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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third European Conference on Information Literacy, ECIL 2015, held in Tallinn, Estonia, in October 2015.

The 61 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 226 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on information literacy, environment and sustainability; workplace information literacy and knowledge management; ICT competences and digital literacy; copyright literacy; other literacies; information literacy instruction; teaching and learning information literacy; information literacy, games and gamification; information need, information behavior and use; reading preference: print vs electronic; information literacy in higher education; scholarly competencies; information literacy, libraries and librarians; information literacy in different context.



Information Literacy, Environment and Sustainability


Looking for Creative Information Strategies and Ecological Literacy

Information strategies and creative information processing are considered for information literacy research. Information use patterns based on empirical and phenomenographic studies by selected authors are analyzed. Three case-studies are subject to meta-analysis resulting in identification of factors of information creativity and ecological information literacy. Ecological literacy is described. Main sources and aspects of creative information strategies as part of information literacy are presented in the final conceptual model. Three dimensions of the model are identified, including the problem-oriented, knowledge-oriented and the interactive strategies. For each dimension we determine main supportive strategies, such as conceptual structuring, conceptual exploration, and conceptual navigation. It is proposed to pay more attention to creative information strategies in information literacy research.

Jela Steinerová

Organizational Knowledge Sharing, Information Literacy and Sustainability: Two Case Studies from Local Government

Sustainability goals are at the center of a range of local government initiatives in Australia. Such initiatives are often developed in response to community needs and to the broader needs of urban greening. This study takes a sociocultural approach to two such initiatives, one involving intra-organizational and the other inter-organizational knowledge sharing and applies a framework of information literacy activities to the analysis of participant’s knowledge sharing experiences. This framework was supported by the findings though Influencing and Sharing were more prominent than Information work and Coupling activities. Sharing activities became the norm in the study, underpinned by the expectation that the expertise of participants would be validated and incorporated into the collaborative endeavor. Expression of emotion was minimal when the normative nature of this activity was highlighted however emotions were experienced when the norm was not being followed and when participants believed that their contribution was not being validated.

Dean Leith, Hilary Yerbury

Smart and Sustainable Library: Information Literacy Hub of a New City

Our paper presents a proposition for the new approach to the role of library in a sustainable city. An in-depth literary review on smart library concept is presented along the comparative insight into contemporary smart city and sustainable city literature. Based on these findings a proposition is depicted for smart and sustainable library as a central public institution of a sustainable smart city. Several library services of the new generation based on cutting edge technologies and user participation are proposed. The claim is made that sustainable library is to be an integral part of a sustainable city making not just an-other useful urban addition providing for some of the various smart and sustain-able services of the new city, but a central hub that carter for constant upgrade of information literacy of its users allowing for innovativeness and creativity of citizens of sustainable cities to come to the fore.

Aleksandar Jerkov, Adam Sofronijevic, Dejana Kavaja Stanisic

Information Literacy and Environmental Sustainability Correlation in Using and Communicating Information

Information literacy is the discipline that shapes the informational behavior of young students, Master and PhD students. The skills acquired by attending this course can decisively influence thinking and may generate critical thinking for analyzing information. Extending the module designed for achieving Information Literacy standards, we present a module on green practices, green libraries and the implications of using electronic resources on carbon emissions and consumption of electricity. Our premise was that these concepts may help develop sustainable thinking, in addition to critical thinking. In this paper we will focus mainly on the green information literacy aspect, through a study from Transilvania University of Brasov.

Angela Repanovici, Ane Landoy

Customizing New Library Catalogue for Information Literacy, Digital Collections and Sustainable Development

Finding high quality information is an ever-growing challenge in the academic world. The Library of Lahti University of Applied Sciences is tackling this challenge with the new Masto-Finna discovery tool which provides a single search interface for public catalogue and digital collections. With Masto-Finna, students can search the library catalogue and digital collections at the same time, so the amount of time used for teaching technical searching skills can now be used to guide students in source criticism and reference skills. This way, information literacy teaching is hoped to result in students finding higher-quality source material. In the future, Masto-Finna is expected to further increase the usage of digital collections and thus assist in decreasing the carbon footprint by substituting the print collections with online information services.

