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Industry 4.0 Challenges in Smart Cities

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This book discusses the next level of innovative technologies influencing sectors in industry and their future in industrial, urban and sustainable development. The authors provide a platform for a discussion of a synergy of ideas within smart industrial innovations, approaching them from various points of view. These include industry and management 4.0, the expansion of new business models, smart technologies identifying global challenges, and other new trends and opportunities. New managerial ideas, innovations, and technologies for advances in mobility are highlighted together from a multidisciplinary perspective. This book is relevant to researchers, graduate students and those who are interested in Smart Cities.

Discusses unique angles in the fields of Industrial Management

Links various global challenges in Industry 4.0, IoT, and Smart City applications by analysing results in practice

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
Secure Algorithm for IoT Devices Authentication
Abstract
Internet of Things (IoT) security is a major concern owing to the sensitive data that flows in these networks. The fifth generation (5G) network provides high bandwidth, endearing it as an ideal underlying network for IoT communication. In addition, 5G can facilitate seamless integration of 2G, 3G, 4G, and WiFi to realize faster services, high capacity, and very short latencies. Although 5G features such as high bandwidth and seamless integration are ideal for IoT implementations, the underlying network is vulnerable to attacks such as eavesdropping, de-synchronization, sink hole, denial of service (DoS) and replay attacks, among others. To address these challenges, a number of protocols based on techniques such as elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), trusted authority, quantum cryptography, public keys, private keys, pseudonymous certificates, group handover authentication, multi-signature, and aggregate message authentication code (AMAC) technology have been proposed. Unfortunately, these protocols either have high computation and communication costs or do not provide robust security required for IoT devices communication. This renders them inefficient and susceptible to attacks such as impersonation, privacy and location sniffing, eavesdropping, session key disclosure attacks, modification, and insider attacks. Consequently, there is need for an efficient and secure key agreement and session authentication protocol for IoT deployments. In this paper, an efficient and secure handover protocol for IoT devices is proposed. The simulation results showed that this protocol exhibited lower computation and turnaround time, high stability, and moderate communications costs. It was also demonstrated to be robust against masquerading, packet replay, eavesdropping, free riding attacks, privacy and location sniffing.
Vincent Omollo Nyangaresi, Anthony J. Rodrigues, Silvance O. Abeka
Mathematical Modeling as a Tool for Selecting a Rational Logistical Route in Multimodal Transport Systems
Abstract
The paper aims to carry out the mathematical modeling of the goods delivery process from China to Ukraine, using possible organization options of such work and advantages of existing routes using different kinds of transport. The paper presented successful mathematical modeling of goods delivery from China to Ukraine to determine effective options. The structure of goods delivery from China to Ukraine has been designed in the form of four alternative routes (options), which considering the use of railway, maritime, road and air transport, and related infrastructure (stations, ports, warehouses, terminals, customs). It has been found that values of order delivery volumes of the corresponding type of goods based on parameter analysis of orders flow for trade enterprises of Kharkiv, cargo transportation volume in the current batch, risk assessment factor using related kinds of transport, and goods delivery time for each option. As an experiment result, enterprises' profit was obtained using initial and final values of the unit of the good according to proposed options. It was taken into account in regression model designing, which allowed determining the best route of transportation.
Olexiy Pavlenko, Dmitriy Muzylyov, Natalya Shramenko, Dagmar Cagáňová, Vitalii Ivanov
Commercializing M2M eSIM Networks
Abstract
This paper illustrates the different approaches to commercialize M2M eSIM networks. It will first highlight cellular telecommunication position in the IOT connectivity landscape and SIM evolution to the digital eSIM form, with basic information about architecture, interfaces, and operations; the paper illustrates the three main variances of M2M eSIM networks based on the ownership of the secure route element of the subscription manager: Operator controlled variance (in which the OEM outsources the secure route to a network operator), OEM controlled variance (in which the OEM acquires and operates the secure route), and M2M service provider controlled variance (in which the OEM outsources the secure route to a M2M service provider). Mobile telecommunication regulations and business conditions led to emergence of two approaches: lent eSIM and eSIM ownership transfer. Ecosystem players should consider available resources, limitations, advantages, and disadvantages of each variance before selecting the commercialization approach. The complex mesh network and long list of standardized and non-standardized interfaces among ecosystem building blocks present a challenge to M2M eSIM technology adoption. The idea of having independent hub entities to interconnect subscription manager platforms and connectivity managers from the different players in the globe presents future research, standardization, and business opportunity that can address M2M eSIM network complexity and time-to-market.
