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Über dieses Buch

The two volumes IFIP AICT 551 and 552 constitute the refereed proceedings of the 15th IFIP WG 9.4 International Conference on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries, ICT4D 2019, held in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in May 2019.

The 97 revised full papers and 2 short papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 185 submissions. The papers present a wide range of perspectives and disciplines including (but not limited to) public administration, entrepreneurship, business administration, information technology for development, information management systems, organization studies, philosophy, and management. They are organized in the following topical sections: communities, ICT-enabled networks, and development; digital platforms for development; ICT for displaced population and refugees. How it helps? How it hurts?; ICT4D for the indigenous, by the indigenous and of the indigenous; local technical papers; pushing the boundaries - new research methods, theory and philosophy in ICT4D; southern-driven human-computer interaction; sustainable ICT, informatics, education and learning in a turbulent world - "doing the safari way”.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Communities, ICT-Enabled Networks, and Development

Frontmatter

The Ins and Outs of Participation in a Weather Information System

In this paper our aim is to show even though access to technology, information or data holds the potential for improved participation, participation is wired into a larger network of actors, artefacts and information practices. We draw on a case study of a weather information system developed and implemented by a non-profit organisation to both describe the configuration of participation, but also critically assess inclusion and exclusion. We present a set of four questions - a basic, practical toolkit - by which we together with the organisation made sense of and evaluated participation in the system.

Bidisha Chaudhuri, Linus Kendall

eHealth in Zimbabwe, a Case of Techno-Social Development

This paper presents a transdisciplinary eHealth narrative as it appears to health professionals, information and communication technology experts, and health practitioners in Zimbabwe. Harvesting from rich experiences and focus group discussions, the embedded authors present how various traditions position eHealth. Reflecting upon the genesis of the multiple perspectives – anthropological, computer science, medical, among others – this paper presents a practice of eHealth in Zimbabwe. The paper serves as a rationale for aligning eHealth with people, processes, systems and categorisations that consider the local cultures, the local way of meaning-making, and value local systems.

Trymore Chawurura, Ronald Manhibi, Janneke van Dijk, Gertjan van Stam

ICT Use in the Context of Electricity Access in a Developing Country: A Choice Framework Analysis

With increasing focus on achieving energy access for all by 2030, and working towards the Sustainable Development Goals, in particular SDG 7, there is further interest in the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). This paper explores the ways in which ICTs are used in the context of initiatives to support electricity access in urban and peri-urban communities in a developing country, Jamaica. A survey of 2,082 households and focus group discussions in 10 communities, along with interviews with key stakeholders, support the data collection for the study. Kleine’s Choice Framework, which operationalises Sen’s capability approach, is used to analyse individual and collective choices related to ICTs and electricity access, and the associated development outcomes. Implications for research, policy and practice are discussed.

Arlene Bailey, Aldrie Henry-Lee, Yhanore Johnson-Coke, Richard Leach, Anthony Clayton, Matt Gee, Oliver Browne

An Inquiry into IT Governance in Healthcare Organizations in Uganda

Looking at the world today, various organizations have taken up IT to support most of their work processes. IT can no longer be considered only a support component but has become strategic. Given that IT is ubiquitous, it requires proper governance in order for organizations to derive value and achieve organizational objectives from its use. IT governance is therefore advocated as a necessary means for ensuring the effective and efficient use of IT. Previous literature does not say much about IT governance adoption and enactment in healthcare organizations. In this study, resource orchestration is used as a framework for understanding management strategies for IT governance adoption in healthcare organizations. The study answers the research question, “How are managerial strategies impacting the adoption of IT governance in healthcare organizations”. This was done through an interview study of managers, IT workers and policy makers in select Ugandan organizations. The participants in the study were from the private and public healthcare organizations, IT authority and the capital city authority. Findings show that there are informally agreed upon and approved strategies in place for the adoption of IT governance. The contribution is in terms of suggestions of how senior management can enact the strategies and make use of the organization’s knowledge based and financial resources to inform adoption of IT governance.

Michael Kizito

Exploring an Impact Sourcing Initiative for a Community of People with Disabilities: A Capability Analysis

The purpose of this paper is to bridge the knowledge gap on how new technology, like online platforms can help people with disabilities (PWD’s) improve their capabilities.The paper presents an interpretive qualitative case study of individuals who were all trained to be online freelancers using digital “gig” work platforms (e.g. Upwork) by “Virtualahan”, a social enterprise based in the Philippines. Data is analyzed through the lens of Bjørn Gigler’s Alternative Evaluation Framework (AEF). Interview and ethnographic data provide the evidence to analyze the achieved functionings for PWD and the barriers and facilitators of the functionings.The findings indicate that online technology facilitated employment has wider implications than an improved financial situation. Employment through online technology increased the informants self-confidence and how they are perceived by their families.This paper contributes to the literature on PWD’s, capabilities and online gig work, and how such work can help to build a community for PWD’s. Practical contributions of the findings for policymakers, consultants etc. are guidelines for helping PWD’s to find online employment, which can contribute to their capabilities.

Karsten Eskelund, Richard Heeks, Brian Nicholson

System Use and User Satisfaction in the Adoption of Electronic Medical Records Systems: A Case of DHIS2 Tracker Implementation in Tanzania

The adoption of Electronic Medical Records Systems (EMRs) is on the rise in developing countries due to the need to ensure improved quality of healthcare through client continuum and monitoring and information sharing through collecting detailed, good quality and reliable information overtime. In spite the benefits of EMRs, their success depends on use and satisfaction of users with the system. Recently National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Program of Tanzania adopted an EMRs known as the DHIS2 Tracker to help with case management, improve reporting and reduce lost to follow-up cases.This study therefore aimed to investigate factors influencing use and user satisfaction of DHIS2 Tracker by adapting both the DeLone & McLean Model with the Technology Acceptance Model. The research model consisted of six factors from which an online questionnaire using Google forms was developed and shared with users of the system. In order to assess the relationship between factors, nine hypotheses were developed and multiple regression analysis was conducted.The analyzed data supported five out of nine hypotheses and indicates that system quality and attitude have positive significant influence on both system usage and user satisfaction, while use of the system has a positive significant influence on satisfaction. However, user background and information quality do not have significant influence on either use or satisfaction of DHIS2 Tracker. These findings help implementers understand areas of focus during implementation of DHIS2 Tracker.

Immaculate Ayebazibwe, Honest C. Kimaro, Jens J. Kaasbøll

Contemporary Challenges in Street Trader-Customer Interaction Through Mobile Devices in Dodoma, Tanzania

Street trading is a common form of informal work carried out by almost one million Tanzanians. Majority of street traders use mobile devices to interact with customers. Despite this interaction, there is no abundant information showing if their interaction is mainly effective and does not face challenges. This study investigated the challenges faced by street traders and customers interacting through mobile devices in Dodoma, Tanzania. Qualitative data were collected using in-depth interviews with 42 street traders and 32 customers, followed by focus group discussion with eight street traders and six customers. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. The results show that street traders and customers occasionally interact using mobile phones. However, that interaction is challenged by issues connected to financial, technical and social aspects. These challenges are; lack of reliability among mobile phone interacting customers, mobile network problems, lack of business communication transparency, deep-rooted customary practices and perceptions of street trading, poor customer care, lack of consensus over mobile business etiquette, poor quality of product pictures, short mobile internet bundle validity, mobile phone battery life, and costs of mobile handset, transactions, vouchers, packages, and transport. The results call for the option of bundle and transaction cost reduction, network infrastructure improvement and provision of education to street traders and customers so that they realize the significance of business interaction using mobile devices contrary to what is happening recently, as well as abiding by communication ethics to minimize the likely challenges.

