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This unique volume considers the emergence of “Industry 4.0” (i4.0) and the many ways the multifaceted field of Engineering is transforming our ideas and our options around sustainability. It points to emerging technological advances that are facilitating industrial process improvements to artificial intelligence’s promise to help us live “smartly” and manage energy demand. Engineering for a sustainable future is an exploding area of research. This book provides coverage of key case studies from industrial partners such as Ericsson, British Telecom (BT), BMW, Matrixx and research from different UK and international institutions. Examines Smart Engineering Design;
Considers how Communication Technologies are developing in the age of i4.0 (from 4G to 6G and beyond);
Using interesting case studies from large manufacturers such as BMW to examine Rapid Prototyping and Digital manufacturing;
Covers some key issues about Big Data and network security and discusses “Blockchain”;
Provides fresh insight into Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Augmented Reality;
Discusses global warming and discusses how urban heat islands are having a detrimental impact on the health and wellbeing of inhabitants in major cities;
Provides interesting case studies to determine the industry 4.0 (I4.0) readiness of eight Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs).



Chapter 1. Industry 4.0 (i4.0): The Hype, the Reality, and the Challenges Ahead

In the aftermath of the 2008 global financial crises, a debate around how to recover from the crises and to ensure future growth, and also the role of technology in the future of this growth is pursued. In a report titled “Industrie 4.0” (Industry 4.0), the German government through its “Ministry of Education and Research” and the “Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy” proposed a national strategic initiative focused on building a digital society and pushing digital manufacturing in an ever-expanding interconnection of products, value chains and business models. Before attempting to provide a framework of what i4.0 in its current stage of development is, what are the key areas of technology that define i4.0 and how we can move beyond the jargons and the hype, it will be useful to provide a historical context to i.4.0 and its predecessors and how they impacted our development over the past 250 years.
Mohammad Dastbaz

Chapter 2. Why Industry 4.0?

What we are doing is not sustainable, and this problem is much bigger than changing all the light bulbs! Continuing to polish and refine our current industries and logistic chains to make them ever more efficient is not enough. It only puts off the day of reckoning and the ultimate collapse of societies. We really do have to rethink our use of energy, materials and manufacturing, including fabrication and supply chains plus the whole arena of reuse, repurpose and recycling (3R). We have no choice!
Peter Cochrane

Chapter 3. Connectivity for Industry 4.0

Integrated access is a very important component for the realization of Industry 4.0, for instance, to provide increased floorplan layout flexibility and easier deployment of factory equipment. In this chapter “wireless connectivity for industries,” we present a vision of a fully integrated connectivity solution for industries. This solution supports both technical and additional industry-related requirements and use cases ranging from traditional voice services to highly critical use cases to secure production in a factory. The solution also integrates local and wide area connectivity giving access to a global mobility solution. Furthermore, the solution includes network-controlled quality of service and predictable high-load performance.
Kristina Gold, Kenneth Wallstedt, Jari Vikberg, Joachim Sachs

Chapter 4. Wireless Comms. Beyond 2020

This chapter looks at the future for wireless communications. It is an area that has seen huge change and innovation over the last few decades and has become deeply embedded in all our lives. In this chapter we ask whether further change is likely and what this might mean for us all.
William Webb

Chapter 5. Digital Transformation

A goal of the next industrial revolution (4.0) is the creation and use of technologies able to perform tasks that are beyond human ability. This is central to the creation of many new industries and the longevity of many that are long established and is only possible with total digital transformation. Self-drive vehicles will require digitalization that involves not only the car but the transport environment. The challenge for self-drive car is that a typical urban landscape is very hostile and highly unpredictable. One (very expensive) solution is to adapt the environment with the introduction of sensors in the landscape which are available to the decision-making processes in the car. An alternative is to develop a hive mind between all the self-drive vehicles, so they share information and experiences to facilitate future critical decision-making and preventing collisions.
Paul Graham

Chapter 6. Big Data, Small Data, and Getting Products Right First Time

Data in its various shapes is the foundation of Industry 4.0 and has become a critical component for many aspects of advanced manufacturing. The term Industry 4.0 encompasses a broad set of technological, organizational, and societal changes along the entire value chain of industrial corporations. Industry 4.0 promises to shorten development cycles and improve flexibility and the ability to customize products while benefiting from higher efficiencies. In the following we focus on data-related aspects.
Human Ramezani, Andre Luckow

Chapter 7. The Internet of Things and Sustainable Manufacturing

The Internet provides the means to interconnect billions of network-enabled devices and machines across the world, enabling information sharing between them and a degree of interactivity that hitherto has been impossible. This view of the future is referred to as the Internet of Things (IoT). It has the potential to have a profoundly positive impact on manufacturing by enabling much tighter control of production processes and a closer engagement between manufacturers and their suppliers and customers. Ultimately the IoT gives manufacturers the means to increase their productivity and rapidly respond to new opportunities and hence be more sustainable as a business. This chapter reviews the current state of the art of the IoT and what can be expected in years to come. The focus is on the manufacturing sector, sustainability and the key enabling role of the IoT in Industry 4.0.
David Heatley, Mohamed Abdel-Maguid