Bassem Ali Abdou
Closed Cycle of Biodegradable Wastes in Smart Cities
Abstract
The key issue of modern cities is their energy independence, which is still insufficient for most cities in the world. Outages in the supply of energy raw materials can endanger the basic functioning of cities, especially with regard to the heat supply of cities in the colder parts of our earth. This threat is exacerbated as far as the energy source is located further away from the city. It also increases transportation costs, which also increases the already high carbon footprint of the city. The solution to this problem is to find local sources of raw materials, which is the focus of this article. The most important of the energy raw materials in cities are municipal wastes. In addition, their biodegradable component, which makes up the majority, is a clean renewable resource. By incinerating this biodegradable municipal waste, we are able to reduce the cost of transporting and landfilling waste from cities and, on the other hand, obtain a source of clean and environmentally friendly alternative fuel. In this way, we create an alternative to the currently used fossil fuel coal, which often has to be imported to cities from great distances. Our article examines the benefits of using the basic components of this biodegradable waste generated in city parks, gardens or in the surrounding fields, and forests near cities. By burning these raw materials, we are able to create a closed cycle of these raw materials and ensure a balanced use of resources on our planet.
Michal Holubčík, Jozef Jandačka, Juraj Trnka
Automated People Counting in Public Transport
Abstract
This paper is elaborating on problems in public transport in the context of Smart Cities and Internet of Things (IoT). The means of public transport are commonly overcrowded and on the other hand some lines could be designed inefficiently. This affects passengers’ comfort and also the financial site of public transport companies. The field of counting people in public transport is specific with its variety and limitations regarding setup in vehicles, which we took into account while designing the embedded system. We propose a solution—an embedded system with an array of infrared sensors. Approach uses image processing means (gauss filter, sliding average, and thresholding) for object detection, followed by the detection of direction by correspondence of objects positions across images. We performed controlled experiments with one and four participants in different scenarios which were compared to other similar solutions. We have achieved satisfying results up to 95%.
Pištek Peter, Harvan Simon, Valicek Michal
Industry 4.0: From Smart Factories to Artificial Intelligence
Abstract
The subject of the study is the theoretic analysis and interpretation of the fourth industrial revolution referred to as Industry 4.0. Attention is primarily paid to smart factories and questions linked with the development of artificial intelligence. The main objective of the study is to describe the basic attributes of Industry 4.0 and typical development trends linked with the fourth industrial revolution. Partial objectives of the study include putting Industry 4.0 into a wider historical context and mapping security risks that modern information and digital technologies bring about. The study consists of four relatively independent parts in which various aspects of the researched topic are described and analysed from complementary points of view. The first part of the study applies an anthropological approach that allows the analysis of developmental changes in different types of manufacturing to make use of the terms “culture” and “sociocultural change.” The second part of the study maps the history of humanity from a historic perspective together with transformations of manufacturing technologies during the first, second, and third industrial revolution with emphasis on the use of energy resources. The third part of the study, discussing the fourth industrial revolution, presents basic visions of Industry 4.0 including its main aspiration, i.e. connecting the Internet of Things, Services, and People. The fourth part of the study deals with legislative and security risks resulting from the acceptance of new digital technologies and progress in the research of artificial intelligence.
Václav Soukup
Sustainable Urban Mobility–Multimodality as a Chance for Greener Cities: Evidence from Slovakia
Abstract
The importance of sustainable mobility has also been confirmed this year by the global pandemic of COVID-19, which has reduced the mobility of the population, thereby it has significantly reduced the level of dust, noise, and air pollution from the traffic in most European countries, including the Slovak Republic. App-based and shared-ride services have become highly popular and offer a level of convenience unseen before in the urban mobility systems all over the world. Individual car transport dominates at the expense of sustainable modes of transport in most Slovak cities. The city of Nitra is no exception, as the high number of trips during the peak-hours often leads to severe traffic congestion. One way to contribute to better condition is multimodality that allows urban residents to choose from a range of alternative travel choices. The aim of this paper is to assess the possibilities of multimodality in the context of short distance moves in the city of Nitra as well as to analyse how the change of mode choice variability affects the urban mobility behaviour. For the purpose of meet the objectives of this paper, a marketing research was conducted. The research findings show that the travel behaviour of Nitra’s citizens does not show the elements of sustainable urban mobility as the current infrastructure and overall opportunities are limited. Our findings point to significant differences in attitudes of residents from different urban areas.
Mária Holotová, Ľudmila Nagyová, Tomáš Holota, Dagmar Cagáňová
Transport System of the Smart City Concept vs Pandemics: COVID-19 Case Study
Abstract
In this article, we analysed the situation during the pandemics of COVID-19 virus in the Slovak Republic. We summarized measures within transport system, that Slovak Republic took in an attempt to soften the impact of the virus and to minimize its spread. We found out that these measures and the swiftness of their adoption had strong influence on flattening the curve of virus spreading. The main contribution of this article is in deeper look into possibilities of a smart transport system, aimed to identify, what more could the smart transport system offer to help in a fight of the country against spreading virus. For this purpose, we need to remind our previous work, where we described concept Smart City, concept Safe City, and their systems. One of these systems is system smart transport, and its description in previous work was the base ground for our design of additional solutions, improving safety in the time of pandemics. Therefore, this article will start with description of system Safe City and system smart transport, followed by examination of the case, evaluation of adopted measures, and proposal of additional measures. The focus of proposed measures will be given to the original design of mass transport system.