Joel Rumanyika, Matti Tedre, Mikko Apiola, Solomon Sunday Oyelere, Nasibu Rajabu Mramba

Value Co-creation in Design of mHealth Applications for Maternal Healthcare Service Delivery

mHealth has potential to improve maternal healthcare in low resource contexts. Several mHealth applications have been developed but are not implemented nor can they be scaled up partly due to their methodological quality. Although mHealth applications have been designed to improve maternal healthcare service delivery, it is still unclear on how to design mHealth applications for maternal healthcare that drive value co-creation from a service dominant logic (SDL) perspective. In this paper, a case study approach is used to investigate designs of four mHealth applications from Uganda and Cameroon. Interviews were held with developers and health workers involved in the design process of the applications. Results were analyzed using SDL value co-creation model. Overall findings show that designs of existing mHealth applications for maternal healthcare include some aspects of value co-creation but still lack design guidelines that would better support value co-creation. Guidelines for designing mHealth applications that co-create value in maternal healthcare are proposed. Future investigations on how proposed guidelines influence the use of mHealth applications to trigger value co-creation in maternal healthcare are suggested.

Hawa Nyende

A Framework for Understanding the Empowerment Effects of Telecentres on Rural Communities in Developing Countries

This paper proposes a framework for understanding how individuals empowered by telecentres, in return, empower their rural communities. The issue is that although ICT4D projects such as telecentres are viewed as a vital way to foster social economic development, their effectiveness on reducing digital exclusion is continuously being questioned. This research suggests that the way telecentres users empower communities is key to understanding how communities can harness ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies) to fight against digital exclusion. The study adopts qualitative research methods and targets two telecentres in Malawi. The study will help understand how individuals empowered by the use of ICTs such as telecentres can then empower members of their community. Hence, this study will provide insights of how ICTs can also become means to generate collective empowerment.

Sellina Khumbo Kapondera, Roberta Bernadi, Niki Panteli

Leveraging Digital Health Platforms in Developing Countries: The Role of Boundary Resources

The pervasiveness of digital platforms has resulted in the emergence of digital health platforms addressing various health care needs globally. Digital platforms, typically, bring about an international division of labor between platform owners in developed countries where they are usually developed and platform consumers in developing countries leveraging them. In this relationship, boundary resources, such as documentation and application programming interfaces, are critical elements in the efforts to leverage digital health platforms in developing countries. This paper uses the case of the digital health platform DHIS2 in Malawi to elucidate and discuss the enabling and restricting roles played by boundary resources towards efforts leveraging digital health platforms in developing countries.

Brown Msiska, Petter Nielsen, Jens Kaasboll

ICT Enabled Peace Network: Case Study of Conflict Early Warning System in Kenya

Building peace in post-conflict societies is a contemporary and urgent humanitarian challenge facing the world. ICTs can potentially play a role in this process, but how and why this can be done has not attracted adequate research attention, especially in the ICT4D domain which should naturally be at the forefront of such efforts. Drawing upon Castells’ notion of counter-networks, this paper based on an empirical analysis of peace-building efforts in North-West Kenya, examines the role of ICTs in enabling effectively information flows to strengthen the efforts in building a “peace network.” Important lessons are discerned on how such counter networks can be cultivated, and some reflections are presented on how these lessons may or not be applied to other conflict-ridden areas.

Arunima Mukherjee, Festus Mukoya

E-Commerce Institutionalisation in Mozambique: Enablers and Barriers

Electronic commerce (e-commerce) has been widely discussed in academia and practice over the past years, however, its application in the specific context of women led small medium enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries has been scanty. This study aims to respond to this paucity by investigating the process of e-commerce institutionalization among women-led SMEs in Mozambican context. Using the Perceived E-readiness Model (PERM) as a sensitising lens and following an interpretive paradigm; the study identifies organisational and external factors that are perceived to be enablers and hindrances towards E-Commerce adoption and institutionalisation in women led SMEs.

Fernanda Matsinhe, Salah Kabanda

The Influence of Telecentres on the Economic Empowerment of the Youth in Disadvantaged Communities of South Africa

We investigated how telecentres influence the economic empowerment of the youth in disadvantaged communities in South Africa and what factors affect their usage. For South Africa, the inequalities are greatly attributed to the apartheid government policy of segregating other races from major development activities. ICT is an enabler to development and may play a role in education, health and the economy. Interventions such as telecentres have the potential to deliver socio-economic benefits for people living in disadvantaged communities. Data for the study was collected through interviews with users of the Smart Cape and a privately-owned telecentre in Cape Town. The study used the Choice Framework as a theoretical lens. The study showed that (i) indeed the telecenters were aiding in empowering the youth living in disadvantaged communities (ii) the youth faced a number of personal, environmental and institutional challenges which limited their use and benefits from the telecenters. This research may help policymakers and project implementers on how to design and implement similar projects in future.

Samkelo Lutho Booi, Wallace Chigona, Priscilla Maliwichi, Khaya Kunene

Peer Networking and Capacity Building for Child Protection Professionals – Lessons from “ChildHub”

Child protection systems across the global South suffer from common problems, one of the most critical among which is low number and skills of relevant professionals to deliver services. Additionally, child protection professionals are often demotivated, uncoordinated and isolated, with limited access to continuous training and support. Peer learning and capacity building networks help address these issue, and often leverage the spread and scope of information and communications technologies. We present one such network, ChildHub, initially developed and deployed in South-East Europe, a region whose child protection systems present features similar to those in Africa and Asia. The success of this platform, evinced by a continuously growing community and confirmed by an evaluation after three years of operation, provides motivation and lessons for contextualization to sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. Thanks to its inherent modularity, ChildHub will easily be adapted to the contexts and needs of the two regions, thus building on the interest generated in Asia and Africa for such networks. The paper also presents the approach that will be taken to implement the platform for Africa and Asia.

Sendrine Constant, Balwant Godara, Thierry Agagliate, Nihaalini Kumar, Amara Amara

Investigating the Implementation of ICT Tool to Electoral Process in Nigeria

This study is aimed at understanding the implementation of Information Communication Technology (ICT) tool to electoral process and its challenges in Nigeria using actor-network theory (ANT) as a lens. Moment of translation of ANT was applied to gain an insight of the phenomenon. Empirical data was used for the analysis in the context of social behavior between human and non-human actors following inductive research approach. Case study methodology was carried out at Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC). The methods of data collection were through interview, participant observation and reviewing organizational documents. Challenges of the Smart Card Reader (SCR) in Nigeria’s electoral process are highlighted. Results of the study indicated that the challenges in implementation of the SCR emanated from the heterogeneous actors “human and non-human”, which lack synchrony during the process. Apart from the success of the card reader during accreditation, there was inadequate manpower training by INEC body and insufficient ICT infrastructure that weakened the ANT process.

Aishatu Shuaibu, Salihu Dasuki, Muhammadou Kah

Digital Platforms for Development

Frontmatter

A Multi-level Perspective on Digital Platform Implementation and Impact: The Case of EasyTaxi in Colombia

Growth of digital platforms in developing countries has yet to see equivalent growth in research. This paper presents one of the first conceptualised analyses of platform implementation and impact. Using the “multi-level perspective”, it analyses a successful ride-hailing platform: EasyTaxi in Bogotá, Colombia. This was originally a niche innovation but has effected a socio-technical transition to a dominant position within Bogotá’s taxi regime. Speed of transition is explained in terms of tensions within that regime and from wider demographic change, combined with specific utility of the platform to drivers and passengers who faced a prior context of exploitation, mistrust and insecurity. Though the new regime is a hybrid of platform and non-platform features, its impacts can already be seen: datafication, formalisation, and shift in power away from old taxi operating companies and towards passengers and, in particular, towards the platform itself. Alongside case-specific insights, the paper demonstrates the utility of the multi-level perspective as a means to analyse the enactment of digital platforms.