Chapter 8. Security Challenges in the Industry 4.0 Era

Although the concept of Industry 4.0 was introduced in 2011 at the Hannover Fair, it was only recently that it gained major attention. The fourth industrial revolution, referred to as Industry 4.0, is based mainly on cyber-physical systems along with their supporting technologies. The four design principles of Industry 4.0 are interoperability, information transparency, technical assistance, and decentralized decisions. Each one of these design principles generates new attack surfaces that can be exploited by malicious attackers. As with any other system, security challenges arise with every new technology used. These challenges can range from simple threats that can easily be mitigated or even ignored, all the way up to threats that can render the whole system unusable. In this chapter, we introduce a detailed survey of threats and security challenges in different components of the Industry 4.0 systems. These threats will be categorized based on their possible impact on systems, and information about some countermeasures will be introduced as well.
Mohammed M. Alani, Mohamed Alloghani

Chapter 9. Meeting the Future Challenges in Cyber Security

This chapter will look at the developing future cyber environment and the threats that will be associated with it, together with a range of potential measures that can be taken to mitigate those threats and to reduce both the exposure to them and the potential damage that they may cause. It will start by looking at the range of likely threat actors that will be encountered, the types of tools and techniques that they may utilize, the potential motivations of the different actors, and impact of their actions.
Ben Azvine, Andy Jones

Chapter 10. Ready for Industry 4.0? The Case of Central and Eastern Europe

In this chapter we determine the industry 4.0 (I4.0) readiness of eight Central and Eastern European countries (CEECs): Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Romania, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. We explain the nature of I4.0 showing that there are three key dimensions of I4.0 readiness: technological, entrepreneurial, and governance competencies. Using a wide variety of quantitative measures for these and calculating a composite distance normalization index in order to rank the countries relative to each other in terms of these three competencies, we find that the Czech Republic, Lithuania, Hungary, and Slovenia are most I4.0 ready. Bulgaria, Slovakia, Romania, and Poland are the least ready. We make the following recommendations. All the countries in the region could do more to (i) promote entrepreneurship, to (ii) diversify and grow manufacturing export markets through focused trade facilitation and exchange rate policy in the cases of the non-eurozone countries, and (iii) to cooperate regionally on industrial policy – through, for instance, establishing a regional CEEC I4.0 Platform.
Wim Naudé, Aleksander Surdej, Martin Cameron

Chapter 11. From Big to Small Data

Whilst the primary drivers of I4.0 are new materials, manufacturing and production methods, robotics and AI; all the Green Aspects are crticically dependent on the IoT and the management data created and recorded by each element produced. The Big Data generated will give us the macro-view of ‘populations’ of products and components; where they are located, who made them, and their suitability for harvesting. At the same time the Small Data will furnish a micro-view of the purchasing and ownership cycle and useage. And so; for the first time we will be able to institute Reuse, Repurpose and Recysling that actually works! ‘Just how we are going to realise an effective IoT is still unclear, but we do know it will not be dominated by 5G. We also know that most ‘things’ will engage in talking to each other rather than connecting to the internet! Most likely we are also about vto see the emmergence of new classes of network independent of the Telco Sector. Cars talking to cars, seagoing containers talking to containers, white and brown goods conversing independently and so on are just the very obvious start!
Peter Cochrane, Ahmed Elmagarmid

Chapter 12. The Role of Blockchain in Underpinning Mission Critical Infrastructure

There is a fast-growing desire to look at the technology of blockchain as a method to enhance and further protect mission critical data in large-scale critical national infrastructure (CNI) such as healthcare organisations, ICS and SCADA systems used for key industrial processes. During recent years the level of cyberattacks and attack formations has progressed from ‘script kiddies’ to crime-for-hire (such as ransomware-as-a-service and malware-as-a-service) and more sophisticated attacks designed to take down a whole network infrastructure such as WannaCry ransomware attack in 2017 or the Ukraine 2015 cyberattack shutting down the power grid. Blockchain offers a decentralised method, essentially a trustless environment to store sensitive related data where it can remain private but accessible to where authorised.
Depending on the environment requirements, it can dictate how the data is stored (if on-chain or off-chain) but mainly giving the benefits of immutability, audit trail and enhanced security encryption layers. On a more serious level is the potential for state-sponsored cyberattacks designed to bring down CNI, which tend to be cultivated in more complex manners, and so an added security layer of blockchain may help protect core data.
The positioning of blockchain technology can therefore have a double effect to add to the traditional security layers of regular compliance policy reviews, training, patching, intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS) but also provide the enhancements of security and privacy of data.
Hamid Jahankhani, Stefan Kendzierskyj

Chapter 13. The Planning and Design of Buildings: Urban Heat Islands—Mitigation

Urban heat islands are having a detrimental impact on the health and wellbeing of inhabitants in major cities. The impact of global warming is affecting all, but groups, including infants, the elderly and those with poor health, are vulnerable, and fatalities during hot weather are increasing. High temperatures adversely affect all ages, reducing the ability to function, live and work comfortably and effectively. The planning and design of buildings and their surrounding infrastructure, especially the green assets (trees, plants and vegetation), can reduce the impact of urban heat islands. The problem and challenges of urban heat island are described in this chapter as well as recent research which proposes to capture climate data and the impact of green infrastructure asset, thereby providing guidance for those designing and planning urban developments.
Christopher Gorse, James Parker, Felix Thomas, Martin Fletcher, Graham Ferrier, Neill Ryan


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