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Inequalities play a fundamental role in Functional Analysis and it is widely recognized that finding them, especially sharp estimates, is an art. E. H. Lieb has discovered a host of inequalities that are enormously useful in mathematics as well as in physics. His results are collected in this book which should become a standard source for further research. Together with the mathematical proofs the author also presents numerous applications to the calculus of variations and to many problems of quantum physics, in particular to atomic physics.





The subject of ‘inequalities’ was first systematically established by Hardy, Littlewood and P61ya in their book of the same name. The goal, loosely speaking, is to search for an inequality between algebraic or analytic expressions of certain variables that becomes an equality in certain (possibly limiting) cases. The reader may think of Holder’s inequality as an example, but also such things as the dependence upon its shape of the lowest frequency of a drum.

Michael Loss, Mary Beth Ruskai

Inequalities Related to Statistical Mechanics and Condensed Matter


Theory of Ferromagnetism and the Ordering of Electronic Energy Levels

Consider a system of N electrons in one dimension subject to an arbitrary symmetric potential, V(x1…,XN), and let E(S) be the lowest energy belonging to the total spin value S. We have proved the following theorem: E(S) <E(S’) if S>Sr. Hence, the ground state is unmagnetized. The theorem also holds in two or three dimensions (although it is possible to have degeneracies) provided V(x 1 ,y 1 ,Z 1 ; …; x n ,yn, Z N ) is separately symmetric in the xiyi and Zi. The potential need not be separable, however. Our theorem has strong implications in the theory of ferromagnetism because it is generally assumed that for certain repulsive potentials, the ground state is magnetized. If such be the case, it is a very delicate matter, for a plausible theory must not be so general as to give ferromagnetism in one dimension, nor in three dimensions with a separately symmetric potential

Elliott Lieb, Daniel Mattis

Ordering Energy Levels of Interacting Spin Systems

The total spin S is a good quantum number in problems of interacting spins. We have shown that for rather general antiferromagnetic or ferrimagnetie Hamiltonians, which need not exhibit translational invariance, the lowest energy eigenvalue for each value of S [denoted E(S) ] is ordered in a natural way. In antiferromagnetism, E(S + 1) > E(S) for S ≥ 0. In ferrimagnetism, E(S + 1) > E(S) for S ≥ S, and in addition the ground state belongs to S ≤ S. S is defined as follows: Let the maximum spin of the A sublattice be SA and of the B sublattice SB; then S = SA—SB. Antiferromagnetism is treated as the special case of S = 0. We also briefly discuss the structure of the lowest eigenfunctions in an external magnetic field.

Elliott Lieb, Daniel Mattis

Entropy Inequalities

Some inequalities and relations among entropies of reduced quantum mechanical density matrices are discussed and proved. While these are not as strong as those available for classical systems they are nonetheless powerful enough to establish the existence of the limiting mean entropy for translationally invariant states of quantum continuous systems.

Huzihiro Araki, Elliott H. Lieb

A Fundamental Property of Quantum-Mechanical Entropy

There are some properties of entropy, such as concavity and subadditivity, that are known to hold (in classical and in quantum mechanics) irrespective of any assumptions on the detailed dynamics of a system. These properties are consequences of the definition of entropy as S(p) =—Trp lnp (quantum), (1a) S(p) =- fp lnp (classical continuous), (1b) S(p)= pi Inpi (classical discrete), (1c) where Tr means trace, p is a density matrix in (1a), and p is a distribution function (usually on R6n) in (1b). In (1c) the pi are discrete energy level probabilities.

Elliott H. Lieb, Mary Beth Ruskai

Proof of the strong subadditivity of quantum-mechanical entropy

In this paper we prove several theorems about quantum mechanical entropy, in particular, that it is strongly subadditive (SSA). These theorems were announced in an earlier note,1 to which we refer the reader for a discussion of the physical significance of SSA and for a review of the historical background. We repeat here a bibliography of relevant papers.2-9.

