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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes revised selected papers from the 4th European Conference on Information Literacy, ECIL 2016, held in Prague, Czech Republic, in October 2016.
The 52 full and 19 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 259 submissions.
They were organized in topical sections named: inclusive society and democracy; employability and workplace; various literacies; reading preference: print vs electronic; theoretical aspects; higher education; discipline based studies; research methods; children and youth; country based studies; academic libraries; librarians; and teaching methods and instruction.



Erratum to: The Academic Reading Format International Study (ARFIS): Investigating Students Around the World

Diane Mizrachi, Joumana Boustany, Serap Kurbanoğlu, Güleda Doğan, Tania Todorova, Polona Vilar

Inclusive Society and Democracy


Student Teachers’ Perceptions of an Inclusive Future

The relationship of student teachers’ attitudes towards disability, social inclusion and technology’s role in that process was investigated in this study. Results are situated in the context of current literature on social inclusion in the modern technological society, emphasizing people’s ability to use technology in order to engage in meaningful social practices. The student teachers’ attitudes towards social inclusion, perceived information literacy, self-efficacy, and perceived attributes of information and communication technologies (ICT) usage were the focus of this survey study. The questionnaire was administered to 300 future teachers studying at the graduate level in Croatia’s university system (University of Zagreb and University of Split). The data collected from the representative sample indicated a high correlation between student teachers’ attitudes towards disability and social inclusion, the self-assessment of information literacy and perceived attributes of ICT access and usage.

Ivana Batarelo Kokić, Terri L. Kurz, Višnja Novosel

Gender Differences in ICT Use and Information Literacy in Public Libraries: A Study in a Rio de Janeiro Public Library

We approached gender differences in information and communication technology (ICT) use and appropriation and other aspects of information literacy in this study that focused on users of a large and modern public library located in a poor neighborhood in Rio de Janeiro. We took into account the literature and research evidence that considered the importance of the public library as a place for ICT and information literacy development. We also took into account the literature and evidence on gender differences in ICT use that tend to emphasize that women show lower interest in ICT and lower levels of ICT literacy. We obtained the empirical data through a study carried out in a new experience called “park library”. As a whole, the data suggested that these public library experiences do not seem to represent a major contribution to the development of information literacy of this user group.

Aline Gonçalves da Silva, Gilda Olinto

The Searching Circle: Library Instruction for Tribal College Students

In spring 2016, students enrolled in a face-to-face graduate “Library Instruction and Information Literacy” (LIIL) class in the School of Information (iSchool) at the University of Texas at Austin created a suite of instructional videos for librarians at TCUs to use with their students. Over the past twenty years, librarians at the TCUs have attended a five-day Tribal College Librarians Professional Development Institute (TCLPDI), usually held on the campus of Montana State University in Bozeman, Montana. The iSchool students presented their work at the TCLPDI in June 2016, inviting feedback from patrons including projections on how the videos might be used at TCUs.

Loriene Roy, Jain Orr, Laura Gienger

Information Literacy, Participatory Projects and the Development of Political Roles for Librarians

This paper reports on information retrieved by a team of librarians of the public library of Lyon as part of their preparation for their involvement in a participatory project. I based the quantitative and qualitative analyses on a theoretical framework built on philosophy and information science concepts. My results shows that taking part in political action seems to be in conflict with some traditional values of libraries like neutrality, democratization, and emancipation through culture rather than through action. Finally my study lets us drawn the portrait of a new generation of librarians who accept their political role.

Raphaëlle Bats

Enhancing Financial Information Literacy in Italian Public Libraries: A Preliminary Study

High rates of financial illiteracy among households represent a serious problem not only for the individuals but for the entire community. Public libraries could be proactive in community financial education and financial information education. For the first time, Italian public librarians were surveyed on whether their libraries were involved in offering financial literacy education programmes or financial information services. We also investigated the self-confidence and real competence of public librarians in basic finance and financial information. Respondents represented was 1.5% of Italian public librarians. Findings suggest that Italian public libraries are not perceived by patrons as suppliers of financial information and that only few courses have been offered to patrons about basic finance and financial information in Italian public libraries. Librarians are not confident about their competence in finance and financial information. Moreover, confidence in these fields is higher among male librarians that in female librarians. Study levels and formal economic studies have no influence on levels of confidence and proactivity. The only factor that appears to influence libraries’ activities is the participation of librarians to specialized vocational courses. We recommend that Italian public libraries, professional associations and other national organizations organize courses of financial information and basic finance for Italian public librarians.

Laura Ballestra, Piero Cavaleri

Re-Framing Information Literacy for Social Justice

Currently in the United States, debate ranges over the purpose of higher education, and whether colleges should focus on job skills and preparing a workforce, or the extent to which they are responsible for developing citizens prepared to fully participate in a democratic society. The New ACRL Information Literacy Framework provides a conceptual approach to teaching and learning information literacy in higher education. The frames outline broad ideas and knowledge areas, many of which lend themselves to social justice interpretations, which could align with a socially responsible curriculum. This paper examines the development of the Framework and analyzes each frame from a social justice perspective, ending with a proposal for a new frame on information social justice.

Laura Saunders

Ideological Views, Social Media Habits, and Information Literacy

According to liberal political theory, democracy can flourish only to the extent to which its citizenry have free access to information, are able to reason well, and, consequently, are able to make reasonable choices. The advent of Web 2.0 had opened up new ways to access, share and publish information about politics. Hence, many have argued how Web 2.0 represents the ultimate realization of participatory democracy. On the other hand, new information technologies have enabled consumers to filter and select content they want to be exposed to, thus making it possible for people to deprive themselves of “cross cutting” content. This could lead to group fragmentation and political polarization which is in contradiction with the republican ideal of deliberative democracy. By conducting a survey on social media habits on Facebook, the author tested this thesis about polarization in the case of Croatian students.

Stjepan Lacković

Employability and Workplace


How Is Information Literacy Related to Social Competences in the Workplace?

This article reports on a work-in-progress research on media and information literacy in teamwork and distance work environments. We introduce a theoretical framework that articulates the social and informational dimensions of media and information literacy in the workplace. Based on this framework, we propose a method for investigating the relationship between information literacy and work organization in distant teamwork. This method is illustrated by preliminary data from our ongoing research project. We conclude with a necessary redefinition of the concept of information.

Anne-Sophie Collard, Thierry De Smedt, Pierre Fastrez, Valèria Ligurgo, Thibault Philippette

Information Literacy and Graduate Employability

Employability is an increasingly important issue in higher education settings, and there is a strong case for a mapping of information skills and competencies against the expectations of employers. This paper addresses this need and provides an indication of how such information know-how, or information literacy, can make a valuable contribution to the employability and future careers of students as they move from higher education to employment.

