Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Polymer Bulletin 11/2018

04.04.2018 | Original Paper

Influence of expandable graphite particle size on the synergy flame retardant property between expandable graphite and ammonium polyphosphate in semi-rigid polyurethane foam

verfasst von: Jie Li, Xuehua Mo, Yi Li, Huawei Zou, Mei Liang, Yang Chen

Erschienen in: Polymer Bulletin | Ausgabe 11/2018

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten
share
TEILEN

Abstract

Effect of the difference of expandable graphite (EG) particle size on the synergistic flame retardant effect between expandable graphite (EG) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) in the semi-rigid polyurethane foam (SPUF) was studied for the first time. Three large-span particle sizes of EG were added into SPUF with different mass ratios of EG/APP. The synergistic effect between EG and APP on the flame retardant property of composites was investigated using the limiting oxygen index test, horizontal–vertical burning test, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), etc. Flammability performance tests indicated that the larger particle size the EG possessed, the more obvious will be the synergistic effect exhibited between EG and APP. SEM images and TGA results provided positive evidence for the combustion tests. Synergistic effect was strongly influenced by the compactness of united protective layer. The maximal rate of the degradation of the SPUF composite system further confirmed the relationship between the rate of the composites’ degradation and the compactness of united protective layer. Speculative reactions which were related to the changes of EG in the presence of APP under high temperature were discussed.

Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:

Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Wirtschaft+Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 69.000 Bücher
  • über 500 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Finance + Banking
  • Management + Führung
  • Marketing + Vertrieb
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe
  • Versicherung + Risiko

Testen Sie jetzt 15 Tage kostenlos.

Springer Professional "Technik"

Online-Abonnement

Mit Springer Professional "Technik" erhalten Sie Zugriff auf:

  • über 50.000 Bücher
  • über 380 Zeitschriften

aus folgenden Fachgebieten:

  • Automobil + Motoren
  • Bauwesen + Immobilien
  • Business IT + Informatik
  • Elektrotechnik + Elektronik
  • Energie + Nachhaltigkeit
  • Maschinenbau + Werkstoffe




Testen Sie jetzt 15 Tage kostenlos.