Elliott H. Lieb, Mary Beth Ruskai

Some Convexity and Subadditivity Properties of Entropy

Introduction. Statistical mechanics is the science of explaining, predicting and understanding the gross, macroscopic attributes of matter (which may be taken to mean mechanical systems with essentially an infinite number of degrees of freedom) in terms of the elementary dynamical laws governing its atomic constituents. The problems that arise are sufficiently complex and intriguing, but at the same time sufficiently well posed, that the subject is nowadays as much a part of mathematics as of physics. The fields of information theory and ergodic theory had their genesis in statistical mechanical modes of thought and are now well established in the mathematics literature; there will be more to come.

Elliott H. Lieb

A Refinement of Simon’s Correlation Inequality

A general formulation is given of Simon’s Ising model inequality : $$ \left\langle {{\sigma _\alpha }{\sigma _\gamma }} \right\rangle \le \sum\limits_{b \in B} {\left\langle {{\sigma _\alpha }{\sigma _b}} \right\rangle \left\langle {{\sigma _b}{\sigma _\gamma }} \right\rangle }$$ Where B is any set of spins separating a from δ. We show that (σ{α}σb) can be replaced by (σασb)A where A is the spin system “inside” B containing α. An advantage of this is that a finite algorithm can be given to compute the transition temperature to any desired accuracy. The analogous inequality for plane rotors is shown to hold if a certain conjecture can be proved. This conjecture is indeed verified in the simplest case, and leads to an upper bound on the critical temperature. (The conjecture has been proved in general by Rivasseau. See notes added in proof.

Elliott H. Lieb

Two Theorems on the Hubbard Model

In the attractive Hubbard model (and some extended versions of it), the ground state is proved to have spin angular momentum S = 0 for every (even) electron filling. In the repulsive case, and with a bipartite lattice and a half-filled band, the ground state has S = 1/2 || B |—| A ||, where |B| ( |A| ) is the number of sites in the B (A) sublattice. In both cases the ground state is unique. The second theorem confirms an old, unproved conjecture in the |B| = |A| case and yields, with | B | ≠ | A|, the first provable example of itinerant-electron ferromagnetism. The theorems hold in all dimensions without even the necessity of a periodic lattice structure.

Elliott H. Lieb

Magnetic Properties of Some Itinerant-Electron Systems at T > 0

The Lieb-Mattis theorem on the absence of one-dimensional ferromagnetism is extended here from ground states to T> 0 by proving, inter alia, that M(ß,h), the magnetization of a quantum system in a field h> 0, is always less than the pure paramagnetic value Mo(ß,h)=lanh(ßh), with ß=1/kT. Our proof rests on a new formulation in terms of path integrals that holds in any dimension; another of its applications is that the Nagaoka-Thouless theorem on the Hubbard model also extends to T > 0 in the sense that M(ß,h ) exceedsM0(ß,h ).

Elliott H. Lieb, Michael Aizenman

Matrix Inequalities and Combinatorics


Proofs of some Conjectures on Permanents

In a recent paper [1] Marcus and Minc have given an admirable summary of the theory of permanents of square matrices, especially with regard to inequalities satisfied by the permanent. Our knowledge of permanents is certainly meager compared to that for determinants, largely for the reason that while the former differs from the latter only in the replacement of minus signs by plus signs, the determinant, and not the permanent, is invariant under unitary transformations.

Elliott H. Lieb

Concavity Properties and a Generating Function for Stirling Numbers

The Stirling numbers of the first kind, SNk, and of the second kind, σNk, are shown to be strongly logarithmically concave as functions of k for fixed TV. This result is stronger than the unimodality conjecture which was heretofore proved only for σNk (Harper). We also introduce a generating function for the σNk which is different from the conventional one but which has a relatively simple closed form expression.

Elliott H. Lieb

Convex Trace Functions and the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson Conjecture

Several convex mappings of linear operators on a Hilbert space into the real numbers are derived, an example being A → — Tr exp(L + In A). Some of these have applications to physics, specifically to the Wigner—Yanase—Dyson conjecture which is proved here and to the strong subadditivity of quantum mechanical entropy which will be proved elsewhere.

Elliott H. Lieb

Some Operator Inequalities of the Schwarz Type

We prove several operator inequalities which are analogous to the Schwarz inequality.

Elliott H. Lieb, Mary Beth Ruskai

Inequalities for Some Operator and Matrix Functions

In this note we generalize an inequality on determinants (Corollary 3 below) recently proved by Seiler and Simon [1] in connection with some estimates in quantum field theory. Our main result is Lemma 1.