Maroš Lacinák, Jozef Ristvej
Drive Health: Road Condition Detection
Abstract
Roadways play an essential role in today’s society by contributing to economic growth and development, providing access to all members of society and fast routes to travel on efficiently. With increased numbers of vehicles on the roads, the quality of the roads is deteriorating at a faster rate than can be maintained and repaired. This decrease in road health materializes as hazards such as potholes that can cause significant damage to vehicles on the road. Currently, roads’ health is monitored manually and thus done infrequently due to it being both time-consuming and costly for the responsible local transit authorities. Therefore, many road quality issues are repeatedly reported by the people who drive on them before any inspection or repair efforts are undertaken by the transit authorities. This manual process of reporting potholes and other road hazards is an inefficient process requiring filling out forms or making phone calls while remembering the exact location of the pothole or road hazard.
This chapter presents Drive Health, an Internet of Things (IoT) system developed to crowdsource the monitoring of the health of roadways by informing transit authorities of pothole locations. Drive Health includes a smart sensor and performs machine learning on accelerometer data to process and analyze the data without using the cloud. If the system determines that the data indicates the existence of a pothole, the location of where the data was collected is recorded and sent to a web server which can then be automatically shared with the transit authorities responsible for that road location.
Peter Ferguson, Brian Walker, Navid Shaghaghi, Behnam Dezfouli
Digitalization in Transport Logistics due to COVID-19: A Case Study from Germany
Abstract
The pandemic during COVID-19n that society has experienced in 2020, posed new requirements for the level of digitalization for carrier companies. To comply with the law and its most important part that that people should keep distance to each other not less than 1,5 m and personal contact should be reduced to a minimum are difficult to implement if the conventional mode of operation is continued. Based on the example of delivering branches of a food retailer, the authors describe the conventional workflow and how it changes by using digital instruments like telematic. The paper analyzes advantages and costs as well as legal challenges. Based on the experience of using telematic technology, the authors identify the advantages and disadvantages of digital technology in the transport industry. As a result, it was concluded that digitalization in carrier business will become one of the key tools, which will not only be used because of rules in this pandemic situation, it will bring transparency and efficiency, it will reduce different kind of costs, but to be successful in a strong business competition.
Zuzana Papulová, Christian Korge, Stephan Pritzl
Smart Factory as the Top of the Development of the Industrial Revolution in Czech Countries
Abstract
The presented summary of “Smart Factory as the top of the development of the industrial revolution in Czech countries” describes especially parts of the development of the industrial revolutions and their influence on the Czech countries. The main target of the article answers the question, how Czech countries were successful during all the industrial revolutions and their possibility of the entrance to the fourth industrial revolution, including to smart factory. A study will be presented in three factors in the example of Czech countries—point of the departure, the access to the new technologies, the realization and successfulness. More information will be presented in the context of the next three factors, because especially geopolicy and the international policy had a great influence on the success or failure of the Czech countries during the industrial revolutions. This geopolitical situation influenced on the access to the new technologies, but it influenced by the sale and economic possibilities of the Czech industry in abroad. In the conclusion will be reflected the summary of the theme and the research of the question will be answered too. As the main method will be used description, analysis and comparison. Czech sources connected with this theme are used in the article.
Vít Rouč, Štěpán Strnad
Automated Approach to Analyze IoT Privacy Policies
Abstract
The massive popularity of IoT devices raises new challenges for user privacy. Hence, manufacturers are obliged to notify users about their privacy practices as well as give them choices to have control over their data. Privacy policies are long and full of legal jargon, thus not understandable by average users. The problem becomes worse with IoT devices due to the ability of these devices to access sensitive information about users. Previous research has addressed problems related to websites and mobile privacy policies. However, few works focus on analyzing IoT privacy policies. In this chapter, we analyze and annotate 50 IoT privacy policies to determine whether the IoT manufacturers collect personal information about the user as well as the type of such information. To ensure that we extract the correct information, we study in depth the complicated and ambiguous sentences that average users will not understand. With our method, we aim to mimic how an ordinary person reads and understands such policies sentence by sentence. We use supervised machine learning to label the collected personal information according to its sensitivity level to either sensitive personal information or non-sensitive personal information. The high accuracy achieved by the classifier (98.8%) proves its validity and reliability.
Alanoud Subahi, George Theodorakopoulos
Backmatter
Metadaten
Titel
Industry 4.0 Challenges in Smart Cities
herausgegeben von
Dr. Dagmar Cagáňová
Natália Horňáková
Copyright-Jahr
2023
Electronic ISBN
978-3-030-92968-8
Print ISBN
978-3-030-92967-1
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-92968-8