Riikka Sinisalo

Workplace Information Literacy and Knowledge Management


Mapping Collective Information Practices in the Workplace

The collective management of informational resources, or the “information landscape”, within two workplace settings is investigated through a methodology based on facilitated concept mapping sessions using a non-digital tool. Mapping raises information literacy practice – the ongoing, critical judgments about information, made within these communities – into the conscious awareness of both the research team and the participants. The maps therefore both provoke and record the intersubjective agreements that are continuously being made in these communities, and which constitute the information landscape.

Andrew Whitworth, Maria-Carme Torras i Calvo, Bodil Moss, Nazareth Amlesom Kifle, Terje Blåsternes

From Workplace to Profession: New Focus for the Information Literacy Discourse

The present paper suggests articulating the general context of workplace in information literacy research. The paper considers distinguishing between information literacy research in workplaces and professions. Referring to the results of a phenomenographic enquiry into web professionals’ information literacy as an example, it is indicated that work-related information literacy in particular contexts and depending on the nature of the context, is experienced beyond physical workspaces and at professional level. This involves people interacting with each other and with information at a broader level in comparison to a physically bounded workspace. Regarding the example case discussed in the paper, virtuality is identified as the dominant feature of the profession that causes information literacy to be experienced at a professional level. It is anticipated that pursuing the direction proposed in the paper will result in a more segmented image of work-related information literacy.

Elham Sayyad Abdi, Christine Bruce

Determining the Value of Information Literacy for Employers

Three workplace environments (a large public sector organization; a small private sector company; a small voluntary sector organization) are investigated to determine what factors may be relevant in determining the value of information literacy to these employers. Investments in developing employees’ information handling capacity cover four areas: staff; systems; space; and client relations. Returns can be found in efficiency, profitability, staff motivation, customer service and regulatory compliance, all of which may accrue direct or indirect costs. In principle then, returns on investment in information literacy in specific contexts can be calculated or estimated.

Stéphane Goldstein, Andrew Whitworth

Information Literacy, Leadership and Management

One of the dominant features of successful development of information literacy is effective leadership and good management that is important at various levels of the university (at top management level, library level, school and faculty level, department level and programme level) and could enormously influence the development of information literacy. Therefore, a study was designed to investigate the views and understanding of top and middle managers on their activities and competencies in academic libraries. A constructivist approach and grounded theory methodology was used in this study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with top and middle managers of seven Estonian academic libraries. This paper presents an overview of how information literacy and leadership is discussed in the library and information science literature, and selected results of the research project that shows how top and middle managers perceive the role of information literacy in their leadership role, activities and competencies.

Sirje Virkus, Sigrid Mandre

Understanding and Use of Information Literacy in the Industrial Project Management

The contribution presents an example of transferring information literacy competencies from a Ph.D. academic environment into the industrial environment in the field of polymeric chemistry. In addition, the results of a study including research, collection, ranking, and testing of available tools for project management of projects in the field of injection molding will be presented with exploration of methods and techniques for problems solving from brainstorming to the TRIZ system. The experiences gained through leading of projects in an industrial environment with awareness of importance of information literacy will be presented and discussed, including some recommendations for project management: Project documentation should be transformed to the “knowledge database of the company”; Process of “the right” information transfer inside the project team needs to be controlled; Transition from “traditional” problem solving to inventive solving of problems; and, People competences should be constantly upgraded.

Boštjan Šumiga

Some Principles of the Durability of the Informative Professional Practices

The objective of this contribution is to develop the premises of an organization of the durability of the practices of information in professional context. We shall try to produce some key elements to begin the consideration of a design that accompanies the durability of the practices of information in professional context. To do it, this contribution will compare an analysis of a corpus on the fundamental question of the durability, with a set of elements which we collected from conversations and analyses on information systems with architects specializing in eco-construction in Aquitaine. Even though these actors in the sector of eco-constructive architecture (architects, engineers, suppliers, manufacturers), have already established informative practices, they still tend to organize and keep the information in a limited, sporadic, sometimes even risky and disjointed ways.