Elliott H. Lieb

Positive Linear Maps which are Order Bounded on C* Subalgebras

When studying the third law of thermodynamics for an infinite system, or properties of equilibrium states of such a system (see [3]), one is led to consider the effect of local perturbations.

Michael Aizenman, E. Brian Davies, Elliott H. Lieb

Optimal Hypercontractivity for Fermi Fields and Related Non-Commutative Integration Inequalities

Optimal hypercontractivity bounds for the fermion oscillator semigroup are obtained. These are the fermion analogs of the optimal hypercontractivity bounds for the boson oscillator semigroup obtained by Nelson. In the process, several results of independent interest in the theory of non-commutative integration are established.

Eric A. Carlen, Elliott H. Lieb

Sharp uniform convexity and smoothness inequalities for trace norms

We prove several sharp inequalities specifying the uniform convexity and uniform smoothness properties of the Schatten trace ideals Cp, which are the analogs of the Lebesgue spaces Lp in non-commutative integration. The inequalities are all precise analogs of results which had been known in Lp, but were only known in Cp for special values of p. In the course of our treatment of uniform convexity and smoothness inequalities for Cp we obtain new and simple proofs of the known inequalities for Lp.

Keith Ball, Eric A. Carlen, Elliott H. Lieb

A Minkowski Type Trace Inequality and Strong Subadditivity of Quantum Entropy

We consider the following trace function on n-tuples of positive operators: $${\Phi _P}({A_1},{A_2},...,{A_n}) = Tr({(\sum\limits_{j = 1}^n {A_j^P} )^{1/P}})$$ and prove that it is jointly concave for 0 < p ≤ 1 and convex for p = 2. We then derive from this a Minkowski type inequality for operators on a tensor product of three Hilbert spaces, and show how this implies the strong subadditivity of quantum mechanical entropy. For p > 2, Фp is neither convex nor concave. We conjecture that Фp is convex for 1 < p < 2, but our methods do not show this.

Eric A. Carlen, Elliott H. Lieb

Inequalities Related to the Stability of Matter


Inequalities for the Moments of the Eigenvalues of the Schrödinger Hamiltonian and their Relation to Sobolev Inequalities

Estimates for the number of bound states and their energies, ej ≤ 0, are of obvious importance for the investigation of quantum mechanical Hamiltonians. If the latter are of the single particle form H = ≤ Δ + V(x) in Rn, we shall use available methods to derive the bounds 1$${\sum\limits_j {\left| {{e_j}} \right|} ^y} \le {L_{y,n}}\int {{d^n}} x\left| {V(x)} \right|_ - ^{y + n/2},y > \max (0,1 - n/2)$$ Here, $$\left| {V(x)} \right|\_ = - V(x){\rm{ if V(x)}} \le {\rm{0}}$$ and is zero otherwise.

Elliott H. Lieb, Walter E. Thirring

On Semi-Classical Bounds for Eigenvalues of Schrödinger Operators

Our principal result is that if the semiclassical estimate is a bound for some moment of the negative eigenvalues (as is known in some cases in one-dimension), then the semiclassical estimates are also bounds for all higher moments.

Michael Aizenman, Elliott H. Lieb

The Number of Bound States of One-Body Schroedinger Operators and the Weyl Problem

If N ((Ω,λ) is the number of eigenvalues of -Δ in a domain Ω, in a suitable Riemannian manifold of dimension n, we derive bounds of the form $$\tilde N(\Omega ,\lambda ) \le {D_n}{\lambda ^{n/2}}\left| \Omega \right|$$ for all Ω, * , n , Likewise, if N03B1; (V) is the number of nonpositive eigenvalues of -Δ + V (x) which are ≤ a ≤ 0, then $${N_\alpha }(V) \le {L_n}\int {_M} \left[ {V - \alpha } \right]_\_^{n/2}$$ for all α and V and n ≥ 3. 1980 Mathematics Subject Classification 35P15.

Elliott H. Lieb

Improved Lower Bound on the Indirect Coulomb Energy

For a Coulomb system of particles of charge e, it has previously been shown that the indirect part of the repulsive Coulomb energy (exchange plus correlation energy) has a lower bound of the form -Ce2/3fp(x)4/3dx, where p is the single particle charge density. Here we lower the constant C from the 8.52 previously given to 1.68. We also show that the best possible C is greater than 1.23.