Juan Erasmo Gomez-Morantes, Richard Heeks, Richard Duncombe

Exploring Tensions of Global Public Good Platforms for Development: The Case of DHIS2

The purpose of this paper is to explore tensions in global public goods (GPG), based on the case of digital platforms for innovation. GPG designs promise normative ideals of non-rivalry and non-exclusivity, which in practice are challenged in reality and fraught with tensions. This paper draws on theory of contradictions to illustrate some of these tensions, which confronts simplistic and linear views that implementing GPG health management platforms will translate unproblematically to efficiency gains. The paper explores field data collected by the authors in the Health Information Systems (HISP) research programme around a digital platform (DHIS2) installed in over 80 countries globally, primarily in the health sector. Episodes are taken from action research undertaken by the authors drawn from experiences of multiple implementations in various countries. This paper furthers the theoretical understanding of contradictions arising from the espoused ideals of GPGs and the realities of their implementation and use. The implications focus on the need to move away from simple deterministic visions of GPG towards acknowledging the contested nature of their outcomes.

Brian Nicholson, Petter Nielsen, Johan Saebo, Sundeep Sahay

Software Platforms for Inclusive Innovation

Software platforms present novel opportunities for innovation across heterogeneous settings, users and areas of use. We report from the case of the Health Information System Programme (HISP) that started out in post-apartheid South Africa more than two decades ago. The programme centres on the development of an open source software – called DHIS2 – primarily for decentralized public health management. Today, DHIS2 is a software platform with a significant global footprint. We contribute to literature on innovation for development, by identifying and examining processes of inclusive innovation pertaining to the longitudinal development of DHIS2. We find that a combination of long-term capacity building and knowledge sharing, consensus-based decision-making, and a modular platform architecture facilitates inclusive innovation. However, short term and project-oriented funding limits the sharing and scale-up of local innovations while the size of the venture and the heterogeneity of actors moderates inclusion in the development of core components of the platform.

Terje Aksel Sanner, Petter Nielsen

The Role of Digital Platforms in Disrupting Agricultural Value Chains in Developing Countries

Mobile devices and the platforms they support are increasingly being mainstreamed into agricultural value chains. While the extant literature on the use of mobile devices for agriculture has focused on their use for the provision of m-services through short messaging services (SMS), unstructured supplementary service data (USSD) and voice calls, there is growing evidence of the adoption and use of a new wave of digital platforms (mobile apps, web apps and online databases) in agricultural value chains in developing regions. As debates on the disruptive potential of digital platforms in agriculture are still at a nascent stage, this scoping review investigates the current research landscape on the use of digital platforms in agricultural value chains in developing regions. An assessment of the 26 digital platforms identified through the review show their potential to cause change in a number of value chain processes. However, the review reveals certain methodological shortcomings and a dearth of empirical evidence to support claims of significant disruptive impact.

Bookie Ezeomah, Richard Duncombe

Sharing Economy Digital Platforms and Social Inclusion/Exclusion: A Research Study of Uber and Careem in Pakistan

The sharing economy business models enabled by digital platforms are shifting the landscape of economic growth and nature of employment globally. This study focuses on digital travel industry of Pakistan and aims to explore the social and economic implications of sharing economy platforms. Drawing on the concepts of social inclusion/exclusion from ICT and IS literature, we examine the potential participation of digital platforms in social inclusion/exclusion of the society. We adopted an interpretive and qualitative research design. The data was collected through informal talks, observations and semi-structured interviews. For our research study, we selected two online ride-hailing companies operational in Pakistan, Uber and Careem. The study shows social impacts of sharing economy digital-platforms to enhance culture of trust, family confidence and women empowerment. It highlights the inclusion of unemployed groups through self-entrepreneurship that improve economic activities in the society. The study also identifies few contradictions and potential challenges that support social exclusion due to technology, such as biased gendered contribution in economic activities, generation/age constraints in usability and accessibility issues based on geographic locations.

Fareesa Malik, Zujaja Wahaj

Strategies for Standardizing Health Information Analysis

Flexible Standards Revisited

Purpose: This paper analyses an initiative led by WHO within the health information domain to standardise analysis of health information through the use of analytical dashboards, using the concept of flexible standards. We focus on the implementation of these standards within existing, working information systems, analysing the implementation strategies used, and how these are enabled by the flexibility of the standards. Design/methodology/approach: The study follows an action research approach, where the authors have been involved in the development and implementation of the initiative being discussed. Findings: By analyzing the approaches taken by several countries to implement these standards we show how these different approaches are enabled by the flexibility of the standards. Practical implications: This paper demonstrates the potential importance of flexibility in standardisation initiatives around health information, with particular relevance to voluntary standardisation efforts involving independent actors, in this case Ministries of Health. Originality/value: The flexible standards concept is employed to study a multi-country initiative involving WHO and several national governments. We contribute to the literature on flexible standards by showing that beyond flexibility in the standards, flexibility in the software platform in which the standards are implemented, and the variation allowed in the standardisation process at an organisational level, are important factors that facilitate standards implementations.

Olav Poppe, Johan Ivar Sæbø, Jørn Braa

An Institutional Perspective on the Adoption of Open Dashboard for Health Information Systems in Tanzania

This article attempts to understand the adoption and institutionalisation of open dashboards in the health information system in Tanzania as part of the national initiative in strengthening the routine health information systems through data-driven approaches. Using an institutional perspective, specifically the concept of institutional work, the article analyses the efforts of a group of actors aimed at disrupting existing structures, thereby creating new ones and diffusing them within and across organisations. We argue that for the institutionalisation of open dashboards in health information systems, serendipity moments are necessary and should be coupled with actors willing to mobilising others within the network. Furthermore, we argue that the use of participatory approach has the potential to align interests from diverse stakeholders hence providing a mechanism for transforming rooted organisational routines.

Wilfred F. Senyoni, Honest C. Kimaro, Jørn Braa, Claud Kumalija

Tracing the Impact of the City of Cape Town’s Open Data Initiative on Communities and Development

This paper attempts to measure the extent of impact of the City of Cape Town’s open government data initiative, which has been operational since 2013. Given the relative scarcity of impact measurement frameworks, a framework is adapted from that of Verhulst and Young [1], as well as the Social Return on Investment (SROI) framework suggested by Stuermer and Dapp [2]. The idea is to trace the developments resultant from the use of open data from various sources, mainly the City of Cape Town’s open data portal. Several activities and developments are identified and classified under a classification scheme adapted from development pathways relevant to a developing country context. The development pathways are identified from literature. After the developments are traced, critical impact analysis is carried out using the SROI framework. The findings suggest that although there are some indications of impact, such impact is only confined to groups with specialised and specific interest in various types of open data. Additionally, awareness of the existence of open data-sets is also minimal, which significantly decreases the likelihood of use, ergo, impact. Policy suggestions to increase likelihood of use and impact are then presented.

Mbongeni Hlabano, Jean-Paul Van Belle

Exploring Hybridity in Digital Social Entrepreneurship

In this paper we introduce the concept of Digital Social Entrepreneurship (DSE), which refers to the entrepreneurial work of social ventures centred on digital technologies. DSE presents one particular form of hybridity, related to the need to blend digital and non-digital capabilities in the same organisational unit. To understand how such capabilities come together we draw on a qualitative case study of an Indian digital platform providing microloans to vulnerable borrowers. Using concepts from the literature on organisational hybridity, we identify three mechanisms – centred on activity integration, selective framing, and enactment of new operational practices – through which digital and non-digital capabilities are blended in DSE. The paper contributes to the emerging theorisation of the role of the digital in social entrepreneurship and draws implications for it to contribute to tackling global societal challenges.

Silvia Masiero, M. N. Ravishankar

What Motivates ICT4D Champions?