Vincent Liquète

An Ecological Approach to Collaborative Knowledge Management in Small Professional Communities: Sustainable Information Practices for Sustainable Work

A research project on knowledge management in small companies specialized in green architecture is focused on the construction of a shared body of knowledge in a specific community of practice. We have conducted an inquiry, interviewed and observed the information systems of 30 professionals. We have tried to characterize their information practices according to their aim to “think locally and act globally”. Organizational information processes are related to information literacy and create sustainable information management in communities of practice. Information and communication practices as well as a need for education, management methods and innovative knowledge strategies in the community exist. Three dimensions are taken into consideration: cognitive, technological, socio-political. The overall information ecosystem includes services, structures, people and resources. Some organizational principles are necessary for a sustainable knowledge construction process: reliance, transaction, cognitive accessibility to information.

Anne Lehmans

ICT Competences and Digital Literacy


Digital Information Literacy: A Case Study in Oslo Public Library

This paper examines the digital information literacy (DIL) of public library professionals in Norway and explores the ways to improve their skills as well as identify barriers to improvement. The case study method was used and semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with twenty public library professionals. The knowledge sharing approach was visible among the staff, but the slow adaptation of technology, and organizational, personal, and technological barriers were hindering the DIL development. Online training modules, mapping the staff competencies, assessment of the staff needs, advanced and customized training programs, long-term strategies, and decentralized initiatives were suggested for the improvement of DIL.

Momena Khatun, Sirje Virkus, A. I. M. Jakaria Rahman

Digital Literacy of School Leaders: What Impacts in Schools? Results of Two Studies from Portugal

This paper presents the results from two studies concerning a project conducted in secondary Portuguese schools. The first study is focused on the school members responsible for the development of projects related to digital literacies. The second study is a case study that aims to understand the perceptions and use of technologies by teachers and students. Through these studies it is possible to identify the skills profile of school leaders, particularly in terms of digital literacy, and to relate this profile with the local implementation of pedagogical practices involving digital technologies. The results show that as a consequence of the implementation of the Technological Plan for Education, schools were equipped with appropriate technological resources and teachers developed digital literacy skills. Skilled leaders in digital literacy revealed encouraging attitudes towards their colleagues and students. These leaders have a transformational leadership profile that, according to literature, generates a better environment for the involvement of different educational actors.

Glória Bastos, Isolina Oliveira

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Utilisation Skills of Undergraduate Law Students in Nigerian University Law Libraries

The paper investigated ICT utilisation skill of undergraduate law students in Nigerian university law libraries. The objectives of the study were to determine whether ICT sources were available to law students; the frequency of use thereof; how the students sought information on the Internet and the challenges faced by law students using ICT sources in the law libraries. The sampling size consisted of 12 universities, 1534 law students, 12 deans and 12 librarians. Questionnaires were administered to the students, and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from deans and librarians. Observation was also done in the 12 law libraries. Data collected were analysed with Excel Statistical version, while data from the interviews were transcribed and arranged into themes for content analysis. Findings revealed that 90 % of the respondents were ICT literate and could independently search information using ICT facilities from the Internet, though most of the students neither accessed nor used the law library ICT sources. The paper recommends that ICT skill training is included in the law curriculum as a compulsory subject of the law faculties.