Elliott H. Lieb, Stephen Oxford

Density Functionals for Coulomb Systems

This paper has three aims: (i) To discuss some of the mathematical connections between N-particle wave functions Ψ and their single-particle densities p(x). (ii) To establish some of the mathematical underpinnings of “universal density functional” theory for the ground state energy as begun by Hohenberg and Kohn. We show that the HK functional is not defined for all p and we present several ways around this difficulty. Several less obvious problems remain, however, (iii) Since the functional mentioned above is not computable, we review examples of explicit functionals that have the virtue of yielding rigorous bounds to the energy.

Elliott H. Lieb

On Characteristic Exponents in Turbulence

Ruelle has found upper bounds to the magnitude and to the number of non-negative characteristic exponents for the Navier-Stokes flow of an incompressible fluid in a domain Ω. The latter is particularly important because it yields an upper bound to the Hausdorff dimension of attracting sets. However, Ruelle’s bound on the number has three deficiences : (i) it relies on some unproved conjectures about certain constants; (ii) it is valid only in dimensions ≧ 3 and not 2 ; (iii) it is valid only in the limit Ω-→ ∞. In this paper these deficiences are remedied and, in addition, the final constants in the inequality are improved.

Elliott H. Lieb

Baryon Mass Inequalities in Quark Models

Recently conjectured three- (and more-) body mass inequalities are investigated for the quark models of baryons in which it is assumed that baryon masses are the ground-state energies of Schrödinger-type operators with pair potentials V. It is proved that these inequalities hold (even with a “relativistic” form for the kinetic energy) if V belongs to a certain class (which includes many potentials commonly used), but that they do not hold for all V (even in the nonrelativistic case). One example of our results is 2M(cqs)≥ M(cqq) + M(css).

Elliott H. Lieb

Kinetic Energy Bounds and their Application to the Stability of Matter

he Sobolev inequality on Rn,n ≥ 3 is very important because it gives a lower bound for the kinetic energy f| ∇f|2 in terms of an Lp norm of f.

Elliott H. Lieb

A sharp bound for an eigenvalue moment of the one-dimensional Schrödinger operator

We give a proof of the Lieb-Thirring inequality in the critical case d=1, γ = 1/2, which yields the best possible constant.

Dirk Hundertmark, Elliott H. Lieb, Lawrence E. Thomas

Coherent States


The Classical Limit of Quantum Spin Systems

We derive a classical integral representation for the partition function, ZQ, of a quantum spin system. With it we can obtain upper and lower bounds to the quantum free energy (or ground state energy) in terms of two classical free energies (or ground state energies). These bounds permit us to prove that when the spin angular momentum J→∞ (but after the thermodynamic limit) the quantum free energy (or ground state energy) is equal to the classical value. In normal cases, our inequality is ZC(J) ≦ ZQ(J) ≦ZC(J +1).

Elliott H. Lieb

Proof of an Entropy Conjecture of Wehrl

Wehrl has proposed a new definition of classical entropy, S, in terms of coherent states and conjectured that s≧ 1. A proof of this is given. We discuss the analogous problem for Bloch coherent spin states, but in this case the conjecture is still open. An inequality for the entropy of convolutions is also given.

Elliott H. Lieb

Quantum Coherent Operators: A Generalization of Coherent States

We introduce a technique to compare different, but related, quantum systems, thereby generalizing the way that coherent states are used to compare quantum systems to classical systems in semiclassical analysis. We then use this technique to estimate the dependence of the free energy of the quantum Heisenberg model on the spin value, and to estimate the relation between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic free energies.

Elliott H. Lieb, Jan Philip Solovej

Coherent States as a Tool for Obtaining Rigorous Bounds

This talk reviews some of the ways in which coherent states can be used to give rigorous bounds for quantities of physical interest and, in certain cases, can yield exact asymptotic formulas. Three main topics will be discussed.