Stéphane Goldstein

Are We Speaking the Same Language? Croatian Employers’ IL Competency Requirements for Prospective Employees

Employability is one of the main concerns of the European Union and the transition of graduates from higher education to the workplace is pushing agendas in front of higher education institutions. Research has shown that the educational sector and the employment sector usually lack common ground in understanding what other side can offer or expects. On the other hand, both sides often neglect the fact that the concept of information literacy competence is a fundamental generic competence which can fulfill the full potential of employability. Only after defining generic competences from the employers’ viewpoint can we start defining the impact of information literacy on the development of these competences. The results of the study on Croatian employers defining five core generic competences have proved our initial concerns that both educators and employers are identifying the same type of competences but use different terminology. What is specifically missing is an understanding of the concept of information literacy and its influence on employability, and therefore, building national information literacy employability models is of great importance.

Mihaela Banek Zorica, Sonja Špiranec, Vjeran Bušelić

How Groups Talk Information Literacy into Being

A research project considered how groups make collective judgments about information in workplaces, employing a mapping methodology that raised judgments into collective awareness and ‘talked them into being’ as representations on a map. Recordings of conversations held during mapping sessions reveal the role of facilitation, and how facilitators and participants learned to use mapping to help make judgments about information and practices. Group judgments about relevance can be captured in ways that may remain hard to embed in information systems viewed only as technology, but nevertheless help embed these judgments in sociotechnical systems.

Andrew Whitworth, Maria Carme Torras i Calvo, Bodil Moss, Nazareth Amlesom Kifle

Knowledge Management and Information Literacy: An Exploratory Analysis

Since the mid-1990 s knowledge management (KM) has emerged as a rapidly growing field that covers diverse areas and disciplines. However, research on the relationship between information literacy (IL) and KM is still quite rare. This article explores the question to what extent IL and KM are addressed in the research literature. An analysis of research publications was based on searches in the Web of Science database. A statistical descriptive analysis of document type, authors, source titles, publication years, languages, countries and subject areas of publications as well as a thorough content analysis of these publications was made. The author presents an overview of how IL and KM are discussed in the research literature and identifies research gaps in this field. The added value is that this analysis for identifying research gaps from systematic review can direct research agendas to influence future research.

Sirje Virkus

Various Literacies


Citizen Science as an Educational Tool for Improving Scientific Literacy of Undergraduate Students

The aim of my paper is to propose a new approach to support scientific literacy of undergraduate students that uses methods of active participation in scientific research. I introduce the concept of citizen science as scientific literacy. Based on the accessible literature review, I present the overall approach to the educational potential of citizen science, as well as the results of selected surveys conducted to measure the impact of citizen science projects to the participants’ scientific literacy level. I make the claim that even short-term projects may make great impact, although the subject definitely needs more research. In this paper, I also outline the possibility of using citizen science projects in the undergraduate curriculum.

Kristýna Kalmárová

Everyday Health Information Literacy of Young Finnish and Namibian Students: Is There a Difference?

The everyday health information literacy (EHIL) of students with different cultural backgrounds is compared. The data were collected with a self-assessment based EHIL screening tool from Namibian university students (n = 271) and Finnish upper secondary school students (n = 217). The tool corresponds to the definition of health information literacy (HIL) by the Medical Library Association. The groups were compared with cross-tabulations with Fisher’s exact tests and the group means of an EHIL sum variable with Student’s t-test. The results show that the mean scores of the EHIL sum variable do not differ between the groups. Yet, significant differences are found with regard to each of the tool’s statements. Mostly these relate to health information infrastructure, lingual issues, and reading culture. The study contributes to research on cultural differences on HIL and to validating the EHIL screening tool.

Maija-Leena Huotari, Heidi Enwald, Noora Hirvonen, Cathrine Nengomasha, Ruth Abankwah, Wilhelm Uutoni, Raimo Niemelä

English Language as a Promoter of Media Literacy Education

In a post-literate society, wherein the previous print literacy is augmented to the notion of multi-literacy, media literacy education implies learning and teaching about the media arts to foster the students’ ability to access, analyze, create and evaluate messages in various formats and genres. The paper therefore compares appropriation, collective intelligence, distributed cognition, experiment, judgment, multitasking, negotiation, networking, simulation, performance, play and transmedia navigation in a mother tongue (for example, in Croatian) to English, which de facto is a lingua franca. Hypothetically, language instruction within an expanded media literacy concept facilitates a unified empowering and protective perspective, for it provides for an examination of representational typology to detect censorship, commercialization, copyright breaches, gender and racial stereotypes (for example, sexist expression), propaganda, violence and the Internet privacy infringements (that is, cyberbullying) in the new digital “narratives” or “texts,” too.

Tihomir Živić, Tamara Zadravec

Social Media Networking Literacy and Privacy on Facebook: Comparison of Pupils and Students Regarding the Public Availability of Their Personal Information

The paper presents results from the research of the personal information privacy behavior of 200 pupils and 200 university students who are members of Facebook. The content analysis method was used to quantitatively determine and compare the extent to which the various types of personal information about pupils (about 10 to 13 years old) and students (about 18 to 24 years old) are publicly available on their Facebook profiles. The qualitative content analysis was used to determine examples of potentially compromising personal information disclosed by ten pupils and ten students. An important finding was that pupils and students publish a lot of personal information available to anyone with a Facebook account. Some of this information could be harmful for them. Pupils and students mainly do not publish the most private personal information such as their political views. However, some of this information could be assumed indirectly through the other published information.

Mirko Duić, Paula Džapo

Digital Literacy as a Boost Factor in Employability of Students

Digital literacy is an important and evolving concept having influence on the status of current and future work force as the labor market is being transformed globally by implementation of digital technology. The existing jobs are being redefined and new jobs are being created presenting new demands for updated ICT related knowledge and skills often called digital literacy. Digital literacy is directly related to the individual’s employability which is represented by the combination of factors and processes which enable people to get employed and to stay in employment or to move on in the workplace. To achieve this goal, universities around the world adapt their study programs according to the needs of the labor market. Having this in mind, this paper investigates the current state of digital literacy in the student population at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Zagreb, Croatia (FHSS) and its relationship to their employability.

Radovan Vrana

Accessibility of Digital Information: Standards, Frameworks, and Tools Related to Information Literacy and Information Technology

One important aspect of information literacy is accessibility of information and adjustment of information to users with different abilities. Accessibility to both digital information and information technology (IT) in general is well supported in related international standards and recommendations. Common software products for creating digital documents have built-in features for checking accessibility, and there are many free resources to test accessibility in web pages. The goal of this study was to investigate, using in-depth content analysis, how accessibility is addressed in information literacy documentation and information technology standards, recommendations, models and frameworks, and how it is supported by tools when creating digital information content. The outcomes of the study are represented as a set of skills, attitudes and knowledge needed to facilitate inclusion of people with disabilities through accessible (digital) information.

Valentina Kirinić

Visual Literacy in Library Practice: Use of Images on the Facebook Pages of Croatian Public Libraries

The goal of the research was to explore the specific phenomenon from the field of visual literacy: use of images on the Facebook pages of the ten Croatian public libraries. Using the content analysis, we created “image type” categories and subcategories of images that are posted by librarians and determined their shares in relation to the total number of analyzed image posts. Also, content analysis was used to determine the various roles of these images in communication with user community gathered around these Facebook pages. We created “image communication role” categories and subcategories and determined their shares in relation to the total number of analyzed image posts. While presenting the shares of “image type” and “image communication role” categories and subcategories, we also described examples of good practice with regard to the use of images in image posts.