Doreen Yemisi Olorunfemi, Bertha Janneke Mostert, Dennis Ngong Ocholla

The Teachers’ Digital Literacy: Determining Digital Divide in Public Basic Schools in Ghana

This study explored the role of the teacher’s digital literacy (TDL) among other schools’ digital culture (SDC) components in determining Digital Divide (DD) among Ghana’s basic schools. A paper-based survey was conducted with teachers and head-teachers from randomly sampled 17 basic schools in various locations in Ghana. The questionnaire was adopted from the Institute for Capacity Building – UNESCO and EU rubrics for measuring ICT in education; and explored nine Digital Culture components including TDL. Data were analysed using K-means Clustering, Correlation analysis, Discriminant analysis, and Independent-samples T-test. The schools were clustered based on SDC components into two DD groups; the principal influencing factors were Teachers’ digital literacy and ICT related policy documents. The school groups particularly differed based on whether they not only had the digital literacy competences, but also applied these competences in their teaching and professional development in schools. We argue that in spite of training for TDL, many schools still lack other digital culture components, and this may hinder them in applying ICT in their schools.

James Sunney Quaicoe, Kai Pata

Doctoral Research on Teachers as Technology Users: Summary of a Work in Progress

This is a summary of a doctoral research study in progress which deals with secondary school teachers, and their use of different forms of information and communication technology (ICT). The particular focus of the study is on the relationships between various teacher-level, societal and contextual factors, and the ways in which these factors either support or constrain technology integration in education. This mixed-method small-scale study was conducted in Latvia and Estonia. Both countries have tried to make digital competences an integral part of every school subject, but there are no formal requirements on how subject teachers should integrate technology into their teaching. As a result, very diverse attitudes towards ICT and technology usage practices emerge. Part of this study was conducted as an action research project, and thus the findings have been utilized in providing recommendations to a group of teachers willing to make technology a more integral part of their teaching.

Agnese Karaseva

IT in Small Czech Schools and the Development of Teachers’ Competences

The paper presents a description of IT use by teachers in small primary and secondary schools in the Czech Republic based on data from 34 schools participating in the INTERES project. Twenty-nine different areas of IT use were analysed by the Profile School21 self-evaluation tool in fall 2014. Findings are not representative but they offer a unique insight into schools with tens of pupils. Limited resources (human, financial, material, time) in these schools can influence their use of IT and contribute to the rural digital divide. The data allow comparisons of small schools with hundreds of schools that had used the same tool previously. IT training sessions held at each school and individual mentoring for teachers were carried out according to the educational needs analysis obtained by the evaluation tool. Field reports and evaluation questionnaires provided data about teachers’ competences in small schools and ideas for further training.

Pavla Kovářová

From Information Literacy Toward Information Illiteracy

The objective of this paper is to explore the concept of information literacy in relation to the constant changes in technology, communication channels and habits. The findings show that new releases of computer programs (software) and devices (hardware), as well as new models of communication tools and channels, services, professional measurement devices, and techniques have a significant role in creating information illiteracy already information literate people. The findings of this work help to better understand the nature of the information literacy phenomenon in modern society. On the one hand, the causes for the accelerating obsolete of skills are linked to technology development in general. On the other hand, the causes are directly linked with the industrial concept of planned obsolescence. This latter concept has a direct impact on the ever faster obsolescence of skills and information literacy.

Ksenija Tokić, Ivo Tokić

Copyright Literacy


Copyright Literacy in the UK: Results from a Survey of Library and Information Professionals

Reports on a survey of ‘copyright literacy’ amongst over 600 UK librarians and related professionals. The study followed reform of UK copyright legislation in 2014. It aimed to provide comparative data to other countries participating in the survey. Bulgaria, Croatia, France and Turkey have to date presented data. Ten countries participated in the second data collection phase. Findings suggest that levels of copyright literacy amongst UK librarians is relatively high, however respondents wanted more education and training. Approximately two thirds of institutions had a copyright policy and a named individual dealing with copyright queries. Almost all respondents believed copyright should be included in the professional training and education of librarians. The findings suggest copyright literacy levels in the UK compare favourably to other countries. However there is a need to increase confidence and knowledge of copyright issues in the sector. Further qualitative research is recommended.

