics across those two categories of consumption and discussing the nature of the information provided in this particular retail context.
Larissa Schulz, Nuno Fouto, Marlene Amorim, Mário Rodrigues

Extracting Relevant Quality Dimensions from Online Customer Reviews in Accommodation Services

Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) has a key influence on customers’ consumption decisions, often outperforming company efforts like personal sales or advertising for its ease of access and for being perceived as more trustworthy. The volume of information released online by customers has become overwhelming. As communication technologies evolve, the volume and reach of customer voices grow at an unpreceded pace, and making sense of all the available information becomes a challenge for both customers and providers. This study applies an importance-performance analysis for identifying salient quality attributes from eWOM, offering an efficient approach for extracting information and identifying priorities for service improvement.
Marlene Amorim, Mário Rodrigues, Carina Fidalgo

Insertion of Risk Management in Quality Management Systems with the Advent of ISO 9001:2015: Descriptive and Content Analyzes

Quality management studies over time grow in importance both in the academic and the enterprise world. What was previously treated in isolation, these days are essential to the survival of an organization. Thus, the parts that make up the quality processes of the institutions must be studied in a continuous way aiming at optimizing the whole process. In this context, risk management, which despite having a range of guidelines and frameworks, is little applied in the context of quality management, and does not play a relevant role in the implementation of processes. However, the latest version of ISO 9001:2015 presents requirements focused on risk management. Therefore, the present article aims to outline a profile on the insertion of risk management into the scientific productions focused on the study of the ISO 9001:2015 Quality Management standard. In order to reach the objective, a descriptive and a content analysis was carried out, with samples of documents belonging to the Web of Science Core Collection and the Scopus database, from 2015 to 2018. After the analyzes, it was possible to identify the consistent evolution of the publications, diversity of journals interested in the subject, interdisciplinarity between quality management and risk management and finally the relevance of the risk-based thinking, the influence of ISO 31000:2009 and the integrated management system.
Gabriel Henrique Silva Rampini, Fernando Tobal Berssaneti, Ana Maria Saut

Occupational Stress and Job Satisfaction Among Brazilian Managers: The Case of Commercial Area

This study aimed to evaluate the level of stress and satisfaction in the occupational environment, as well as to verify if there is correlation between these parameters, considering commercial managers. The sample consisted of 114 individuals who answered the electronic questionnaire consisting of three parts: Profile of the respondent, Work Stress Scale and Work Satisfaction Scale. The mean stress score obtained was 2.24 ± 0.61, indicating a medium level of occupational stress and highlighting the insufficient time to perform the workload as a stressor. In four of the dimensions of job satisfaction, the mean score was classified as a state of indifference (4.0–4.49), suggesting a tendency towards dissatisfaction regarding the question of remuneration. Spearman’s correlation test showed that stress has a negative correlation and statistical significance with the five dimensions of job satisfaction, pointing out that that the lower the job satisfaction, the greater the stress. This study promotes reflections on practices and policies, especially directed to the commercial area, focusing on the satisfaction of the individual in his work environment, in order to optimize personal well-being and, consequently, the performance and the own organizational image.
José Wilson Franca Lelis, Neusa Maria Bastos Fernandes dos Santos, Alessandra Cristina Santos Akkari, Igor Polezi Munhoz

Exploring Complexity in Sustainable Biomass Supply Chain Management

Complexity theory aims to analyse and understand the behaviours in a system, for example, an organization, which is considered complex and with uncertainties in the understanding of its processes. Systems as supply chains require a systemic approach to operate and design more effective and efficient processes that allow it better control of system behaviour as well as a better performance. The purpose of this article is to present an analysis of the complexity in the supply chain of renewable energies, in particular, biomass supply chain. An exploratory-descriptive research was carried out based on bibliographic and documentary studies, in Scopus database and in diverse reports about renewable energy related to biomass, respectively. Taking into account the complexity perspective, it was possible to determine the main drivers faced by biomass supply chains as well as a proposal for its modelling based on a system dynamics model.
M. Ricardo Saavedra M., Cristiano H. de O. Fontes, Viviana A. Soler T., Francisco Gaudêncio M. Freires

Supply Chain Governance: A Study in Wineries from Brazil and Spain

This article aims to map the Brazilian and Spanish wine supply chain and its governance structures. In order to do so, it starts with bibliographical research, based on the qualitative methodology, using the technique of in-depth interviews in small, medium and large size wineries with Designation of Origin, in Brazil (Vale dos Vinhedos) and Spain (Montilla Moriles). The results show that the Brazilian wineries, in general, hold the upstream supply chain, and after the production process, the final products are distributed in the market by partners. Meanwhile, Spanish wineries buy their inputs from other producers and do not always sell their products directly to the market, commercializing their products also with other producers that will then make the final product that will be marketed. In addition, Brazilian wineries have other product lines or associated companies, manufacturing by-products (juices, hygiene and beauty products, jellies, among others) with the must from the manufacture of wines and sparkling wines, which is not the case with the Spanish wineries, since these have their focus on products such as wine, sparkling wine and vinegar. Regarding governance in the supply chain of both countries, it is a hybrid type, based on contracts and also on the relation of partnership and friendship.
Camila Avosani Zago, Guadalupe Fuentes Lombardo, Antônia Roussouliéres Gonçalves da Fonte

Productivity Increase in a Cellular Battery Line Using Lean Kaizen and Tools

Companies striving to compete in the market place, use many lean techniques to advance production and seek to achieve lower costs and higher competitiveness. The application of the Kaizen methodology, enticing a group of professionals to observe and analyze a problem, forward improvement suggestions and apply them, creates a new state on which further enhancements can be made. Together with the utilization of brainstorming and chrono-analysis tools, opportunities are identified and technically support the project. The work focused on a 5-week review of one manufacturing line that each day produced 833/h. Cylinder lithium cell batteries for mobile phone application. Yearly cost reduction of $15,000, with minimal $1.374 investment was achieved, resulting in 52.59% cycle time improvement.
Roberto Cartwright Brodie Murayama, Marcelo Duarte Vieira, José Carlos Reston Filho, Rui M. Lima

Lean Healthcare Project Leader: A Framework Based on Functions and Competencies

Hospitals have been implementing lean projects in recent years and gaining significant results in diverse operational flows. Such developments are often not integrated with the hospital management system, nor performed according to the dynamics of each professional area, or even not governed by trained and empowered lean healthcare project leaders. This study proposes, by means of an action research approach, to raise the functions and competencies that a Lean Healthcare project manager needs to develop projects using DMAIC as general guide. From the case of a large hospital in southeastern Brazil, the researchers listed general project management functions, technical and behavioral competencies, and present a general method for conducting lean projects in a hospital environment. As a conclusion of the study is perceived that the required competencies are related to the literature studied in project management and lean thinking, namely, Communication, Teamwork, Focus on Results, and a Systemic Vision. These were evaluated as the basic competencies for a Lean Healthcare Project Leader.
Thiago A. Souza, Mariane C. de Souza, Rui M. Lima, Letícia V. Pimenta, Marcelo S. Oliveira
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