Mirko Duić

How Primary Teachers in Greece Seek Information: Use and Initial Appraisal of Information Resources

During the last decade methods and tools for information seeking (IS) have changed dramatically. In order to help students in their IS process teachers should be information literate themselves. There is a lack of research on teachers’ perceptions and patterns of IS. Only a few studies have focused on teachers’ information seeking behavior (ISB). The aim of the current study is to explore primary school teachers’ perceptions of information literacy (IL), their IL skills, the sources and tools they use to share information and their usage of libraries. The study contributes to the understanding of ISB of primary school teachers and identifies the main problems and challenges they face, and the knowledge and skills needed to teach IS. Furthermore, it provides an understanding of teachers’ views and beliefs concerning IL, the tools that they employ in order to educate students, the problems they encounter, as well as their perceptions about libraries.

Emmanouel Garoufallou, Stavroula Antonopoulou, Ioanna-Ersi Pervolaraki, Rania Siatri, Georgia Zafeiriou, Sirje Virkus

Reading Preference: Print vs Electronic


The Academic Reading Format International Study (ARFIS): Investigating Students Around the World

This paper presents results from the Academic Reading Format International Study (ARFIS), the largest investigation of university students’ behaviors and attitudes towards reading their academic texts on electronic screens and print. These questions are examined: ‘When engaging with their academic material, do students’ format preferences and behaviors vary across cultures?; How do their behaviors and attitudes compare among an international sample?; And how does the language of the reading impact format preferences?’ Amalgamated results from nearly 10,000 students in 19 countries show a consistently strong preference for print format, and most respondents do not feel the language of the text impacts their format preference, but an examination of country responses helps illustrate the subtle differences between them. This topic has special relevance to librarians and educators as we search for the correct balance of print and electronic resources in our collections and syllabi.

Diane Mizrachi, Joumana Boustany, Serap Kurbanoğlu, Güleda Doğan, Tania Todorova, Polona Vilar

Print vs. Digital Preferences. Study Material and Reading Behavior of Students at the University of Iceland

The study examined preferences for printed or electronic course material by students at the University of Iceland The questionnaire was adapted from the Academic Reading Questionnaire by Mizrachi. Data was collected as an online survey and response rate was 6%. The main result of the study is that participants were more likely to prefer course material in printed format than electronic. The participants were found to vary somewhat in their preference for reading format by sex and their field of study.

Ágústa Pálsdóttir, Sigríður Björk Einarsdóttir

Print or Electronic? Estonian Students’ Preferences in Their Academic Readings

Results of this study inform universities and their libraries about students’ preferences in their academic readings. They help academic staff, while preparing course reading lists and librarians in making collection development decisions. They can assist in the larger policy decision context of developing educational policy, as well. The aim of the study is to investigate Estonian students’ preferences of academic reading formats. Results show that Estonian students prefer their course materials in print. By their own evaluation they remember course materials, focus and review them better, when reading from printed pages. The study is part of a multinational research project Academic Reading Format International Study (ARFIS).

Mai Põldaas

Print and Digital Reading Preferences and Behaviors of University Students in Qatar

This paper presents findings of a study that investigated the reading preferences and behaviors of university students in Qatar. The study involved a survey of the print versus digital preferences of students in Qatar followed by an observation of the academic reading behaviors of university students using eye tracking glasses for explanatory insight. Results from the survey indicated that students preferred reading course materials and textbooks in print and felt they learn better this way. Results also indicated that language did not play a large part in students reading format preferences, and a large percentage of students only highlighted and took notes when reading in print. This finding was supported by the eye tracking test that showed that most students only used features such as highlighting and taking notes in print format. The eye tracking reading tests revealed some differences in print versus digital reading behaviors, for example that students tended to navigate differently in digital format by skimming and flipping back and forth more than in print, and that participants spent more time concentrating on the print text. As students tended to mimic their print reading behaviors in digital format except for using features, this would indicate that if students were more familiar with digital features then they would use them when reading digitally. Although students may prefer print, the reality is that course materials are increasingly becoming available only in digital format, therefore libraries and publishers can help students by providing both training in how to use features of digital formats and by developing user friendly digital formats that mimic print reading.

Nicole Johnston, Alicia Salaz, Lana Alsabbagh

Academic Policy Reflections of Student’s Reading Behavior Study in ULSIT

The Strategy for Effective Implementation of ICT in Education and Science of the Republic of Bulgaria (2014 to 2020) has as its objective digital transformation in education. In this context, a survey was conducted in 2015 among students at the University of Library Studies and Information Technologies (ULSIT) as part of the Academic Reading Format International Study, essential for updating the institutional policy according the requirements of the strategy. At ULSIT, the survey was accepted with interest: of the target group of 350 students, 234 respondents responded to the whole survey. Analysis of the results highlighted the statistically significant differences in preferences and behavior of students from both faculties at ULSIT. The students from the Faculty of Library Studies and Cultural Heritage mostly prefer using printed materials, while their colleagues from the Faculty of Information Sciences prefer using teaching materials in electronic format in many cases.

Tania Todorova, Rositza Krasteva, Tereza Trencheva, Elisaveta Tsvetkova

Theoretical Aspects


Toward a Theory of Information Literacy: Information Science Meets Instructional Systems Design

This paper addresses the need for a comprehensive theory of information literacy by beginning to lay the groundwork for a theory that encompasses the use of information as well as its location and evaluation. First—drawing on research and theory from two fields grounded in complementary understandings of “information”—the theory posits that information literacy and learning are strongly related because information itself is the basic building block for human learning. Second, the paper discusses the importance of knowing how the characteristics of different information formats—visual, multisensory, and digital—can be used to support different kinds of learning. The paper concludes by arguing that students and others must understand these characteristics in order to be truly information literate—that is, to use information effectively to engage in deep and meaningful learning in the information-rich environment of the 21st century.

Delia Neuman

Open Science and the Research Information Literacy Framework

The paper explores a possible framework for integration of concepts of open science and research information literacy. The factors of open science are identified, including relations with broader public and transparent information policies, practices, methods, data and publications. Models of digital scholarship are considered. The second part of the paper reports on results of a qualitative study of information behavior of 19 researchers in Slovakia. Semi-structured interviews and conceptual modeling were applied. Findings point to common methodological analytical procedures and differences in problem statements, data management and publishing strategies. Less awareness of open access, digital sources and publicity of research results was noted. Disciplinary differences are manifested mainly in publishing, procedures and evaluation of results. In conclusion, a resulting ecological framework of research information interactions and research information literacy based on understanding and sense making are proposed. Implications for researchers’ information spaces as part of knowledge infrastructure are considered.

Jela Steinerová

The End of Information Literacy (?)