The paper seeks to identify the factors that motivate a person who champions ICT4D initiatives. Given the important contributions of ICT4D champions to initiative success, better understanding of their motivations holds the potential to identify, develop and deploy such individuals more effectively, harnessing their potential positive contributions to ICT4D initiative success. A multiple case study strategy is used to explore the motivational factors of three successful ICT4D champions in the South African context. The Work Preference Inventory (WPI) of personal motivations was used to design in-depth interviews with the champions and semi-structured interviews with 29 other stakeholders. It found ICT4D champions are motivated by the need for personal actualization, business success and to address social concerns – origins of these motives could be traced to various internal and environmental stimuli. Practical implications drawn from the research are that profiling of stakeholder motivations in an ICT4D initiative is feasible and that organizations can use such information to create a conducive environment for grooming and empower new and existing champions to function more effectively. This first investigation of ICT4D champion motivations shows its importance and the potential thereof towards improving initiative success and emphasizes the need for further research of this nature.

Jaco Renken

Digital Platforms in the Global South: Foundations and Research Agenda

Digital platforms have become integral to many of the everyday activities that people across the globe encounter in areas like transportation, commerce and social interactions. Research on the topic has largely concentrated on the general functioning of these platforms in terms of platform governance, business strategies and consumer behaviour. Despite their significant presence in the global South, the developmental implications of digital platforms remain largely understudied. In part, this is because digital platforms are a challenging research object due to their lack of conceptual definition, their spread across different regions and industries, and their intertwined nature with institutions, actors and digital technologies. The aim of this paper is therefore twofold: to provide a conceptual definition of digital platforms, and to identify research strands in international development contexts. To do so, we draw from digital platforms literature, differentiate between transaction and innovation platforms and expose their main characteristics. We the present four strands in the form of research questions, illustrated with concrete examples, that can assist to pursue relevant studies on digital platforms and international development in the future.

Kari Koskinen, Carla Bonina, Ben Eaton

Scaling Across Functional Domains: A Case of Implementing an Electronic HIV Patient Information System in Sierra Leone

With adherence to treatment, HIV positives can live a normal life. Accordingly, investments are made and health systems are expanded to reach those at risk in developing countries, where HIV is reported to be most endemic. At the same time, many developing countries still rely heavily on paper-based tools which are found to be inefficient when large numbers of patients are involved and of limited use to support follow ups and assure adherence to treatment. In this paper, as we move from an existing paper base and to a digital and online information management system, we focus on improving our understanding of how to use an existing system made for collecting, aggregating and presenting population based routine data to support individual follow-up of HIV positives and their adherence to treatment. We approach this through an action research project in Sierra Leone where we have piloted a HIV patient information management system. We contribute insights on health information system scaling with emphasis on building on existing systems in developing new functionalities rather than introducing entirely new systems. Within this approach we observe the need for technological flexibility and organizational collaboration in utilizing existing resources for efficiency gains.

Eric Adu-Gyamfi, Petter Nielsen, Johan Ivar Sæbø, Zeferino Saugene

Mobile Phone Use for Empowerment and Well-Being of the Physically Challenged in Nigeria

National and economic benefits of mobile phone use in developing countries has been a well-articulated research domain over an extended period. This can be attributed to the ubiquitous nature of mobile phones and their increased penetration in developing nations. However, the potential benefits of mobile phones for empowerment and well-being of people with disability (PWD) has been ignored. This paper focuses on the well-being of the physically challenged in Nigeria and how mobile phones can be employed to empower them. The link between ICT and human development has been well researched, but minimal research has attempted to link ICT, mobile phone and disability using the Capability Approach as a theoretical lens. The critical realist ethnographic study approach is employed in this study to show how mobile phones can be used to empower and impact on the well-being of the physically challenged. Data were collected from the Adamawa skill acquisition center for persons with disability, Nigeria. It is argued that mobile phones have the capabilities to empower and impact on the well-being of the physically challenged. Thus, the findings illustrate that mobile phones play significant roles in the well-being and empowerment of the physically challenged.

Abdulrashid Iliya, Chidi G. Ononiwu, Muhammadou M. O. Kah, Ago K. M. Quaye

Agile Software Development Practices in Egypt SMEs: A Grounded Theory Investigation

Agile information system development methods have been adopted by most software development organizations due to their proven benefits in terms of flexibility, reliability, and responsiveness. However, companies face significant challenges in adopting these approaches. Specifically, this research investigates challenges faced by software development companies in Egypt while transitioning to Agile. As little previous research is available targeting their concerns, we have conducted a grounded theory investigation. Key problem areas were found including lack of cadence in sprints planning, inadequate use of effort estimation and product quality issues.The developed grounded theory reflects on the key problem areas found with SMEs adopting agile practices and can be used by software development practitioners adopting agile methods in Egypt or similar developing countries as an outline for the common problem areas they are expected to find.

Amr A. Mohallel, Julian M. Bass

Experiences from a Development Project in Kenya – Baselines for Future Climate Information Systems

This paper explains our efforts in regards of hybrid climate services.As one part of our research efforts and exploration in Africa, we have worked with the Marigat District in Baringo County, Kenya, where we first intended to help the farmers to replace the invasive Prosopis juliflora deep-root species by another deep-root species easier to keep under control. Data was collected through questionnaires with open-ended and closed-ended questions to find a baseline of community challenges and technology use. The lessons learned in the project inspired us to analyze the data by using the lens of Heeks’ [3] design theories. The main outcome of this study is a hybrid evaluation and its discussion with future implications for future climate services.

Jaakko Helminen, Balozi Bekuta Kirongo, Silvia Gaiani, Ezra Misaki, Mikko Apiola, Erkki Sutinen

How South African University Information Systems Students Are Using Social Media

Social media is a term used to combine social networking, media sharing and microblogging systems. Social media assists students to improve their academic studies, allows collaboration and sharing of information with each other, and affords students to know what is happening in the world, acquire pictures and videos in support of such information. Information Systems (IS) students are the next generation of technology experts and their exposure to using social media as an alternative source of information and for collaboration might affect features included in systems.This research was conducted following a positivist approach which used a quantitative method to investigate the usage of social media in higher education. An online questionnaire was distributed to undergraduate Information Systems students via email with a link to the questions provided. Statistical inference was performed to test the usage of social media in higher education through the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT).As a result, students viewed social media as a learning tool since it allowed them to enhance their academic performance and ability to explore knowledge. Social media also allowed students to communicate, share and collaborate. Research model confirmed that there’s a positive relationship between social media and the behaviours of undergraduate students and regarded social media as a learning tool.

Yazeed Seedat, Sumarie Roodt, Samwel Dick Mwapwele

Convergence of Technical and Policy Processes: A Study of Indonesia’s Health Information Systems

This paper discusses the process of implementing a district dashboard as the means for integrating health information systems (HIS) in Indonesia. The project involved two processes: a bottom-up one with iterative design and implementation process and a top-down one involving data policies. Using moments of translation, we discuss the complex processes of aligning actors’ interests necessary for the implementation of HIS in developing countries. The paper contributes to the existing discussions of HIS integration and information sharing in developing countries by providing a better understanding of translation processes and thereby of ways to handle fragmented HISs.

Taufiq Sitompul, Wilfred Senyoni, Jørn Braa, Yudianto

IT and Government Corruption in Developing Countries: A Literature Review and Reframing

Corruption is a significant challenge confronting government administration in developing countries with adverse implications for information technologies implemented to stamp it out. ICT4D, information systems and related studies of government corruption continue to shed light on the phenomena but have an undertheorized view of corruption, its relationship with IT, as well as the role of IT in curbing corruption. Research underemphasizes the socially embedded nature of corruption by treating corruption as a problem of individuals who act corruptly out of rational self-interest or internalized social structures. Drawing on a review of relevant literature, this article suggests a reframing to better align research on IT and government corruption with a socially embedded perspective that considers the formative organizational and broader contexts of developing countries to improve explanations of the complex and seemingly intractable phenomena.