Jane Secker, Chris Morrison

Copyright Literacy in Finnish Libraries, Archives and Museums

Copyright literacy in Finnish libraries, archives, and museums was studied by a web survey as part of a multinational research. The study focused on the awareness concerning national and international copyright legislation and institutions, regulations concerning different aspects of copyright, and sources of copyright information that the respondents would use. 156 completed questionnaires were returned, representing different kinds of memory institutions. The informants were mostly experienced information professionals who were moderately well aware of national legislation and copyright institutions, whereas they were less familiar with respective international regulations. Copyright issues are already and will be in the future even more relevant part of information professional’s expertise and this is emphasized by the need to educate students in this respect.

Terttu Kortelainen

Copyright Literacy of Doctoral Students in France

This paper aims to produce comprehensive knowledge of the copyright literacy of doctoral students in France and to know how familiar they are with copyright issues. In order to achieve this objective, a web-based survey has been conducted. Results show a significant lack of awareness of copyright and intellectual property issues. Furthermore, there is a gap between the general copyright and intellectual property competencies they assess and the level of awareness about more specific items. It also reveals the existence of a relationship between levels of awareness and disciplines, as well as gender and year of study. Students lack training and show preferences for certain types of training and topics.

Joumana Boustany, Annaïg Mahé

Other Literacies


Everyday Health Information Literacy in Counselling on Healthy Eating. The Case of PrevMetSyn

The use of a screening tool for assessing everyday health information literacy (EHIL) is examined in counselling on healthy eating and lifestyle in the intervention study Improved Methods of Lifestyle Modification for Patients at High Risk for Metabolic Syndrome (PrevMetSyn) ongoing in Finland from 2013 to 2016. A case study with quantitative methods is used. The participants in a controlled intervention trial (based on a population-based sample of 560 subjects) were randomized into three groups: (1) intensive face-to-face counselling, (2) low-intensive face-to-face counselling, and (3) a control group, and further into users or non-users of a web-based ICT-programme. All participants’ EHIL was screened at the beginning. The analyses indicated the distributions of the EHIL scores. Accordingly, one visit was targeted on the perceived ability to assess the quality of health information in intensive face-to-face counselling. Applying the EHIL tool together with cognitive behavioral therapy is a novel counselling approach.

Maija-Leena Huotari, Heidi Enwald, Noora Hirvonen, Anna-Maria Keränen, Terhi Jokelainen, Tuire Salonurmi, Raimo Niemelä

Senior Citizens, Media and Information Literacy and Health Information

This study examined the development of information seeking and evaluation of the usefulness and reliability of information, in three information channels, Media, Health specialist and Internet, in the period 2002 to 2012. Random samples were used, participants were categorized into two groups, 60 to 67 years old and 68 years or older. Data analysis was performed with ANOVA (one-way). Health specialists were considered most useful and reliable, although rated lower in 2012 than in 2002. Usefulness and reliability of information in the Media was comparable in 2012 and 2002. Information seeking on the Internet had increased since 2002. The younger group considered the information less useful and reliable in 2012 than in 2002. For the older group the evaluation was identical in 2012 to what it was in 2002. Thus, information seeking on the Internet had increased since 2002 but participants had also become more critical of the information.

Ágústa Pálsdóttir

Searching for Visual Literacy: Secondary School Students are Creating Infographics

Visual literacy is an essential group of competencies for interpreting and generating visual messages within the scope of 21st century skills. More than interpreting visuals, 21st century learners should be equipped with knowledge and ability to generate complex visual messages, which is a harder skill to teach and achieve. In this study, creating infographics is handled as a learning strategy to teach secondary school students how to generate effective visual messages. Research was carried out with the collaboration of science and technology, visual arts, and information technology teachers within a design model research method perspective. The effectiveness of the model is investigated by pre and posttests, retention, and transfer tests. Through the findings on effectiveness of first implementation loop of the infographic design model, a co-constructed design model is proposed. According to the design model proposal, “content” and “visual design” generation was determined central components related to Information Technology, Visual Arts fields for creating infographic.