The paper, “Information Literacy as a Right and a Duty: the Experience of the Czech Republic,” presented at ECIL 2014, outlined the brief history of implementing various literacies into Czech educational curricula, and uncovered three major public policy-making “waves” throughout the implementation. When considering general literacy, information literacy, and financial literacy case studies, it has been shown that information literacy in particular is failing to be adopted by the legal system, This prevents information literacy from being adopted at a national level. The current paper aims to go further in analysis of the legal system (using content analysis of laws as a method), and asks how different types of literacy are realised in law. The paper also investigates whether or not the term information literacy is even relevant and useful in the context of existing educational laws and social development (in the Czech Republic).

Michaela Dombrovská

Relationality Is the Key: The Family of Digital Competencies’ Catalogues and Their Potential Applications

The family of digital competencies’ catalogues (DCCs) is being developed as a tool for diagnosis and evaluation of digital competencies of different social groups. It is built on the relativity theory and the concept of functional digital competencies. Different methodologies have been used in the project: desk research, field studies, FGIs and IDIs with experts and professionals. Three DCCs has been developed so far. The most universal DCC framework is currently being applied by the Polish Ministry of Administration and Digitization in information literacy diagnosis and education projects, as well as a benchmark for e-integration programmes within the Operational Programme Digital Poland - 3rd Axis. The other relates to the needs of the 50+ group, considering different levels of their ICT skills and the specifics of their status. The third refers to the SME sector: information competencies, needs, and professional practice of Polish entrepreneurs.

Małgorzata Kisilowska, Justyna Jasiewicz, Anna Mierzecka

Information Literacy Competencies as Part of Content Curation

The meaning of curation has been connected to art and historical museums but, in the web context, it is also connected to information or content that can have many forms such as text, pictures, video, or music. Content curation is not a new phenomenon, although the term has not been used for a long time, and appears more often in short articles or web pages than in research papers. It has links to several professions and information literacy. The purpose of this paper is to study as to what degree the elements of information literacy can be found in the definitions of content or information curation. The study is based on 18 articles and 12 web pages concerning information or content curation. In the results, elements of information literacy, consisting of the information need, searching and finding information, evaluating it, incorporating into one’s knowledge base, and using it ethically and legally are present in the definitions of content curation, although some of them implicitly, and they are described by many different terms. Although the elements of information literacy would be present in the definitions, references to information literacy literature are rare. The definitions also include elements outside the traditional definitions of information literacy. The results imply to the relevance of information literacy skills and importance of information literacy education in many different fields. Information or content curation have been proposed as future career opportunities for information professionals.

Terttu Kortelainen

Higher Education


Information Literate or Not?: A Nationwide Survey Among University Students in the Czech Republic

The Information Education and Information Literacy Working Group (IVIG) was established in 2000. In 2004 and 2005, IVIG conducted a Pilot Survey on the Level of Information Literacy of University Students. Based on the results as well as experiences from the pilot survey, an extensive survey among students of public universities in the Czech Republic took place in 2015. Questionnaires were submitted by 25,389 students from 17 public universities. Detailed data analysis was performed, using the SPSS software. Crucial factors affecting the level of the information literacy (IL) were: study programme, personal motivation, IL courses attendance and gender. The level of IL with the emphasis on using the academic library and information resources for academic purposes was slightly increased from the average score of 52.48 to 58.16 when comparing the pilot surveys in 2004–2005 and the nationwide survey in 2015.

Hana Landová, Jitka Prajsová, Ludmila Tichá

Assessing Spanish-Speaking University Students’ Info-Competencies with iSkills, SAILS, and an In-House Instrument: Challenges and Benefits

In its ongoing assessment of information literacy competencies (ILC), CETYS Universidad first developed an in-house instrument and then applied the standardized tests, SAILS and iSkills. This paper analyzes the design of these instruments as well as data gathered from their implementation. This comparison aids in finding similarities in the ILC they measure, describe how they measure them, and study their differences. The objectives of this analysis are to describe the evolution of the Institution’s ILC assessment over the past four years while providing the basis for making an evidence-based decision about improving the in-house instrument and pushing to develop a Spanish-language multi-institutional tool, and/or the continued use of international instruments.

Jesus Lau, Juan D. Machin-Mastromatteo, Alberto Gárate, A. Cecilia Tagliapietra-Ovies

Is There a Focus on Information Literacy as a Transversal Skill Within the Institutional Accreditation Process?

The aim of the paper is to compare the standards and criteria of different organizations that accredit some of the top universities in the world according to the QS World University Rankings for 2015/2016. Regional accreditation organizations in USA support information literacy outcomes, but I found some differences between their practices and the criteria of other accrediting agencies. Information literacy is mentioned as important indicator of students’ competency in some of them, but not in others. The paper also investigates the Criteria system for institutional accreditation of higher schools in Bulgaria where standards are similar with regulations of the quality of university programs around the world but without a focus on information literacy. The conclusions refer to insufficient awareness of the importance of information literacy as a transversal skill in the digital society and its role for the social inclusion of young people.

Elitsa Lozanova-Belcheva

How Information Literate Are We as Teachers?

The purpose of the research was to provide academic staff with insights into their own information behavior and to motivate them to refer to relevant, accurate and reliable resources in their own course materials. To achieve this we used a participative research approach. Six participants assessed course materials created by themselves or by colleagues from their own department. It was found that in the course materials for the undergraduate ICT program of a university of applied sciences, in-text citations are often missing. If references are made, they are mainly references to general information sources like handbooks and popular or semi-scholarly websites. We discussed these findings in a focus group. An important additional benefit was the experience acquired with the participative research approach for improving the staff’s own information behavior.

Jos van Helvoort, Ellen Sjoer

Searching as Strategic Exploration: How Well Do Faculty Know Their Students’ Opinions Regarding Information Sources?

A research study at a rural, public university revealed gaps between faculty perception and student opinion on the importance and difficulty of use of information sources. This study shares the significant gaps discovered across four common stages related to the preparation of academic course assignments and the information-seeking process. The results of the study are intended to inform information literacy instructional practice and drive dialogue across a campus to support students where they are rather than where we hope them to be.

Katia G. Karadjova, Marissa M. Mourer

Novice and Expert Information Behavior: An Eye Tracking Study from Qatar

This paper presents findings of an exploratory pilot study investigating the information evaluation behavior of 30 researchers, including both novices and experts. Specifically, the participants’ approaches to evaluating the quality, credibility, and accuracy of scholarly materials were observed using Tobii eye tracking device hardware and triangulated with the participants’ qualitative written descriptions of how they evaluated the material. The initial findings include hypotheses about differences between novices and experts, and the utility of different gaze measurements for assessing information evaluation processes.

A. M. Salaz, Teresa MacGregor, Priya Thomas

Discipline Based Studies


Views of Legal Scholars About the Concept of Information Literacy in the Field of Law: Case Study of a Law Faculty in the Republic of Croatia

This study is one of the results of a wider research, which investigates the views and opinions of legal scholars regarding the concept of IL and information skills and needs of today’s students, particularly of information skills in the field of law. This would allow for a deeper understanding of the context of IL in the field of law and offer insights into the required generic skills of IL and contextual information skills from the standpoint of legal scholars. The study used qualitative method of in-depth interviews based on Relational Model by Christine Bruce with academic staff in a case study at the Faculty of Law, University of Rijeka. At the theoretical level, the desire was to stimulate discussion and awareness of the importance of the concept of IL in the field of law and open the way for further research.