Atta Addo

The Contributions of WhatsApp to Social Inclusion: A Case of Internally Displaced Persons in Nigeria

This paper addresses the topic on how WhatsApp can improve the lives of internally displaced persons (IDPs) affected by conflict. To theorize the complex relationship between mobile technologies and social inclusion, Sen’s five distinct instrumental freedoms was drawn upon to understand the use of WhatsApp by IDPs affected by Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria and its impact on their social inclusion. Based on a one-week fieldwork of an ongoing research, the case narrative presented both the freedom outcomes afforded the IDPs by the use of WhatsApp and also the impediments that hinder the developmental impact. Finally, we conclude by providing some implications for research and practice.

Salihu Ibrahim Dasuki, Naima Hafiz Abubakar

Ride Hailing Regulations in Cali, Colombia: Towards Autonomous and Decent Work

In this article we explore the decent work standard developed by Richard Heeks for digital online labour markets and use a review of empirical research about ride-hailing to adapt this framework to the location-based service delivery market. The framework is then tested against an in-depth analysis of informality and precarity in the ride hailing sector in Cali, Colombia. Findings show that location-based platform workers in Cali lack many decent work protections. However, the case study also demonstrates that workers are evolving creative ways to grapple with specific aspects of precarity within the ride-hailing sector. Based on this analysis, we argue that policy analysis and worker innovations need to ‘meet in the middle’ rather than follow policy recommendations emanating from other jurisdictions. We suggest some specific policy reforms that will be appropriate to the Colombian and Latin American context.

Katherine M. A. Reilly, Luis H. Lozano-Paredes

Ex-Ante Analysis of Adoption of Introduced Chicken Strains Among Smallholder Farmers in Selected Areas of Tanzania

Keeping local chickens is an integral part of Tanzania’s rural economy although it suffers low genetic potential. To address the problem, the Africa Chicken Genetic Gains (ACGG) project introduced and tested improved strains of chicken viz. Sasso and Kuroiler in Tanzania, The paper aimed to predict the rate of adoption of Sasso and Kuroiler chicken strains by using the Adoption and Diffusion Outcome Prediction Tool (ADOPT). Developmental research design involving provision of 25 six weeks old chicks to farmers was adopted. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey and Focus Group Discussion in three regions of Tanzania. The results indicate that the peak for adoption is likely to be 34, 29 and 38% after 8, 7 and 9 years in Bahi, Ifakara and Wanging’ombe sites respectively. The sensitivity report indicates that the adoption rate may increase to reach 59, 49 and 57% and may decline to about 17, 16 and 21% in Bahi, Ifakara and Wanging’ombe respectively. Extension efforts to facilitate availability of the strains, feeds, treatment and reducing upfront and operating costs are main factors affecting change in the adoption rate to optimize the inherent genetic potential. It is recommended to facilitate extension efforts for adoption rate improvement by upgrading local chicken value chain to enable farmers to access the strains, feeds, medication and market.

Rogers Andrew, Jeremia Makindara, Said H. Mbaga, Roselyne Alphonce

Assessing User-Designed Dashboards: A Case for Developing Data Visualization Competency

Health information dashboards, which are collections of relevant indicator visualizations for management, have become a common feature and strategy for improved information use in the health sector. They should provide any manager with quality information in a format that points out the performance of health service provision, and thus necessitate good knowledge of visualization techniques to both develop and interpret. Since health management is a dispersed and decentralized activity, dashboards need to be relevant to varied users, and various administrative levels of the health services. This can be achieved by enabling all users to make their own dashboards, based on the indicators they need, and presented in a suitable manner to track the local priority activities.In this study we examine user-defined dashboards in Indonesia, which has implemented a flexible and open source platform for health management (DHIS2). While the technical flexibility of the platform has been taken advantage of by providing platform customization training, the study finds that the quality of the dashboards created face numerous challenges. These challenges point to poor visualization competence. We conclude by calling for such competence to be addressed by the training curricula, as well as by utilizing existing “best practice” dashboards from WHO now available for the same platform.

Aprisa Chrysantina, Johan Ivar Sæbø

Is Inclusive Digital Innovation Inclusive? An Investigation of M-Shwari in Kenya

Inclusive digital innovations are IT-enabled innovations with the potential to promote inclusive socioeconomic development for the poor and underserved inhabitants of developing countries. This paper inquires about the extent to which this worthy objective has actually been achieved. Specifically, the paper focuses on M-Shwari, the Kenyan mobile savings and credit service. Although members of the development community and other stakeholders might hope M-Shwari to serve poor, rural, and financially underserved Kenyans, the research findings show that M-Shwari primarily reaches wealthier urban inhabitants who are already financially served. These results call for greater scholarly attention to excluded groups when evaluating the impacts of digital innovations in developing countries.

Wenxiu (Vince) Nan, M. Lynne Markus

Sinking Under Its Own Weight: Case of Aadhaar Mediated Entitlements in India

In this paper, we analyse through a largely conceptual analysis the application of the Aadhaar biometrics identification system in India, now assuming complex proportions, and how that facilitates or not citizen’s entitlement of welfare benefits. The conceptual analysis is informed by the works of James Scott’s Seeing like a State which cautions against such large scale state sponsored schemes ending up as disasters. Amartya Sen’s analysis of famines informs how it is important to focus on the access to the entitlement rather than the entitlement itself, which, potentially can lead to entitlement failures. The conceptual analysis developed helps to critically analyse two case vignettes related to two welfare programmes of the midday meals and the public distribution system. The paper concludes by arguing for the need to critically discussing how Aadhaar can be made to work in practice while supporting broader development objectives, rather than arguing whether Aadhaar is inherently good or bad.

Arunima Mukherjee, Sundeep Sahay

Design Science Research Strengthened: Integrating Co-creation and Co-design

Design science research (DSR) is a well-known methodology that uses design as a tool for the development of both practical research resulting in an artefact solution, and theoretical scientific knowledge resulting in improved design processes. In this paper, we advocate strengthening the DSR methodology by including elements of co-creation and co-design in order to produce meaningfully contextualised solutions and to foster a stronger sense of ownership and social acceptance of a developed technological artefact solution within ICT4D. In our work, the inclusion of co-creation and co-design within DSR takes place in all of the stages of the design cycle, influencing also the relevance and rigour cycles as well as the impact of the artefact in the broader socio-technical context. Here we illustrate the practical implementation of these ideas through the involvement of women entrepreneurs from rural Tanzania in the development of a mobile application. This paper contributes to the body of research on the meaningful application of DSR processes to ICT4D.

Calkin Suero Montero, Alsen Florian Kapinga

Institutional Shaping of Affordances: Implications on Information Use in Global Humanitarian Organizations

To support global humanitarian organizations in carrying out interventions in project sites, information is needed that is situationally relevant and timely, while also being relevant to the HQs. The macro-level formal institutional conditions of the HQ and informal constraints at the project sites shape the design and content of Humanitarian Health Management Information Systems (HHMIS), and we focus in the paper on the aspect of information use. We use an ensemble view of the HHMIS, comprising of paper, the computerized system based on DHIS2, and other tools like Excel, to understand how these different components have varying affordances and are influenced differently by the formal and informal institutional conditions. Our theoretical perspective is thus shaped by the notion of “institutional affordances” which we draw upon to understand the affordance actualization of the HHMIS. We identify through our empirical analysis based on a project site in South Sudan, three key affordances relevant to the use of data – operationability, accountability and contextuability. Our analysis makes two key contributions: One, the different affordances of the components in the ensemble have interaction effects, sometimes positively influencing actualization and at other times is limiting. Two, we identify 4 sets of institutional (both formal and informal) influences on actualization coming from availability of information, existing maturity in the use of information, unique features of the humanitarian setting and technical features. We believe this paper makes an overall contribution in helping to situate the informational challenges faced by humanitarian organizations more firmly in the ICT4D agenda.