Literatur
1.
Zurück zum Zitat Sant’Anna SS, Souza DA, Carvalho CF et al (2008) Morphological and thermal analyses of flexible polyurethane foams containing commercial calcium carbonate [J]. Eclética Química 33(2):55–60 CrossRef Sant’Anna SS, Souza DA, Carvalho CF et al (2008) Morphological and thermal analyses of flexible polyurethane foams containing commercial calcium carbonate [J]. Eclética Química 33(2):55–60 CrossRef
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Alfani R, Iannace S, Nicolais L (1998) Synthesis and characterization of starch-based polyurethane foams [J]. J Appl Polym Sci 68(5):739–745 CrossRef Alfani R, Iannace S, Nicolais L (1998) Synthesis and characterization of starch-based polyurethane foams [J]. J Appl Polym Sci 68(5):739–745 CrossRef
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Branca C, Di Blasi C, Casu A et al (2003) Reaction kinetics and morphological changes of a rigid polyurethane foam during combustion [J]. Thermochim Acta 399(1):127–137 CrossRef Branca C, Di Blasi C, Casu A et al (2003) Reaction kinetics and morphological changes of a rigid polyurethane foam during combustion [J]. Thermochim Acta 399(1):127–137 CrossRef
4.
Zurück zum Zitat Cinelli P, Anguillesi I, Lazzeri A (2013) Green synthesis of flexible polyurethane foams from liquefied lignin [J]. Eur Polym J 49(6):1174–1184 CrossRef Cinelli P, Anguillesi I, Lazzeri A (2013) Green synthesis of flexible polyurethane foams from liquefied lignin [J]. Eur Polym J 49(6):1174–1184 CrossRef
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Gabbard JD (1997) Flexible water-blown polyurethane foams. U.S. Patent 5,624,968[P] Gabbard JD (1997) Flexible water-blown polyurethane foams. U.S. Patent 5,624,968[P]
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Wang JQ, Chow WK (2005) A brief review on fire retardants for polymeric foams. J Appl Polym Sci 97(1):366–376 CrossRef Wang JQ, Chow WK (2005) A brief review on fire retardants for polymeric foams. J Appl Polym Sci 97(1):366–376 CrossRef
7.
Zurück zum Zitat Duquesne S, Le Bras M, Bourbigot S et al (2000) Analysis of fire gases released from polyurethane and fire-retarded polyurethane coatings [J]. J Fire Sci 18(6):456–482 CrossRef Duquesne S, Le Bras M, Bourbigot S et al (2000) Analysis of fire gases released from polyurethane and fire-retarded polyurethane coatings [J]. J Fire Sci 18(6):456–482 CrossRef
8.
Zurück zum Zitat Chattopadhyay DK, Webster DC (2009) Thermal stability and flame retardancy of polyurethanes [J]. Prog Polym Sci 34(10):1068–1133 CrossRef Chattopadhyay DK, Webster DC (2009) Thermal stability and flame retardancy of polyurethanes [J]. Prog Polym Sci 34(10):1068–1133 CrossRef
9.
Zurück zum Zitat Demir H, Arkış E, Balköse D et al (2005) Synergistic effect of natural zeolites on flame retardant additives [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 89(3):478–483 CrossRef Demir H, Arkış E, Balköse D et al (2005) Synergistic effect of natural zeolites on flame retardant additives [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 89(3):478–483 CrossRef
10.
Zurück zum Zitat Chiu SH, Wang WK (1998) Dynamic flame retardancy of polypropylene filled with ammonium polyphosphate, pentaerythritol and melamine additives [J]. Polymer 39(10):1951–1955 CrossRef Chiu SH, Wang WK (1998) Dynamic flame retardancy of polypropylene filled with ammonium polyphosphate, pentaerythritol and melamine additives [J]. Polymer 39(10):1951–1955 CrossRef
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Awad WH, Wilkie CA (2010) Investigation of the thermal degradation of polyurea: the effect of ammonium polyphosphate and expandable graphite [J]. Polymer 51(11):2277–2285 CrossRef Awad WH, Wilkie CA (2010) Investigation of the thermal degradation of polyurea: the effect of ammonium polyphosphate and expandable graphite [J]. Polymer 51(11):2277–2285 CrossRef
12.
Zurück zum Zitat Li Y, Li B, Dai J et al (2008) Synergistic effects of lanthanum oxide on a novel intumescent flame retardant polypropylene system [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 93(1):9–16 CrossRef Li Y, Li B, Dai J et al (2008) Synergistic effects of lanthanum oxide on a novel intumescent flame retardant polypropylene system [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 93(1):9–16 CrossRef
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Anna P, Marosi G, Bourbigot S et al (2002) Intumescent flame retardant systems of modified rheology [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 77(2):243–247 CrossRef Anna P, Marosi G, Bourbigot S et al (2002) Intumescent flame retardant systems of modified rheology [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 77(2):243–247 CrossRef
14.
Zurück zum Zitat Gu J, Zhang G, Dong S et al (2007) Study on preparation and fire-retardant mechanism analysis of intumescent flame-retardant coatings [J]. Surf Coat Technol 201(18):7835–7841 CrossRef Gu J, Zhang G, Dong S et al (2007) Study on preparation and fire-retardant mechanism analysis of intumescent flame-retardant coatings [J]. Surf Coat Technol 201(18):7835–7841 CrossRef
15.
Zurück zum Zitat Wang DY, Liu Y, Wang YZ et al (2007) Fire retardancy of a reactively extruded intumescent flame retardant polyethylene system enhanced by metal chelates [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 92(8):1592–1598 CrossRef Wang DY, Liu Y, Wang YZ et al (2007) Fire retardancy of a reactively extruded intumescent flame retardant polyethylene system enhanced by metal chelates [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 92(8):1592–1598 CrossRef