Elliott H. Lieb

Brunn-Minkowski Inequality and Rearrangements


A General Rearrangement Inequality for Multiple Integrals

In this paper we prove a rearrangement inequality that generalizes inequalities given in the b∞k by Hardy, Littlewood and Pólya1 and by Luttinger and Friedberg.2 The inequality for an integral of a product of functions of one variable is further extended to the case of functions of several variables.

H. J. Brascamp, Elliott H. Lieb, J. M. Luttinger

Some inequalities for Gaussian measures and the long-range order of the one-dimensional plasma

THE following is a preliminary report on some recent work, the full details of which will be published elsewhere. We have come across some inequalities about integrals and moments of log concave functions which hold in the multidimensional case and which are useful in obtaining estimates for multidimensional modified Gaussian measures. By making a small jump (we shall not go into the technical details) from the finite to the infinite dimensional case, upper and lower bounds to certain types of functional integrals can be obtained. As a non-trivial application of the latter we shall, for the first time, prove that the one-dimensional one-component quantummechanical plasma has long-range order when the interaction is strong enough. In other words, the Wigner lattice can exist, in one dimension at least. As another application we shall prove a log concavity theorem about the fundamental solution (Green’s function) of the diffusion equation.

H. J. Brascamp, E. H. Lieb

Best Constants in Young’s Inequality, Its Converse, and Its Generalization to More than Three Functions

The best possible constant Dmt in the inequality | ∬ dx dyf(x)g(x —y) h(y)|< Dpgt||f||p||g||Q||h||t, p,q,t>|, 1/p + llq+ 1/t = 2, is determined; the equality is reached if /, g, and h are appropriate Gaussians. The same is shown to be true for the converse inequality (0 < p, q < 1, t < 0), in which case the inequality is reversed. Furthermore, an analogous property is proved for an integral of k functions over n variables, each function depending on a linear combination of the n variables; some of the functions may be taken to be fixed Gaussians. Two applications are given, one of which is a pr∞f of Nelson’s hypercontractive inequality.

Herm Jan Brascamp, Elliott H. Lieb

On Extensions of the Brunn-Minkowski and Prékopa-Leindler Theorems, Including Inequalities for Log Concave Functions, and with an Application to the Diffusion Equation

We extend the Prékopa-Leindler theorem to other types of convex combinations of two positive functions and we strengthen the Prékopa—Leindler and Brunn-Minkowski theorems by introducing the notion of essential addition. Our proof of the Prékopa—Leindler theorem is simpler than the original one. We sharpen the inequality that the marginal of a log concave function is log concave, and we prove various moment inequalities for such functions. Finally, we use these results to derive inequalities for the fundamental solution of the diffusion equation with a convex potential.

Herm Jan Brascamp, Elliott H. Lieb

Existence and Uniqueness of the Minimizing Solution of Choquard’s Nonlinear Equation

The equation dealt with in this paper is in three dimensions. It comes from minimizing the functional which, in turn, comes from an approximation to the Hartree-Fock theory of a plasma. It describes an electron trapped in its own hole. The interesting mathematical aspect of the problem is that & is not convex, and usual methods to show existence and uniqueness of the minimum do not apply. By using symmetric decreasing rearrangement inequalities we are able to prove existence and uniqueness (modulo translations) of a minimizing Φ. To prove uniqueness a strict form of the inequality, which we believe is new, is employed.

Elliott H. Lieb

Symmetric Decreasing Rearrangement Can Be Discontinuous

Suppose f(xl,x2) ≥ 0 is a continuously differentiable function supported in the unit disk in the plane. Its symmetric decreasing rearrangement is the rotationally invariant function f*(xl,x2) whose level sets are circles enclosing the same area as the level sets of f. Such rearrangement preserves Lp norms but decreases convex gradient integrals, e.g. ||∇||*||p ≤ ||∇/||p (1 ≤ p < ∞). Now suppose that fj(x1,x2) > 0 (j = 1,2,3,…) is a sequence of infinitely differentiable functions also supported in the unit disk which converge uniformly together with first derivatives to f. The symmetzed functions also converge uniformly. The real question is about convergence of the derivatives of the symmetrized functions. We announce that the derivatives of the symmetrized functions need not converge strongly, e.g. it can happen that ||∇fj*—∇f*||p →* 0 for every p. We further characterize exactly those f’s for which convergence is assured and for which it can fail

Frederick J. Almgren, Elliott H. Lieb

The (NON) Continuity of Symmetric Decreasing Rearrangement

The operation R, of symmetric decreasing rearrangement maps W1,P( Rn) to W1,p( Rn). Even though it is norm decreasing we show that R is not continuous for n>2. The functions at which R is continuous are precisely characterized by a new property called co-area regularity. Every sufficiently differentiate function is co-area regular, and both the regular and the irregular functions are dense in W1 ,p(Rn).