Dejana Golenko

Information Literacy Programs in the Field of Law: Case Study of Two Law Faculties in Croatia

This paper presents findings of the research whose goal was to investigate and identify the key elements for a successful formal inclusion of information literacy (IL) programs into the curriculum and strategic documents at the institutional level of law faculties in Croatia based on the viewpoint of the senior administration of two Croatian law faculties (in Rijeka and Osijek). We collected the data through the qualitative method of semi-structured interviews. All together, nine interviewes were conducted: in Rijeka we interviewed four vice-deans and in Osijek a dean, three vice-deans and a representative of the decision-making faculty body on strategic documents and institution’s curriculum. The findings reveal that, although our respondents do not agree which term is broader and which narrower in meaning (‘information literacy’ (IL) and ‘legal research’ (LR)), they all strongly support the inclusion of IL into the institutional curriculum.

Dejana Golenko, Kornelija Petr Balog, Ljiljana Siber

Scaffolding Information Literacy in the Nursing Curriculum

Teaching students how to effectively retrieve, evaluate, and use information is a difficult task for all librarians. Expecting students to understand how to apply these skills – inside and outside of academia – in an hour-long instruction session is setting oneself up for failure. This paper describes the process of librarians and nursing faculty using the Lesson Study methodology to address adding information literacy and evidence-based practice (EBP) skills and content within a series of scaffolded classes in the nursing curriculum. Quantitative data showed growth in student learning from sophomore to senior years but retention of knowledge was inconclusive. Qualitative data indicated that students valued the scaffolded curriculum, librarians and nursing faculty working together, and understood the usefulness of EBP and information literacy. The multiple assessment methods used in this study allowed the team to assess student learning and the usefulness of Lesson Study as an instructional development tool.

Eric Jennings, Hans Kishel, Bryan S. Vogh, Angie Stombaugh, Rita Sperstad, Arin VanWormer

Assessing Content and Cognitive Levels of Information Literacy in a Group of Life Sciences University Students

The present study investigates the initial level of information literacy (IL) of 308 life sciences students from three Slovenian faculties compared to the level achieved by the students after completing a compulsory credit-bearing IL course. A validated information literacy test (ILT) served as an assessment instrument, and the results were statistically analysed by IL topic, cognitive category and year of study. The students achieved significant progress in all main IL topics and all cognitive categories. The greatest improvement was in the subscale of database searching, where the initial IL level was the lowest. Another IL deficiency that was detected and improved relates to legal and ethical issues. With regard to cognitive categories, the students achieved the most evident progress in the category of applying knowledge, where they were initially the least successful. An analysis of the students’ IL achievements by year of study led to the recommendation to include an IL-related study course in the curriculum of life sciences programmes in the second year of study.

Danica Dolničar, Bojana Boh Podgornik, Irena Sajovic, Andrej Šorgo, Tomaž Bartol

How University Students in Health Care Look for Information: Use and Initial Appraisal of Information Resources

New developments in web infrastructure and information and communication technologies have revolutionized the way information is made available online, creating new opportunities and experiences for personalised information seeking. Furthermore, mobile and ubiquitous technologies offer new web based applications and devices that can be used to promote access in information and engage users. The aim of this study was to investigate the ways Greek university students in health sciences look for information. We specified student preferences and level of experience in use technology and the web for information seeking as well as their level of awareness of online information sources and the criteria used for choosing them. We used a web-based questionnaire method for collecting data. The results suggested that more effort should be given on enriching the students’ information literacy skills.

Emmanouel Garoufallou, Chrysanthi Chatzopoulou, Eleni Tzura, Souzana Maranga, Rania Siatri, Georgia Zafeiriou, Stavroula Antonopoulou

Self-reported Information Literacy Skills Among Researchers Within a Medical and Health Science Faculty

Since research output is expanded from published work to research data and communication, guidance and support should follow this evolution. Ghent University Library (Belgium) conducted in 2015 a “Skills@UGent” survey comprising questions considering information literacy skills to identify actual needs. This paper focuses on research planning, deontology and visibility queried in a group of postdoctoral researchers of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. They encounter specific difficulties with respecting ethical codes of conduct, knowing how and where to store data, setting up a data management plan, and knowing and applying new insights concerning data management. Furthermore, they also encounter problems with different aspects of visibility. The results of this survey gave the Knowledge Center a better insight of the information literacy self-efficacy of postdoctoral researchers which lead to several initiatives such as customized lunch seminars and a more user-oriented website.

Ann De Meulemeester, Nele S. Pauwels, Renaat Peleman, Heidi Buysse

Seeking Creativity: A Case Study on Information Problem Solving in Professional Music

This study explored the information problem solving behavior of a professional jazz musician during creative work. It aimed at revealing information seeking activities necessary to execute present-day musical projects. A single case was studied in depth. First, a narrative interview was conducted to reveal project phases and corresponding information seeking behavior. Second, hereupon a semi-structured interview was taken to identify information seeking activities per phase. Results indicate that the musician deliberately searched for musical information especially in the first project phases. The internet was used as main source. Both data and goal driven strategies were applied, of which the latter were relatively scarce. This means that in this case the musician sporadically searched information based on a contemplated search plan. Future research should aim at generalizing findings. It should further validate the underlying analytical framework that proved to be useful for describing and categorizing musical information seeking behavior.

Iwan Wopereis, Egbert Derix

Research Methods


Institute for Research Design in Librarianship: Impact on Information Literacy Research and Practice

This paper provides a detailed view of the impact of a research methods training program (Institute for Research Design in Librarianship, or IRDL) on librarians’ research and practice related to information literacy. Participants identified the following benefits: improvement in research confidence, improvement in capability to interpret published research, improvement in capability to design and conduct research, improvement in capability to perform job responsibilities, a supportive network of librarian researchers, and career advancement.

Lili Luo, Marie Kennedy, Kristine Brancolini

Children and Youth


Use of Digital Tools by Preschool Children: Preliminary Results

Nowadays, preschool children are growing up at ease with technology and become familiar with the use of digital devices such iPads, tablets, computers and mobile phones very early in their lives. Therefore, children are expected to develop different literacy skills [1]. The aim of the study is to explore the use of digital tools by preschool children. The results of the study contribute to a better understanding of how children cope with visual and textual searching, provide useful feedback on how to encourage children to become lifelong learners and further our understanding of age differences in children and adult learning along with the impact of ICTs on children’s learning.