Pınar Nuhoğlu Kibar, Buket Akkoyunlu

Scientific Literacy and Its Role in Students’ Academic and Professional Development

This paper presents results from the research study of students at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in Zagreb, University of Zagreb, Croatia about their views and perceptions of scientific literacy. The results show that students are interested in scientific discoveries, that they partially have trust in outcomes of scientific research and that they mostly understand work of scientists. To become acquainted with news from science, students use various digital information resources, mostly digital. What is most important, they have clear understanding of what it means to be scientifically literate and what are the competencies that constitute a scientifically literate person. They prefer an institutionalized type of education about science. The results of this research study indicate a mature approach to the understanding of the concept of scientific literacy and that students rely on their knowledge about science and scientific research in their academic (and later in professional) development.

Radovan Vrana

Metadata Literacy Skills: An Analysis of LIS Students

Resource description, one of the key components of the Library and Information Science (LIS) field, represents a set of processes based on standards and changes according to needs and new developments. Resource description processes and utilization of related standards require special skills and competencies for information professionals. Resource description skills are also known and described as metadata literacy skills. Metadata literacy skills are mainly composed of three sets of skills, namely basic skills, information object description skills and decision-making skills. LIS departments play an important role in equipping their students, in other words, future information professionals, with these skills. This study aims to explore the level of metadata literacy skills of undergraduate students in the Department of Information Management of Hacettepe University. A questionnaire was used as a data collection instrument. Findings of the survey indicate that these students have a higher level of confidence regarding basic and information object description skills, in comparison with decision-making skills.

Tolga Çakmak, Serap Kurbanoğlu

Information Literacy Instruction


Argument-Driven Inquiry in the Information Literacy Instruction in Taiwan

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of argument-driven inquiry information literacy (IL) instruction on fifth-graders’ argumentative learning, and teachers’ opinions on the instruction. The research site was a fifth-grade classroom of 30 students in Taiwan and lasted seventeen weeks. IL instruction was taught a period of time per week by a teacher librarian, who collaborated with a classroom teacher. An inquiry project was used in the IL and Chinese courses. The Argument Test was used for the pretest and posttest. Research data was collected from interviews, participant observations, tests, and document analysis. Results showed that argument-driven inquiry was an effective project for cultivating these students’ argument skills; their overall argument performance improved significantly, though some challenges remained. Both the teacher librarian and classroom teacher suggested that we systematically design argument-driven inquiry projects in IL curriculum, to progressively improve students’ argumentative reasoning.

Lin Ching Chen, Yaw-Huei Chen

One Size Doesn’t Fit All – Effectiveness and Subjective Evaluations of Adaptable Information Literacy Instruction

The paper examines whether effects of an adaptable information literacy instruction program are associated with (a) adherence to the recommendations of online learning contents derived from a test of prior knowledge and (b) subjective evaluations of the program. An adaptable blended learning training for German psychology students was evaluated in a study with a pretest-posttest design. N = 64 advanced students completed two tests of scholarly information literacy, an information literacy self-efficacy scale, and an evaluation questionnaire. Participants who worked on more online materials than recommended based on their pretest performance did not differ in their gain scores from participants who exactly followed the recommendations. However, both groups outperformed participants who omitted recommended materials. According to subjective evaluations, the latter participants constitute a “risk group” with low subjective acceptance of online teaching which might need additional support during online learning or alternative forms of instruction.

Anne-Kathrin Mayer, Johannes Peter, Nikolas Leichner, Günter Krampen

Information Problem Solving Instruction in Higher Education: A Case Study on Instructional Design

Information problem solving (IPS) is the process of locating, selecting, evaluating, and integrating information from various sources to fulfill an information need. In academia, it is central to conducting literature reviews in research projects. This paper presents a case study on effective and efficient instructional design for learning this complex skill. It includes an analysis of students’ output and (perceived) studiability of an online IPS-course that was designed according to the 4C/ID-model, a contemporary holistic instructional design model. Results were based on data retrieved from 49 Open University premaster students. The results show that a holistic approach to instructional design is effective: all students passed the course and they appreciated course studiability. However, due to the holistic (‘whole task’) design approach, the students’ time on task was relatively high as was the time teachers spent on providing instructional support, which questions efficiency.