Frederick J. Almgren, Elliott H. Lieb

On the Case of Equality in the Brunn-Minkowski Inequality for Capacity

Suppose that Ω and Ω1 are convex, open subsets of Rn. Denote their convex combination by The Brunn-Minkowski inequality says that (vol Ω)t≥ (1 -t) vol Ω01/N +t Vol Ω for 0≤t ≤ l. Moreover, if there is equality for some t other than an endpoint, then the domains Ω1 and Ω0 are translates and dilates of each other. Borell proved an analogue of the Brunn—Minkowski inequality with capacity (defined below) in place of volume. Borel’s theorem [B] says THEOREM A. Let Ωt= tΩ1+ (1—t)Ω0 be a convex combination of two convex subsets of RN,N≥3. Then cap The main purpose of this note is to prove.

Luis A. Caffarelli, David Jerison, Elliott H. Lieb

General Analysis


An L p Bound for the Riesz and Bessel Potentials of Orthonormal Functions

Let $${\Psi _1},...,{\Psi _N}$$be orthonormal functions in Rd and let $${u_1} = {( - \Delta )^{ - 1/2}}{\Psi _i}$$ or $${u_1} = {( - \Delta + 1)^{ - 1/2}}{\Psi _i}$$ and let $$p(x) = {\sum {\left| {{u_i}(x)} \right|} ^2}$$. Lp bounds are proved for p, an example being for $${\left\| P \right\|_P} \le {A_d}{N^{1/p}}for{\rm{ d}} \ge {\rm{3, with p = d(d - 2}}{{\rm{)}}^{ - 1}}$$. The unusual feature of these bounds is that the orthogonality of the ψi yields a factor N1/P instead of N, as would be the case without orthogonality. These bounds prove some conjectures of Battle and Federbush (a Phase Cell Cluster Expansion for Euclidean Field Theories, I, 1982, preprint) and of Conlon (Comm. Math. Phys., in press).

Elliott H. Lieb

A Relation Between Pointwise Convergence of Functions and Convergence of Functionals

We show that if fn is a sequence of uniformly Lp-bounded functions on a measure space, and if fn → f pointwise a.e., then lim for all 0 < p < ∞. This result is also generalized in Theorem 2 to some functional other than the Lp norm, namely → 0 for suitable j: C → C and a suitable sequence fn. A brief discussion is given of the usefulness of this result in variational problems.

Haïm Brezis, Elliott Lieb

Sharp constants in the Hardy-Littlewood-Sobolev and related inequalities

A maximizing function, f, is shown to exist for the HLS inequality on Rn

Elliott H. Lieb

On the lowest eigenvalue of the Laplacian for the intersection of two domains

If A and B are two bounded domains in Rn and λ(A) γ(B) are the lowest eigenvalues of — Δ with Dirichlet boundary conditions, then there is some translate, Bx, of B such that λ(A Bx)< λ(A) + λ(B). A similar inequality holds for. There are two corollaries of this theorem: (i) A lower bound for supx volume (A Bx) in terms of λ(A), when B is a ball; (ii) A compactness lemma for certain sequences in W1,p(Rn).

Elliott H.

Minimum Action Solutions of Some Vector Field Equations

The system of equations studied in this paper is— Δui = gi(u) on Rd, d≧ 2, with u:Rd-→]Rn and gi(u)=∂G/∂i. Associated with this system is the action, S(u) = f {1/2|2 — G(u)}. Under appropriate conditions on G (which differ for d = 2 and d≧ 3) it is proved that the system has a solution, u 0, of finite action and that this solution also minimizes the action within the class {v is a solution, v has finite action, u0}.