16.
Zurück zum Zitat Ye L, Meng XY, Ji X et al (2009) Synthesis and characterization of expandable graphite–poly (methyl methacrylate) composite particles and their application to flame retardation of rigid polyurethane foams [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 94(6):971–979 CrossRef Ye L, Meng XY, Ji X et al (2009) Synthesis and characterization of expandable graphite–poly (methyl methacrylate) composite particles and their application to flame retardation of rigid polyurethane foams [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 94(6):971–979 CrossRef
17.
Zurück zum Zitat Modesti M, Lorenzetti A, Simioni F et al (2002) Expandable graphite as an intumescent flame retardant in polyisocyanurate–polyurethane foams [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 77(2):195–202 CrossRef Modesti M, Lorenzetti A, Simioni F et al (2002) Expandable graphite as an intumescent flame retardant in polyisocyanurate–polyurethane foams [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 77(2):195–202 CrossRef
18.
Zurück zum Zitat Shi L, Li ZM, Xie BH et al (2006) Flame retardancy of different-sized expandable graphite particles for high-density rigid polyurethane foams [J]. Polym Int 55(8):862–871 CrossRef Shi L, Li ZM, Xie BH et al (2006) Flame retardancy of different-sized expandable graphite particles for high-density rigid polyurethane foams [J]. Polym Int 55(8):862–871 CrossRef
19.
Zurück zum Zitat Thirumal M, Khastgir D, Singha NK et al (2008) Effect of expandable graphite on the properties of intumescent flame-retardant polyurethane foam [J]. J Appl Polym Sci 110(5):2586–2594 CrossRef Thirumal M, Khastgir D, Singha NK et al (2008) Effect of expandable graphite on the properties of intumescent flame-retardant polyurethane foam [J]. J Appl Polym Sci 110(5):2586–2594 CrossRef
20.
Zurück zum Zitat Fimmel K, Gabbert H J, Hasse V, et al. Preparation of flame-resistant soft polyurethane foams of reduced smoke density, and melamine/expandable graphite/polyether-polyol dispersions for this purpose: U.S. Patent 5,739,173 [P]. 1998-4-14 Fimmel K, Gabbert H J, Hasse V, et al. Preparation of flame-resistant soft polyurethane foams of reduced smoke density, and melamine/expandable graphite/polyether-polyol dispersions for this purpose: U.S. Patent 5,739,173 [P]. 1998-4-14
21.
Zurück zum Zitat Modesti M, Lorenzetti A (2002) Flame retardancy of polyisocyanurate–polyurethane foams: use of different charring agents [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 78(2):341–347 CrossRef Modesti M, Lorenzetti A (2002) Flame retardancy of polyisocyanurate–polyurethane foams: use of different charring agents [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 78(2):341–347 CrossRef
22.
Zurück zum Zitat Modesti M, Lorenzetti A (2003) Improvement on fire behavior of water blown PIR–PUR foams: use of a halogen-free flame retardant [J]. Eur Polym J 39(2):263–268 CrossRef Modesti M, Lorenzetti A (2003) Improvement on fire behavior of water blown PIR–PUR foams: use of a halogen-free flame retardant [J]. Eur Polym J 39(2):263–268 CrossRef
23.
Zurück zum Zitat Zatorski W, Brzozowski ZK, Kolbrecki A (2008) New developments in chemical modification of fire-safe rigid polyurethane foams [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 93(11):2071–2076 CrossRef Zatorski W, Brzozowski ZK, Kolbrecki A (2008) New developments in chemical modification of fire-safe rigid polyurethane foams [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 93(11):2071–2076 CrossRef
24.
Zurück zum Zitat Shi L, Li ZM, Yang W et al (2006) Properties and microstructure of expandable graphite particles pulverized with an ultra-high-speed mixer [J]. Powder Technol 170(3):178–184 CrossRef Shi L, Li ZM, Yang W et al (2006) Properties and microstructure of expandable graphite particles pulverized with an ultra-high-speed mixer [J]. Powder Technol 170(3):178–184 CrossRef
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Hu X, Wang D, Wang S (2013) Synergistic effects of expandable graphite and dimethyl methyl phosphonate on the mechanical properties, fire behavior, and thermal stability of a polyisocyanurate–polyurethane foam [J]. Int J Min Sci Technol 23(1):13–20 CrossRef Hu X, Wang D, Wang S (2013) Synergistic effects of expandable graphite and dimethyl methyl phosphonate on the mechanical properties, fire behavior, and thermal stability of a polyisocyanurate–polyurethane foam [J]. Int J Min Sci Technol 23(1):13–20 CrossRef
26.
Zurück zum Zitat Duquesne S, Le Bras M, Bourbigot S et al (2001) Thermal degradation of polyurethane and polyurethane/expandable graphite coatings [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 74(3):493–499 CrossRef Duquesne S, Le Bras M, Bourbigot S et al (2001) Thermal degradation of polyurethane and polyurethane/expandable graphite coatings [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 74(3):493–499 CrossRef
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhu H, Zhu Q, Li J et al (2011) Synergistic effect between expandable graphite and ammonium polyphosphate on flame retarded polylactide [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 96(2):183–189 CrossRef Zhu H, Zhu Q, Li J et al (2011) Synergistic effect between expandable graphite and ammonium polyphosphate on flame retarded polylactide [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 96(2):183–189 CrossRef