Ioanna-Ersi Pervolaraki, Emmanouel Garoufallou, Rania Siatri, Georgia Zafeiriou, Sirje Virkus, Stavroula Antonopoulou

Expanding Children’s Digital Literacy Experiences and Skills: Public Library Practices in Guangzhou, China

This paper analyzes a series of digital literacy instruction programs provided by Guangzhou Children’s Library and Guangzhou Library, the main large public libraries providing services for children in Guangzhou. The paper found that all the programs were presented in the forms of games and contests that attracted learners and had good effects on expanding children’s digital literacy experiences and skills. Some guidelines were developed to help public libraries to successfully delivery digital literacy training and services for children in their communities including: making a good plan; identifying specific learning outcomes; promoting to the public; cooperating with other organizations to conduct digital literacy instruction; and, developing online digital literacy resources.

Qiong Tang, Cuihong Wu, Yantao Pan

Computer Science for the Community: Increasing Equitable Opportunity for Youth Through Libraries

Using preliminary qualitative research underway through the American Library Association and Google, Inc., we explore the need for computer science (CS) learning opportunities such as coding activities to be made widely available to students through U.S. libraries, as well as the importance of intentionally infusing computational thinking (CT) skills development into these activities through librarian facilitation. The paper examines factors influencing the perception of, and participation in, CS programs among youth, their family, and educators through analysis of previously-collected Google-Gallup research data on learning opportunities in- and outside of schools. We discuss the development of a library-centric approach to facilitating CT learning and investigate how learning CS in informal environments can mitigate perceptions that curtail participation through an analysis of programs provided by libraries. The paper concludes with recommendations for further investigation, leading to best practices for libraries and other stakeholder institutions. In our presentation, we will engage in discussion with attendees regarding implications of this work in other countries, and we will provide a list of practitioner resources.

Marijke Visser, Hai Hong

Using I-LEARN to Foster the Information and Digital Literacies of Middle School Students

This paper summarizes the findings from focus group data of four teachers and 41 middle school students in an urban school who were involved in a project that used the I-LEARN framework to develop the participants’ skills in information and digital literacy. An analysis of the data revealed that the students found it useful and/or challenging to find and evaluate information on the Internet and to design digital products and that their digital skills improved in different ways. The teachers cited various approaches and purposes for using technology during the project and held varying assumptions about their students’ digital literacy skills.

Vera J. Lee, Allen Grant, Delia Neuman, Mary Jean Tecce DeCarlo

Exploring the Lived Experience of Middle School Students Engaged in Inquiry Based Learning

This paper discusses the phenomenological investigation and study findings of middle school students engaged in a unique Inquiry Based Learning (IBL) model named here as Student Driven Inquiry (SDI). SDI is a form of IBL that privileges student autonomy. Phenomenology allows an in-depth look into the student lived experience through the use of open-ended interviews. This pilot study elicited six common themes of student experience: joy in study immersion; appreciation for autonomy; satisfaction with self-selected topic; enthusiasm for learning; considerations of time management; and stress in project completion. These themes suggest the SDI model is one of deeper, joyful student engagement and learning with a certain measure of stress. The student perspective of the lived experience of SDI adds important information to the growing conversation on K-12 Information Literacy (IL), inquiry learning models, and student motivation. Implications for curriculum development, instructional practice and further research are discussed.

Shelly Buchanan

Teaching and Learning Information Literacy in Upper Secondary Schools in Vietnam

Information literacy (IL) received much attention from researchers and practitioners in recent years. However, an understanding of IL in the educational context of Vietnam is limited. Therefore, this project employs a mixed-method approach to investigate the practice of IL teaching and learning in Vietnamese upper secondary schools. The study uses an expanded version of Standards for the 21st-Century Learner devised by the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) as a tool for measuring current IL capabilities amongst students, as well as examining IL teaching and learning activities in two upper secondary schools in the country. The IL assessment indicates that improving students’ IL capability is necessary. Additionally, reasons for different IL results and the practice of IL teaching and learning were explored.

Huyen Thi Ngo, Geoffrey Lee Walton, Alison Jane Pickard

Civic Action-Driven Information Literacy Instruction in Taiwan

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility for implementing a civic action-oriented information literacy plan across disciplines within an elementary school, including analysis, design, development and evaluation of the plan. The topic of the plan was the US-Taiwan Eco-Campus Partnership Program. A collaborative action research approach was used for this study. The researchers collaborated with a librarian who taught information literacy, as well as a science teacher and an English teacher. The civic action instruction lasted for ten months with two cycles. This study was conducted in an elementary school in the area of Chiayi, Taiwan. The data was gathered through participant observations, tests, surveys, interviews, and document analysis. The results showed that it is feasible to promote the civic action-oriented information literacy curriculum in sixth grade class. Students’ problem solving skills, rational participation in public actions, and intercultural understanding improved through several strategies. They were progressive information literacy curriculum, collaboration among teachers, the support of school administration, and integration of information technology.

Lin Ching Chen, Yaw-Huei Chen

Country Based Studies


Information Competencies of Historians as Archive Users: A Slovenia/UK Comparison

This paper reports a study of the characteristics, skills and competencies of historians, both amateur and professional, as users of archives. It makes two main comparisons: between professional historians and amateurs, typically genealogists and family historians; and between participants in Slovenia and in the United Kingdom. The study is in two parts. First, a detailed and comprehensive literature analysis, including information competencies of archivists where relevant, as well as those of users, to identify the main issues to be examined. Second, a Delphi study with a small panel of archivists from both countries, to establish consensus or divergence of opinion, and to explore the differences, if any, between amateur and professional historians, and will also investigate any national differences. The results show a high degree of consensus, and point to common issues in the skills and competencies needed by both groups, which should be explored in a larger study.

Polona Vilar, Alenka Šauperl, Zdenka Semlič Rajh, Lyn Robinson, David Bawden

Developing Information Literacy Skills Lesson Plans Integrated into the 6th Iranian Primary Science Curriculum Based on the Big6 Model

Since there is a lack of IL skills instruction in the education system of Iran, especially in primary schools, this research developed IL skills lesson plans integrated into the 6th grade Iranian primary science curriculum. This study was conducted using a Delphi method included in the instructional design. Using a snowball sampling method, a sample of 12 6th grade teachers from public primary schools in Ahwaz was chosen for the expert panel. The Delphi process stopped after achievement of consensus and stability of results in the third round. In sum, the developed and confirmed the Unit Plan for 11thand 12thUnits of the Iranian 6thgrade science curriculum integrated into the Big6 model and 5 Lessons in context can used as the initial framework for developing the IL skills lesson plans in other curricula and subjects in order to upgrade and improve the IL level of the Iranian primary school students.

Fatima Baji, Carole Haeusler, Zahed Bigdeli, Abdullah Parsa

Integrating the Personal Information Culture Concept and the Idea of Media and Information Literacy Offered in the UNESCO Curriculum for Teachers: Experiences of Russia and Uzbekistan

The idea of integration of media literacy and information literacy, proposed by UNESCO and IFLA is discussed here. Advantages and disadvantages of Media and Information Literacy Curriculum for Teachers (prepared by UNESCO) are analyzed. The concept of personal information culture and the training course “Principles of personal information culture” developed in Russia are characterized. The mechanism of replenishment of the training course at the expense of the idea of Media and Information Literacy Curriculum for Teachers is described. The experience of adapting the Media and Information Literacy Curriculum for Teachers to the national peculiarities of Russia and Uzbekistan. The purpose and methods of adapting textual and visual information of the Russian curriculum information culture and media and information literacy to the characteristics of the education system in Uzbekistan are revealed.