Iwan Wopereis, Jimmy Frerejean, Saskia Brand-Gruwel

Transforming Library Instruction Through Creativity

In this conceptual paper, I provide ideas for challenging library traditions, including the habits of our institution and the habitats they occupy. As librarians, we can encourage play and manage failure through reflection and iteration rather than penalty and closure. Librarians can create a classroom environment that allows for mistakes and child-like inquiry. Once we are less afraid to make mistakes, we open up the environment for play and experimentation. As the stakes for student success in American universities rise, the university library has an opportunity to engage students in their learning through critical pedagogy and reflective information literacy. It is important to establish a sense of adventure in confronting new realities about higher education and the way students learn. As we seek creative solutions in the classroom to stimulate thinking and fuel a renaissance in education for the twenty-first century, the library can lead the way for cross-disciplinary germination.

Zachary Newell

Information Literacy Instruction Methods for Lower Secondary Education in Finland

This paper presents a research plan about information literacy instruction methods for lower secondary education in Finland. The aim of the research is to develop new practices for information literacy instruction in collaboration with the teachers by applying a design-based research approach. Guided Inquiry, a teaching model for information literacy, is used as the pedagogical framework. The research will be conducted as a longitudinal intervention study in a Finnish comprehensive school (grades 7–9). Three modules for information literacy instruction will be designed in cooperation with teachers who have been familiarized with the Guided Inquiry model. The modules will be integrated into three courses taking place during one school year. After evaluation and redesign, the modules will be tested with new pupils the following year. Selected classes not exposed to the intervention are studied as a control group.

Tuulikki Alamettälä

Teaching and Learning Information Literacy


Using Google Sites to Promote 7th Graders’ Information Literacy, Reading Comprehension, and Information Technology Through Inquiry-Based Learning in Taiwan

The purpose of this research is to analyze the effects of collaborative teaching approach and inquiry-based learning (IBL). To facilitate the study, the researcher used Google Sites, an online application, to create a team website. The participants consisted of 28 seventh-grade students, a Teacher Librarian (who is also the teacher of the subject unit) and a Computer Teacher. Quantitative data were collected through information literacy (IL) assessment, PISA, after-class test, IT measurement and questionnaires. Qualitative data were collected through Google Sites documents, interviews, and observations. The findings are: (a) two teachers played essential roles in preparing students with IL, reading comprehension and IT skills through their collaboration and instructional content design; (b) students’ IT skills improved significantly after employing IBL; (c) collaborative teaching and IBL have positive impacts on the development of students’ IL, reading comprehension, curriculum content, and IT skills; (d) the participants’ attitude and perceptions showed positive effects towards the Google Sites collaborative process.

Yuang-Ling Lai, Chin-I Jen

Learning with Social Media: An Information Literacy Driven and Technologically Mediated Experience

This paper summarizes the theories, methods, and results of a doctoral research that integrated social media (SM) in a learning experience for students and explored the roles that information literacy, digital literacy, and new literacies played in such a learning experience. Participatory action research was the methodological approach used for two rounds of data collection, resulting in the development of the research framework ‘Doing Online Relearning through Information Skills’ (DORIS). The data collection methods used included students’ reports, diagnostic, and final questionnaires; and semi-structured interviews. Data analysis relied on content analysis, open coding, and constant comparative analysis. This paper provides a summary of the discussion leading to the answers to the research questions, including topics such as issues and challenges of using SM for learning; participants learning experiences in such a technologically mediated environment, their engagement and the mutual shaping of SM, learning experiences, and literacies.