28.
Zurück zum Zitat Ge LL, Duan HJ, Zhang XG et al (2012) Synergistic effect of ammonium polyphosphate and expandable graphite on flame-retardant properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene [J]. J Appl Polym Sci 126(4):1337–1343 CrossRef Ge LL, Duan HJ, Zhang XG et al (2012) Synergistic effect of ammonium polyphosphate and expandable graphite on flame-retardant properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene [J]. J Appl Polym Sci 126(4):1337–1343 CrossRef
29.
Zurück zum Zitat Seefeldt H, Braun U, Wagner MH (2012) Residue stabilization in the fire retardancy of wood–plastic composites: combination of ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, and red phosphorus [J]. Macromol Chem Phys 213(22):2370–2377 CrossRef Seefeldt H, Braun U, Wagner MH (2012) Residue stabilization in the fire retardancy of wood–plastic composites: combination of ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, and red phosphorus [J]. Macromol Chem Phys 213(22):2370–2377 CrossRef
30.
Zurück zum Zitat Shih YF, Wang YT, Jeng RJ et al (2004) Expandable graphite systems for phosphorus-containing unsaturated polyesters. I. Enhanced thermal properties and flame retardancy [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 86(2):339–348 CrossRef Shih YF, Wang YT, Jeng RJ et al (2004) Expandable graphite systems for phosphorus-containing unsaturated polyesters. I. Enhanced thermal properties and flame retardancy [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 86(2):339–348 CrossRef
31.
Zurück zum Zitat Xie R, Qu B (2001) Synergistic effects of expandable graphite with some halogen-free flame retardants in polyolefin blends [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 71(3):375–380 CrossRef Xie R, Qu B (2001) Synergistic effects of expandable graphite with some halogen-free flame retardants in polyolefin blends [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 71(3):375–380 CrossRef
32.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhang Y, Chen X, Fang Z (2013) Synergistic effects of expandable graphite and ammonium polyphosphate with a new carbon source derived from biomass in flame retardant ABS [J]. J Appl Polym Sci 128(4):2424–2432 CrossRef Zhang Y, Chen X, Fang Z (2013) Synergistic effects of expandable graphite and ammonium polyphosphate with a new carbon source derived from biomass in flame retardant ABS [J]. J Appl Polym Sci 128(4):2424–2432 CrossRef
33.
Zurück zum Zitat Yi L, Zou J, Zhou S, et al (2014) Effect of expandable graphite particle size on the flame retardant, mechanical, and thermal properties of water-blown semi-rigid polyurethane foam [J]. J Appl Polym Sci 131(3) Yi L, Zou J, Zhou S, et al (2014) Effect of expandable graphite particle size on the flame retardant, mechanical, and thermal properties of water-blown semi-rigid polyurethane foam [J]. J Appl Polym Sci 131(3)
34.
Zurück zum Zitat Luo W, Li Y, Zou H et al (2014) Study of different-sized sulfur-free expandable graphite on morphology and properties of water-blown semi-rigid polyurethane foams [J]. RSC Adv 4(70):37302–37310 CrossRef Luo W, Li Y, Zou H et al (2014) Study of different-sized sulfur-free expandable graphite on morphology and properties of water-blown semi-rigid polyurethane foams [J]. RSC Adv 4(70):37302–37310 CrossRef
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Wang B, Hu S, Zhao K et al (2011) Preparation of polyurethane microencapsulated expandable graphite, and its application in ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer containing silica-gel microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate [J]. Ind Eng Chem Res 50(20):11476–11484 CrossRef Wang B, Hu S, Zhao K et al (2011) Preparation of polyurethane microencapsulated expandable graphite, and its application in ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer containing silica-gel microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate [J]. Ind Eng Chem Res 50(20):11476–11484 CrossRef
36.
Zurück zum Zitat Chuang FS (2007) Analysis of thermal degradation of diacetylene-containing polyurethane copolymers [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 92(7):1393–1407 CrossRef Chuang FS (2007) Analysis of thermal degradation of diacetylene-containing polyurethane copolymers [J]. Polym Degrad Stab 92(7):1393–1407 CrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
Influence of expandable graphite particle size on the synergy flame retardant property between expandable graphite and ammonium polyphosphate in semi-rigid polyurethane foam
verfasst von
Jie Li
Xuehua Mo
Yi Li
Huawei Zou
Mei Liang
Yang Chen
Publikationsdatum
04.04.2018
Verlag
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Erschienen in
Polymer Bulletin / Ausgabe 11/2018
Print ISSN: 0170-0839
Elektronische ISSN: 1436-2449
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00289-018-2309-y

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 11/2018

Polymer Bulletin 11/2018 Zur Ausgabe

Premium Partner

    Marktübersichten

    Die im Laufe eines Jahres in der „adhäsion“ veröffentlichten Marktübersichten helfen Anwendern verschiedenster Branchen, sich einen gezielten Überblick über Lieferantenangebote zu verschaffen.