Natalia Gendina

Information Literacy Instruction: An Overview of Research and Professional Development in Pakistan

This paper aims to present an overview of information literacy (IL) instruction in Pakistan from the following perspectives: research literature produced; IL instruction as a credit course at LIS schools; and continuing professional development (CPD) activities for information professionals. This study was based on a review of the literature on IL, a survey of LIS schools, searching through the electronic messages archives of the professional groups, and exchange of information with peers. The findings revealed that 13 research papers were published on IL from Pakistan. Out of 12 LIS schools, four offered a 3-credit hour course on IL instruction at the Masters level. Continuing professional development opportunities were limited in Pakistan. A few university libraries just started formal IL programs. We recommended that IL be included in the curriculum at all LIS schools. Research studies on different aspects of IL must be conducted. LIS schools and associations must prepare the professionals to run IL instruction programs.

Kanwal Ameen, Midrar Ullah

Public Policies for Information Literacy in Portugal: An Agenda in the Making

This theoretical study seeks to contribute to the reflection on public policies in the field of information literacy in Portugal. For this purpose, we look at the status quo of how information literacy has been addressed in Portugal, discussing the aspects concerning public policies, which include an interconnection between scientific knowledge and public action. So, the main objective is to describe Public Policies for Information Literacy in Portugal. Public policies usually result from a sustained effort which places a certain topic on the social agenda. This public action agenda seeks to draw the attention of society and obtain the support of influential groups or people and politics of different levels of the government. At the same time, we look at the way scientific knowledge gives rise to legislation, guidelines or policy recommendations. Finally, we propose a series of lines for reflection and debate on this matter.

Tatiana Sanches

Action Plan for Improving the Learning Practices and Motivation of LIS Students

In 2013, University of Library Studies and Information Technologies (ULSIT) participated in an international survey ‘Information Behaviours and Information Literacy Skills of LIS Students’. In this paper we will use only selected results from two questions, aimed at obtaining information on student learning skills and study practices when completing course-related assignments as well as about their motivation of learning and expression in an academic environment. The findings showed positive and negative tendencies. In response, we prepared an Action plan for improving the learning practices and motivation of LIS students. The core of the Action plan is the new design continuing training program based on the integration between academic education, the university library, and the LibLab (Laboratory of Library Technologies, Communications and Informing). We suggest setting up a Virtual Information System for users, divided into two main modules - Electronic Register of Academic Assignments and Virtual Personal Workplace.

Tania Todorova, Elena Ignatova, Irena Peteva

Academic Libraries


Intervening Conditions Inside and Outside Libraries in Order to Build Collaboration Between Teaching Faculty and Librarians in Education: Based on a Case Study of Earlham College

A recent massive higher educational reform has asked college and university libraries to review their services inclusive of these reforms. A constructive relationship between teaching faculty and librarians was recognised as contributing to the success of information literacy initiative and information literacy instruction. The purpose of this paper is to explore the research question, “what are the intervening conditions in library, institutional and social contexts which promote collaboration between teaching faculty and librarians,” based on a case study of Earlham College. The data, such as a literature review, archival records, interview data and observational data, were collected and analysed through a grounded theory approach. The results show that “leadership of library directors,” “librarians as instructors” and “librarians’ faculty status” are important factors in the library context. “Small community,” “flat hierarchy” and “teaching faculty as educators” were discovered as the important themes in the college context.

Tayo Nagasawa

Information Literacy as a Key to Academic Success: Results from a Longitudinal Study

The present paper examines whether university students’ information literacy contributes to their academic performance over and above their level of general cognitive abilities. Fifty-three German psychology students (18–25 years, 85% female) participated in a longitudinal study with four waves of measurement spanning the first 18 months of their bachelor studies. Stepwise multiple regression analyses revealed that scholarly information literacy (as assessed by a fixed-choice test of knowledge about information search and evaluation) predicted university grade point average as well as basic psychology knowledge even when controlling for fluid intelligence. According to additional simple slope analyses, information literacy was able to compensate for limited cognitive ability: Information literacy and academic performance were only associated in students with lower working memory capacity.

Anne-Kathrin Mayer, Günter Krampen

Web 2.0 and Academic Libraries: A Survey Investigating Uptake Among University Students

Web 2.0 technologies provide an alternative creative Launchpad both for libraries and their users to create access and share information. The concept of libraries 2.0 represents modern efforts made by the library community to engage its users and market its services and online tools to the public through Web 2.0 eliminating geographical, temporal or economic constraints. This study aimed to examine the use of Web 2.0 library services and mobile technology, by university students in an academic environment. The findings of this study will be used to inform the design of information literacy programs specifically focused on the use of these services by university students. A web-based questionnaire survey was used to collect data of the respondents that consisted of all undergraduate students in the Department of Aesthetics and Cosmetology of ATEI of Thessaloniki. Findings indicated that although students of Department, use some of the Web 2.0 tools and services, they do not possess a deep knowledge and familiarity with the majority of the tools, and their use of educational settings.

Emmanouel Garoufallou, Souzana Maranga, Chrysanthi Chatzopoulou, Eleni Tzura, Rania Siatri, Georgia Zafeiriou, Stavroula Antonopoulou



Librarians as Educators: Affective Dimensions Experienced in Teaching

The objective of the research is to enhance knowledge regarding librarians’ emotions experienced while teaching, as a component of a librarian as an educator identity. Affective dimensions of teaching were researched in academic libraries of Lithuania and Poland. Data for this study were gathered using Computer-assisted web interviewing (CAWI) technique. Affective dimensions experienced while teaching were explored through the semantic differential technique. The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that librarians as educators have more positive than negative emotions about their teaching. Librarians feel that their teaching is being consistent and they have a positive attitude toward teaching, but it requires a significant effort. The largest deviation of the results was seen when talking about feelings of tiredness during the teaching process and the difficulty of teaching role. For better insight the analysis was carried out comparing results from Lithuania and Poland as well as linking emotions with job meaningfulness.

Vincas Grigas, Roma Fedosejevaitė, Anna Mierzecka

Copyright Literacy Competencies from Portuguese LIS Professionals

Copyright literacy among Portuguese information professionals, especially academic librarians, was studied as part of a multinational survey. The sample included 127 completed questionnaires. After the literature review, the data gathering methodology is explained. Then the respondent profile is presented. Data about general knowledge of copyright and opinions related to this issue are discussed. Familiarity with licenses, exceptions and other conditions of copyright access are also analysed. The familiarity regarding specific context and objects of copyright is discussed. Finally, personal opinions about copyright specific issues and aspects related to learning about copyright are presented.