Marta Maria Vila-Pozo, Sundeep Sahay

Towards Holistic Mobile Climate Services for Farmers in Tambuu, Tanzania

Climate change and changing climate variability are pressing problems that need urgent solutions, now! Climate change has global consequences, and is already being experienced, mainly by the most vulnerable groups of people in the global south. Research shows that farming activities in the global south are being complicated by added uncertainties in weather. To mitigate the effect of weather uncertainties, there is a need for holistic mobile climate services. We have taken the first step towards the service by finding out the local information needs and current mobile usage patterns in Tambuu village, Tanzania. The results show that climate change is already complicating farmers’ lives and therefore they have urgent need for information on how to prepare and adapt to changing conditions. From the technology perspective, the domination of voice calls and short messages in the current mobile usage limits the adoption of new services. However, modern uses of smart devices for farming activities were also found. Building on this ground, we propose designing climate service prototypes together with local farmers and other relevant stakeholders.

Ville Myllynpää, Ezra Misaki, Mikko Apiola, Jaakko Helminen, Moammar Dayoub, Tomi Westerlund, Erkki Sutinen

Anti-corruption Efforts in National ICT Policies

A Study of Policy Environments in Sub-Saharan Africa

Many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa suffer from endemic corruption, which disrupts development efforts. Although ICTs is no magic wand, several studies indicate that ICT can serve as an important tool for combatting corruption by increasing transparency, and enable citizens to hold public officials accountable. Anti-corruption efforts are however dependent on strong political will and rule of law to be successful. A policy typically contains description of government intentions formulated into concrete objectives, as well as the rationale behind government targets. Furthermore, policies guide programmatic responses. The aim of this study is to explore how ICTs’ anti-corruption potential have been understood at the policy level over time in ICT policies from nine Sub-Saharan African countries between 2000 and 2018. The study concludes that although there are signs of a growing understanding of ICTs as a multi-purpose tool for anti-corruption towards the end of the period, most policies fail to produce a comprehensive and explicit narratives as well as statements affirming political will. The policy environment’s development trajectory, albeit positive, thus leaves room for improvement in terms highlighting ICTs potential contributions.

Cecilia Strand, Mathias Hatakka

Integrating Electronic Medical Records Data into National Health Reporting System to Enhance Health Data Reporting and Use at the Facility Level

A well organized and coordinated health reporting system is critical for improved health system and health care services delivery. For a long time, the Tanzanian Government has been committed to support global efforts to improve the quality of health data for increased accountability and evidence-based decision-making by introducing electronic medical records (EMR) systems at facility level and computerize a national reporting system (district health information system (DHIS2)). It is also committed to ensure decision makers have access to high quality routine data from providers of services at health facilities to those responsible for running health programmes at the health ministry (MOHCDGEC, 2017). However, data collection and reporting at facility level is error prone and task demanding due to the manual processes of collecting, aggregating, and sharing data, as a result rarely data are used to monitor programmes and make decisions beyond individual patient care. With the introduction of electronic medical records system, the goal of the paper is to ensure decision-makers have access to high-quality health data that are generated at the facilities, and they value and routinely use the data for decision-making. In doing so, the paper envisages improved practices around data collection, reporting and use and institutionalization of data through integrations of EMR and DHIS2.

Bigten R. Kikoba, Ellen Kalinga, Juma Lungo

Recommendations for M-Government Implementation in Developing Countries: Lessons Learned from the Practitioners

Researchers argue the potential of mobile technologies to bridge challenges of e-government in developing countries. Despite the demand, research on the design and implementation of m-government is still scarce. The current literature hardly provides comprehensive recommendations for implementing such services in developing countries. This paper aims to bridge the gap by examining the challenges of m-government services from the m-government practitioners of developing countries. Also, it explores the solutions applied by the practitioners to address the challenges. To achieve these goals, online questionnaire and interviews techniques were used to collect data. MAXQDA tool was used to analyze raw data, and we applied the PESTELMO method to categorize the challenges. Results show that designers are facing problems related to requirement engineering, stakeholder management, budget allocation and technology standards. We provide recommendations to improve m-government designs in the future to ensure accessibility and sustainability of services. The recommendations are applicable to government organizations and practitioners of mobile public services.

Tupokigwe Isagah, Maria A. Wimmer

Co-creating an ICT Artefact with Elderly Rural Women in Mafarafara: A Social Structuration Account

In South Africa, elderly rural women is the most socio-economically disadvantaged population group: their age, gender and rural location all contribute to their disempowerment. For this reason, an ICT4D project was undertaken by the CSIR with the aim of supporting elderly rural women in their livelihood activities. An ICT artefact was established and implemented in a women’s Community Centre in Mafarafara, a remote rural village in the Limpopo province of South Africa. The ICT artefact was a rugged information kiosk based on Digital Doorway technology, and was populated with information to assist the women in their farming activities. As part of the women’s empowerment, they were involved as co-creators of the ICT artefact and its contents. The study employed a Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM). During the project the strong influence of the local social dynamics on the design of the artefact became apparent. To this end, Giddens’ structuration theory was incorporated in the study, to make visible the social dynamics that influenced and in turn were influenced by the design process. In this paper, concepts from structuration theory are applied to qualitative data from the Mafarafara interviews and site visit reports. The value of using structuration theory alongside DSRM to acknowledge the social nature of design is demonstrated. Structuration theory also provides a means to show how the participating women were empowered.

Ronel Smith, Marita Turpin, Marlien Herselman

A Critical Analysis of the Implementation of Health Information Systems for Public Healthcare Service Delivery in Resource-Constrained Environments: A South African Study

The use of technological solutions is argued to offer quality enhancing efficiencies in the delivery process of healthcare services. For this to be realized certain objectives of these technological solutions have to be achieved. The public health system in South Africa faces various challenges such as poor coordination of most technological solutions therefore fragmented; a lack of interoperability between different systems, haphazard procurement processes and poor information management capabilities. The argument in this study establishes that the causes are not purely logistical but also linked to gaps in the adequacy of the health information systems (HISs) and the implementation process of these technological solutions. A case study strategy, whose empirical home is rural South Africa, was employed using qualitative methodology. Activity Analysis and Development (ActAD) framework was used as a theoretical lens within critical realist paradigm. The study was conducted in a public healthcare facility within a resource constrained environment. Semi-structured interviews was used as data collection method and analysis of data was through narrative and explanatory analyses, employing thematic analysis tool. The paper intends to come up with a framework that can be used to inform the implementation process of HIS(s) across board. With a focus on the context of a divergent national service delivery reality that impacts the right to healthcare service in under-served communities.

Mourine Achieng, Ephias Ruhode

Acceptability and Use of Mobile Health Applications in Health Information Systems: A Case of eIDSR and DHIS2 Touch Mobile Applications in Tanzania

The use of modern information and communication technology plays a significant role in healthcare services improvement. In the recent years, various mobile application systems have been deployed in the health sectors of different developing countries to facilitate remote data collection and transmission so as to improve its quality and availability. Consequently, understanding the factors contributing to mobile technology acceptance is imperative. The purpose of this study was to adopt a modified UTAUT theoretical model to understand the factors influence acceptance and use of mobile health applications by health workers at health facilities in Tanzania. Questionnaires were used to collect data from health facilities workers. Out of 150 health facilities workers, only 108 return, a 72% return rate whose data was statistically analyzed using SPSS tool. The findings show that effort expectancy and facilitating conditions significantly influence the users located in the urban area on behavioral intention to use mobile health applications. Furthermore, the study shows that the constructs such as social influence, training adequacy, and voluntariness of use do not have a significant influence on the use of mobile health applications.