Haim Brezis, Elliott H. Lieb

Sobolev Inequalities with Remainder Terms

The usual Sobolev inequality in ℝn, n≥3, asserts that 1$$\left\| {\nabla f} \right\|_2^2 \geqslant {S_n}\left\| f \right\|_{2*}^2$$, with Sn being the sharp constant. This paper is concerned, instead, with functions restricted to bounded domains Ω ℝn. Two kinds of inequalities are established: (i) If f = 0 on ∂ Ω, then 2$$\left\| {\nabla f} \right\|_2^2 \geqslant {S_n}\left\| f \right\|_{2*}^2 + C(\Omega )\left\| f \right\|_{p,w}^2$$ with p=2*/2. Some further results and open problems in this area are also presented.

HaïM Brezis, Elliott H. Lieb

Gaussian kernels have only Gaussian maximizers*

A Gaussian integral kernel G(x, y) on Rn x Rn is the exponential of a quadratic form in x and y; the Fourier transform kernel is an example. The problem addressed here is to find the sharp bound of G as an operator from Lp(Rp) to Lq(Rn) and to prove that the LP(Rn) functions that saturate the bound are necessarily Gaussians. This is accomplished generally for 1 < p ≦ q < ∞ and also for p > q in some special cases. Besides greatly extending previous results in this area, the proof technique is also essentially different from earlier ones. A corollary of these results is a fully multidimensional, multilinear generalization of Young’s inequality.

Elliott H. Lieb

Integral bounds for radar ambiguity functions and Wigner distributions

An upper bound is proved for the Lp norm of Woodward’s ambiguity function in radar signal analysis and of the Wigner distribution in quantum mechanics when p >2. A lower bound is proved for 1 ≤p < 2. In addition, a lower bound is proved for the entropy. These bounds set limits to the sharpness of the peaking of the ambiguity function or Wigner distribution. The bounds are best possible and equality is achieved in the LP bounds if and only if the functions/ and g that enter the definition are both Gaussians.

Elliott H. Lieb

Inequalities Related to Harmonic Maps


Calcul Des Variations. —Estimations d’énergie pour des applications de R3 à

Two problems concerning maps cp with point singularities from a domain} Ω = R3 to S2are solved. The first is to determine the minimum energy of ϕ when the location and topological degree of the singularities are prescribed. In the second problem Ω is the unit ball and ϕ = g is given on ΦΩ; we show that the only cases in which g (x/|x|) minimizes the energy is g = const, or g(x)= ±R x with R a rotation

Elliott H. Lieb, Michael Loss, Mary Beth Ruskai

Singularities Of Energy-Minimizing Maps From The Ball To The Sphere

We study maps ϕ from the unit ball B in R3 to the unit sphere S2 in R3 which minimize Dirichlet’s energy integral $$ \varepsilon (\varphi ) = \int {_B} |\nabla \varphi {|^2}dV $$.

Frederick J. Almgren, Elliott H. Lieb

Co-Area, Liquid Crystals, and Minimal Surfaces

Oriented n area minimizing surfaces (integral currents) in Mm+n can be approximated by level sets (slices) of nearly m-energy minimizing mappings Mm+n → Sm with essential but controlled discontinuities. This gives new perspective on multiplicity, regularity, and computation questions in least area surface theory.

F. Almgren, W. Browder, E. Lieb

Counting Singularities in Liquid Crystals

Energy minimizing harmonic maps from the ball to the sphere arise in the study of liquid crystal geometries and in the classical nonhnear sigma model. We linearly dominate the number of points of discontinuity of such a map by the energy of its boundary value function. Our bound is optimal (modulo the best constant) and is the first bound of its kind. We also show that the locations and numbers of singular points of minimizing maps is often counterintuitive; in particular, boundary symmetries need not be respected.

Frederick J. Almgren, Elliott H. Lieb

Symmetry of the Ginzburg Landau Minimizer in a Disc

The Ginzburg-Landau energy minimization problem for a vector field on a two dimensional disc is analyzed. This is the simplest nontrivial example of a vector field minimization problem and the goal is to show that the energy minimizer has the full geometric symmetry of the problem. The standard methods that are useful for similar problems involving real valued functions cannot be applied to this situation. Our main result is that the minimizer in the class of symmetric fields is stable, i.e., the eigenvalues of the second variation operator are all nonnegative.

Elliott H. Lieb, Michael Loss


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