Ana Lúcia Terra

Information Literacy Education and the Educational Needs of Teaching Librarians: The Czech Republic in Comparison with the Other Visegrad Four Countries

The goal is to describe information literacy education in Czech libraries and explore the educational needs of teaching librarians. Educational content was described according to the Media and Information Literacy Competency Matrix. Questionnaire results were compared with the other countries of the Visegrad Four. The majority of Czech teaching librarians (62.9%) have their own conception of the topic and continue to use the same, mostly traditional methods (lecture, discussions, individual exercises). The topics most often addressed cover MIL Component 1 (Access), while topics under MIL Component 3 (Creation) occur least frequently. The results of all countries were fairly similar, although some significant differences were also found.

Pavla Kovářová

Effects of a Virtual Learning Environment on Librarians’ Information Literacy and Digital Literacy Competences

The continuing professional development of librarians is a requirement imposed by the permanent progress of the knowledge society. In this context, Universidade Aberta (Portuguese Open University) offers a post-graduate course in Library and Information Sciences for librarians. Being an e-learning course based on a Learning Management System (LMS), it is expected that the course not only develops information literacy (IL) and digital literacy (DL) skills but also allows for the deepening of these skills due to the learning environment itself. The aim of this study was to analyze students’ perception in relation to their competences in IL and DL and the articulation between their development and the virtual learning context. The adopted methodology was a case study, through the application of a questionnaire, to students from the 2012 to 2015 editions of the course. The results show that at the end of the course, students consider having significantly improved their IL and DL skills, which directly influences their daily work practices.

Ana Novo, Glória Bastos, Ana Isabel Vasconcelos

Teaching Methods and Instruction


Investigating the Guided Inquiry Process

Guided Inquiry (GI) is “a way of thinking, learning and teaching that changes the culture of the classroom into a collaborative inquiry community” [1, p. xiii]. GI tasks and scaffolding are emerging in American and Australian contexts, based on the ISP and GID processes. However, there is a need for research in schools on the ways students use and transfer the GID process. This mixed methods study investigated the use and transfer of the GID process for Year 7 students in an all girls’ Catholic school in a capital city in Australia as they engaged in two projects in History and Geography. Overall, findings indicate that students were able to improve their practice of the GID process from the first project to the second and that they felt more confident using it the second time. They also show diverse interpretations and preferences towards integral elements of GI including choice of research topic.

Lee FitzGerald, Kasey L. Garrison

Teacher Perspectives on Whole-Task Information Literacy Instruction

This paper presents results of an explorative study on perceived merits of contemporary holistic approaches to designing information literacy instruction in a university setting. Seven teachers in educational sciences evaluated their premaster’s course on conducting a literature review designed according to a modern design approach, named Four-Component Instructional Design (4C/ID). They noted their perceptions on course quality by means of a standardized course evaluation questionnaire and a SWOT analysis. Results of the questionnaire showed that teachers were positive on whole-task information literacy instruction, confirming the results of an earlier study on 4C/ID-caused instructional effects. The SWOT analysis indicated that teachers recognized the value of applied 4C/ID principles like whole-task-centeredness, structured guidance, and scaffolding. We added suggestions on enhancing the positive effects of whole-task instructional design based on identified educational weaknesses such as relatively poor constructive alignment and threats such as imperfect curriculum coherence.

Iwan Wopereis, Jimmy Frerejean, Saskia Brand-Gruwel

Information Literacy Dialogue as a Wittgensteinian Language-Game: Embedding IL into Curricula

Finding common ground on which to communicate with instructors about embedding information literacy (IL) into curricula is a challenging but worthwhile goal. To address this issue of communication, this paper proposes viewing librarian-instructor dialogue about information literacy as a “language-game,” a concept from the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, where librarians must first understand the meaning of information literacy from an instructor’s disciplinary and cultural perspective. How IL can function as a language-game and librarian perspectives on IL are discussed first. Next, two case studies are analyzed using a language-game approach, highlighting successful and unsuccessful attempts of embedding IL into curricula. Finally, a methodology, similar to a reference interview, is introduced describing how librarians can better understand teacher perceptions of IL in relation to their discipline and pedagogy. A language-game approach to IL can enable librarians to engage in more meaningful dialogue about embedding IL into curricula.

Michael Flierl

Motivating Learners Through Information Literacy

This paper introduces a model for creating information literacy learning activities that motivate students. The model draws from informed learning, an approach to information literacy that emphasizes the role that information plays in fostering learning about a subject. Self-determination theory, a motivational theory that focuses on enabling self-determined learners, is applied within the informed learning framework. The results of the investigation outline characteristics of motivating learning activities that enable learning subject content through engagement with information. The model is intended to be used by librarians when working with classroom teachers to foster greater student learning gains through creative and reflective engagement with information.

Clarence Maybee, Michael Flierl

Mastering Information and Teaching Controversies: An Exploratory Study

Our contribution aims at presenting an exploratory study of an experimental course focused on teaching controversies for mastering various dimensions of Information literacy. We will begin presenting the theoretical framework of the Actor-Network Theory approach. Then we will introduce our work-in-progress methodology for controversies analysis. Then, two case studies of teaching controversies will be presented aiming at supporting the acquisition of skills in mastering Information. We will conclude with the first results of our exploratory study based on participant observation, and on a qualitative survey on the knowledge acquisition by the students.

Orélie Desfriches Doria, Madjid Ihadjadène

“Bibliostory—Educational Comic Stories.” A Social Constructivist Approach to Media and Information Literacy Education for Children and Adolescents

Our paper presents a theoretical background for a Polish comic book “Bibliostory—educational comic stories” (Pl. Bibliostory—edukacyjne historie komiksowe). The comic targets children between 9 and 12 years of age and youths from 13 to 16 years of age. Each story illustrates one issue, such as information searching, organization of information, plagiarism, and information problem solving strategy. Bibliostory is based on two constructivist pedagogical concepts: the zone of proximal development (ZPD) and case-based learning/teaching. These concepts, on application level, are first of all associated with designing educational situations and relationships between teachers and students (educators and learners). The aim of our paper is to present the possibilities of application of these concepts in the educational comic books. We describe the general assumptions of two concepts, then we focus on elements applied in Bibliostory project. We also provide a review of literature on the educational potential of comic books.

Ewa A. Rozkosz, Zuza Wiorogórska

Assessing Awareness of Library Services: An Ethnographic Examination of Bachelor Students at Two Czech Technology Universities

In this paper, the authors present interim research results from an ongoing ethnographic examination of eight engineering undergraduate students from two technology universities in Prague, Czech Republic. A multi-layered data gathering strategy was employed, including semi-structured in-person interviews as well as in situ and virtual observations of participants interacting with learning environments. This data enabled the authors to examine whether or not students are aware of library services. “Library services” are here broadly defined to include not only traditional support services but also new, emerging areas of activity which can be categorized under the broader concept of undergraduate student support [1]. Findings indicate very poor awareness of library offerings although participants were aware of the library as a study space. The authors additionally touch briefly upon the concept of “backward design” [2] for service development, in which research data is gathered and considered prior to service design and launch.

Alena Chodounská, Stephanie Krueger


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