Jimmy T. Mbelwa, Honest C. Kimaro, Bernard Mussa

The Experience of Chamwino Small-Scale Farmers on the Use of Smartphone in Farming Business, Tanzania

The pervasive use of smartphones to acquire diverse information among small-scale farmers has received little attention in studies. This study, therefore, explored the experience of Chamwino’s small-scale farmers of the usage of smartphone to address ownership pattern, farming practices, information needs, encountered challenges and training needs for future technological alterations. The study employed qualitative design for data collection and thematic analysis was used. The findings revealed that the longer the distance from Dodoma city centre, the fewer the number of smartphones owners. That, less than half of farmers in Mvumi and Makangwa owned smartphones while, less than a quarter in Itiso, Mpwayungu, and Chilonwa Divisions. That youths owned more smartphones than elders, and mostly second-hand that were inadequately used for farming business. This was because, there was no special farming enabled information system to disseminate agricultural information. Accordingly, the frequently used features were SMS and voice calls. Consequently, farmers need information on inputs, weather, market and finance among others. Alternatively, there was no official training on the use of the device thus the new technology was therefore underutilized. Furthermore, challenges identified were farmers’ lack of expertise of utilizing the device, uncomfortable large size and the interface of smartphones. Accordingly, farmers were interested in capacity building as many features were not used adequately. Consequently, the study provides deep understanding of farmers’ experience and recommends for technological alteration to increase usability of the device.

Ezra Misaki

Exploring the Effect of Mobile Apps on SMEs in Nigeria: A Critical Realist Study

An organisation’s dynamic capabilities illustrate how the organisation renews its competencies in response to the evolving environment. This study explored the effect of mobile app usage on the dynamic capabilities (DCs) of SMEs in Nigeria from a critical realist viewpoint. Although literature suggests that mobile apps are used by SMEs, the elusiveness of mobile app usage in developing country contexts requires the investigation of the underlying mechanisms that explain how mobile apps enhance the DCs of SMEs. Using content analysis and retroduction, the study evaluated interview responses from 16 SMEs covering 5 states in Nigeria. The study revealed that mobile apps are used in SMEs in Nigeria (in the real domain) to carry out business processes (in the actual domain) using their DCs (in the empirical domain) for sensing business opportunities. The study suggests that despite the existence of government support for SMEs across Nigeria, these programmes are generally inaccessible and do not include the important ICT or mobile app elements. The study recommends the need for a contextual mobile app suited for SMEs in developing country contexts such as Nigeria.

Adedamola Tolani, Adebowale Owoseni, Hossana Twinomurinzi

Evaluating mHealth Apps Using Affordances: Case of CommCare Versus DHIS2 Tracker

CommCare and DHIS2 Tracker are two software packages which were configured for community health workers (CHW) in Malawi and evaluated and compared. To capture a wide scope of aspects including possible developmental ones, the Affordance concept was applied as an analytic frame. Being configurable software packages, concept of Platform Affordance was considered but abandoned, since its domain could be covered by the configurer’s affordance. To operationalize the concept, usability concepts from HCI were applied for the evaluation and comparison of end-user and configure affordances. Organisational Affordance, based on structuration theory modalities, was used to characterize affordances not attributed to specific people.The study revealed that much as CommCare is more specific to CHWs, hence having more weight on the configuration (where configuration was quicker) and end-user affordances (with an ability to display images which could be used for health promotion) compared to DHIS2, it had weak organisational affordance mostly due to license fees. Further, DHIS2 had the ability to produce reports summarizing health indicators and comparing the data generated with data collected outside the DHIS2 App.In addition to usability issues, the CHWs perceived that any of the systems would relieve them from bulky registers to carry and time-consuming reporting, hence affording more time for other tasks. Observations of their slow typing speed point in the opposite direction. While the Affordance concept emphasizes the relationship between users and technology, the case points to the need for not making users’ first impression the only basis for judging affordances.

Amrit Chhetri, Mari Iversen, Jens Kaasbøll, Chipo Kanjo

Investigating the Efficiency of ICT Infrastructure Utilization: A Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

A lot of research has been done in the field of Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) investigating and measuring the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) investments on Human Development. Education is a major component of the Human Development Index (HDI) which affects the core of Human Development. This research investigates the relative efficiency of ICT infrastructure utilization with respect to the educational component of the Human Development Index (HDI). A Novel conceptual model is proposed, and the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology used to measure the relative efficiency of the components of ICT infrastructure (Inputs) and the components of education (Outputs). Results show a strong impact of ICT infrastructure on educational attainment and adult literacy rates, a strong correlation between this infrastructure and literacy rates as well as provide a theoretical support for the argument of increasing ICT infrastructure to provide an increase in human development especially within the educational context.

‘Yinka Oyerinde, Felix Bankole

ICT for Displaced Population and Refugees: How It Helps, How It Hurts

Frontmatter

Mobile Technology for Record Keeping by Women Entrepreneurs in Tanzania: User Requirement Assessment

Mobile phone technology is increasingly being used as a tool for communication among women entrepreneurs in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, little has been done in identifying user requirements for record keeping by the mobile applications among women business in Tanzania. The present study applied the design thinking approach in explored women entrepreneurs’ user requirements for a mobile application for keeping record. Data were collected through focus group discussion and interview. The data were qualitatively coded into themes and were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The study established that women entrepreneurs need to keep records for purchases, sales, loan balance, amount due for payment, cost of goods sold, goods purchased, purchase cost, available stock, selling price, day sells information, customers, records, and market network. Similarly, they wanted an application that is easy to operate, using Swahili, a familiar language, outputting symbols and figures and producing specific records and reports. The findings underscore that design thinking can reliably be applied in user requirement definition stage of design science research to anticipate qualities for record-keeping using the mobile technology.

William Clifford Gomera, Jarkko Suhonen, Solomon Sunday Oyelere, Alsen Florian Kapinga

Reimagining Refugee Identity Systems: A Sociological Approach

This paper explores how the social identity of refugees shapes and is shaped through the process of registering with humanitarian organisations. Building on the recent advance of critical studies on digital identity systems for refugee management, we show how the lens of social identity is helpful in understanding the relationship between refugee information systems and refugee experiences of registration and accessing services. Identity is a key issue related to contemporary information systems yet remains an under-theorised area of investigation from a sociological perspective in the field of information systems, international development and refugee studies. Using qualitative data from refugees in Bidi Bidi refugee camp in Northern Uganda, this paper showcases the centrality of refugees’ social identity in determining the journey of vulnerable individuals focusing on three key dimensions. First, how the identities of refugees based on home and family in South Sudan were carried over to refugees’ new location in Uganda and were later transformed through the process of registration. Second, how work and career profile of their lives in South Sudan shaped the identity of refugees, and how the absence of education credentials limited the realisation of personal aspirations. Third, how interactions between institutions and refugees are both shaped by and shape refugee identity. Our findings point to important policy implications for designing and implementing refugee identity systems.

Shirin Madon, Emrys Schoemaker

‘When Will You Start Teaching the REAL Curriculum?’

Challenges and Innovations in Education for Rohingya Refugees

This paper explores key problems faced by different humanitarian agencies in educating Rohingya refugees from Myanmar seeking asylum in Bangladesh. The first half this research provides an overview of the challenges faced by different refugee communities globally in the Education sector, followed by the relevant ICT interventions. Then, based on our interviews and focus group discussions with Rohingya refugees, we highlight the roadblocks faced by them while accessing education services in their camps. Absence of coherent curriculum, challenges with language, lack of qualified teachers, and non-acceptance of ICTs as primary education tools for children are identified as some of the key challenges faced by Rohingyas. Based on our research, we recommend that enabling policies and an inclusive hybrid knowledge network, emboldened by pre and in-service teacher training, inclusive religious education, standardized curriculum, and tangible employment opportunities can pave the path for a better and an educated future for the persecuted Rohingyas.

Azmina Karim, Faheem Hussain

Refugees and ICTs: Identifying the Key Trends and Gaps in Peer-Reviewed Scholarship

The goal of this paper is to identify existing literature in the field that encompasses one contemporary crisis and one prevailing developmental implement: refugees, and the use of ICT in the development arena. A total of 35 research studies were identified that address these two topics. In the process, several main themes that dominate the field are identified. These themes are the assessment of refugee status and position, education, empowerment and identity, health, and risk of ICT for refugees. Subsequently, a discussion of the missing areas in this research domain is presented. In the authors’ opinion, the missing themes that are urgently needed are ethics of ICT for refugees, longitudinal studies, gendering of ICT, comparative research, and entrepreneurial aspect of refugees. This missing research would help humanity to get a better understanding of this immense challenge and to design appropriate solutions that leverage ICT to alleviate the current refugee crisis.

Suzana Brown, Faheem Hussain, Ali M. Masoumifar

Local Technical Papers

Frontmatter

Rate Adaptive Congestion Control Using Lookup Table Scheme to Enhance Quality of Experience

In recent years video communication has occupied a large percentage of Internet traffic and the trend is expected to increase. Many services are offered via the Internet use video content to reach millions of users. Real time video services in the Internet are mostly done by using User Datagram Protocol (UDP). UDP is preferable because it is fast, but has a weakness of not supporting congestion control mechanisms; hence it usually floods the channel it is using causing congestion which then leads to packet loss, excessive delay and jitter. To support good quality of experience (QoE), packet loss, delay and jitter must be kept at accepted values.This paper presents part of an ongoing MSc. research work whose aim is to develop a rate adaptive congestion control scheme using a lookup table. The scheme use Real Time Transport Protocol (RTP) and RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) to provide end to end network transport service which is not provided by UDP and control service. The proposed congestion control scheme comprises of two components:- a lookup table and congestion control equation. The lookup table is created at the beginning of sender’s application and keeps a record of fraction loss and Inter Packet Gap (IPG), which is the interval in time between sending packets. Upon receiving a report the lookup table is searched to see if there is a match for the report’s fraction loss value and returns, the appropriate IPG value. If there is no match a congestion control equation is used to compute a new IPG value, which is then added to the lookup table and used for rate adjustment.Simulation of the proposed work was done using NS3, where by the Quality of Service (Qos) parameter which affect the Quality of Experience (QoE) such as delay and jitter were observed. Elvavid, a video quality evaluation tool is used to measure the quality of video by using Peak Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Mean Opinion Score (MOS) measurements.

Jane Lissah, Mercy Mbise

Enhancing Faults Monitoring in Secondary Electrical Distribution Network

Inefficient fault management in electrical Secondary Distribution Network (SDN) is one of the major challenges facing most power utility companies around the world including Tanzania. Currently, faults management processes from detection to clearance are done manually due to the lack of visibility in SDN resulting to long Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) and high operational costs. Advancements in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and sensing technologies have made it possible to have cost effective electrical power network visibility solutions. This study proposes algorithms that enhance fault detection and monitoring in the Tanzania SDN based on distributed processing architecture. The proposed algorithms include sensing and data acquisition, fault detection, localization and visualization. The algorithms were deployed and tested on live network at University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM), Kijitonyama Campus.

Yona Andegelile, Godfrey Chugulu, Ally Bitebo, Hadija Mbembati, Herald Kundaeli

Handover Management in Femtocell LTE Networks Under Fast Varying Channels

To increase network capacity of a mobile communication system, three main ways can be derived from Claude Shannon equation. These are the use of smaller cells, increase of bandwidth and improvement of communication technology. Since there is only a finite amount of radio spectrum available and it is also required by other applications, there are limits to bandwidth increment. Combining the later and former, LTE small cells method is best practical way to increase system capacity of mobile communication system. However, deployment of femtocells with small coverage range leads to frequent handover initiation. The problem escalates when femtocells operate in open access mode while accommodating highly mobile users who initiate unnecessary handovers as they stay in a femtocell for short time. To tackle these challenges, a hybrid handover decision algorithm is presented. The proposed algorithm selects the most appropriate target femtocell for handover using velocity of the user, throughput gain and adaptation of signal averaging and hysteresis margin methods. Simulation results show 1.7 times reduction in the amount of handovers in comparison with the traditional handover schemes.

Catherine Protas, Kwame Ibwe

Trends and Opportunities for Traffic Engineering Paradigms Across Mobile Cellular Network Generations

Traffic engineering is at the heart of telecommunications engineering. In telecommunication engineering, we have recently experienced a revolution in the form of mobile cellular network generations. History shows a close relationship between the advancements in both telecommunications networks and their corresponding engineering methods. This survey employed qualitative document analysis to chronologically explore the evolution of, and interrelationships between traffic engineering and the mobile cellular networks from 1990s todate. It is evidently a case of the causality dilemma on which of the two influences the other. Nevertheless, we are currently at the right point in time to make giant leaps in both traffic engineering methods and network technology revolution. This study points out the opportunities that the current state of affairs avails to research in these fields.

Khadija Mkocha, Mussa M. Kissaka, Omar F. Hamad

Exploring the Impacts of Intrinsic Variables on Security Compliance Efficiency Using DEA and MARS

Given that appropriate human behavior is required to minimize the occurrence of cybersecurity breaches, the issue of security compliance is critical. Within this context organizations would be interested in the efficient achievement of security compliance. In this paper we explore the concept of Security Compliance Efficiency, and present a hybrid DEA+MARS methodology for identifying its antecedents. We also present resulting examples of relationships that describe the impacts of intrinsic variables on Security Compliance Efficiency.

Charlette Donalds, Kweku-Muata Osei-Bryson, Sergey Samoilenko

A Critical Review of Edge and Fog Computing for Smart Grid Applications

Smart grid and cloud computing architectures have been perfectly suiting each other naturally. As a result, over the years cloud computing architectures have dominated the implementations of smart grid applications to address computing needs. However, due to continuing additions of heterogeneous (sensing and actuating) devices, emergence of Internet of Things (IoT), and massive amount of data collected across the grids for analytics, have contributed to the complexity of smart grids, making cloud computing architectures no longer suitable to provide smart grid services effectively. Edge and Fog computing approaches have relieved the cloud computing architectures of problems related to network congestion, latency and locality by shift of control, intelligence and trust to the edge of the network. In this paper, a systematic literature review is used to explore the research trend of the actual implementations of edge and fog computing for smart grid applications. A total of 70 papers were reviewed from the popular digital repositories. The study has revealed that, there is significant increase in the number of smart grid applications that have exploited the use edge and fog computing approaches. The study also shows that, considerable number of the smart grid applications are related to energy optimizations and intelligent coordination of smart grid resources. There are also challenges and issues that hinder smooth adoption of edge and fog computing for smart grid applications, which include security, interoperability and programming models.

Gilbert M. Gilbert, Shililiandumi Naiman, Honest Kimaro, Burchard Bagile

Information Security Culture Assessment of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Tanzania

This study explores the status of information security culture (ISC) of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using Tanzania as a case. To assess the ISC of SMEs, measurement criteria from organizational and environmental dimensions were compiled from the literature. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was employed to collect data. The ISC dimensions were assessed using surveys collected using both paper and online sources, from 39 SMEs in the roundtable and five focus group discussions. The findings indicated lack of information security policy, absence of security education, training and awareness (SETA) programs, lack of human resource, poor risk assessment, and management and lack of national information security culture initiatives. These findings show the immaturity of ISC in SMEs in Tanzania. The results and implications of these findings suggest further research and intervention is necessary to institutionalize ISC in the SME environment.

Zainab Ruhwanya, Jacques Ophoff

Backmatter

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