Juan D. Machin-Mastromatteo

Information Literacy, Games and Gamification


How Can Video Games Facilitate Information Literacy?

The goal of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature on the adoption of video games by educational institutions and libraries in order to facilitate learning and literacy including information literacy among adolescents and young adults. Relevant documents published in a variety of databases between 2003 and 2015 were identified and analyzed. The literature review was organized around five emerging areas: video game literacy, video games in education, game design benefits, video games for reading and writing, and video games and public libraries. These categories are further discussed in this paper. The paper also summarizes the main problems and challenges libraries and educational institutions face in the adoption of video games. Suggestions how public libraries can use video games to attract more users are provided.

Ioanna-Ersi Pervolaraki, Emmanouel Garoufallou, Rania Siatri, Georgia Zafeiriou, Sirje Virkus

Meaningful Implementation of Gamification in Information Literacy Instruction

Today’s information society has brought up a new generation of learners that demands more dynamic and interactive teaching approaches and has to be equipped with new types of skills. Especially in education, gamification has been an emerging trend in the last few years. Game elements and patterns are used to engage students in certain actions and shape their behavior. However, there is a distinction between purely reward-based and meaningful gamification, which can result in high quality learning. The aim of this study is to illustrate the positive effect that meaningful implementation of game elements and patterns can have on behavioral outcomes. Looking at the results of a comprehensive evaluation of The Legend of Zyren reveals that a clever way of implementing the content into the gaming context has a strong influence on both personal engagement and content mastery. The results illustrate that students who were more engaged in the game also had significantly better results in the final exam on information literacy.

Anja Wintermeyer, Kathrin Knautz

Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games and Digital Information Literacy

A contemporary trend in video games are the Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). This paper presents a literature review on the literacy skills that can be developed by playing MMORPGs. The literature review is divided into four sections according to the topics that emerged: (a) definitions and various views of researchers about a digital literate person; (b) the impact of MMORPGs on online learning; (c) the potential of MMORPGs to improve digital information literacy and social skills; and, (d) the influence of MMORPGs on students’ language skills. The current paper contributes to the understanding of the use of MMORPGs to facilitate digital information literacy among adolescents. We also present the main problems and challenges libraries and educational institutions face when adopting MMORPGs.

Ioanna Ersi Pervolaraki, Emmanouel Garoufallou, Rania Siatri, Georgia Zafeiriou, Sirje Virkus

Information Need, Information Behaviour and Use


Field-Specific Information Needs of Doctoral Students in Psychology. A Comparative Study

The purpose of this exploratory study (to be held between February 2015 and June 2016) is to investigate the information needs of doctoral students in the field of psychology. The research will seek to identify the main information challenges and problems of doctoral students in their research process. There are three researched institutions: University of Warsaw, University of Lille 3, and University of California, Berkeley. The study will build upon information literacy (IL), the concept of methodological literacy as well as information behavior, and use of social media in science. The study involves comparisons of how Ph.D. candidates handle their retrieved information, obstacles they meet, and choices they make while searching for information. In 2015, the author conducted a pilot study among Polish and French doctoral students. This paper summarizes the findings at this stage of research.

Zuza Wiorogórska

The Participatory Medicine Attitudes of General Practitioners in Greece: An Information Behaviour Perspective

General Practitioners (GPs) need to keep up with a wide range of medical conditions and at the same time closely interact with their patients to provide preventive care and health education. This requires effectively sourcing, utilizing, and sharing quality information with their patients as well as creating participatory and shared decision-making health environments. This paper explores the information seeking behaviour of GPs and their attitudes towards participatory medicine (PM). A questionnaire based survey with GPs in Greece, registered with the Hellenic Society of General Practitioners (HSGP) was conducted and included an exploration of three different information seeking dimensions (information needs, sources and barriers) that were associated with GPs’ perceptions of PM. The survey results demonstrate an interplay of demographic and contextual factors in the choice of information sources and the barriers encountered and conclude that the effective utilization of online information sources is an essential condition for PM practices.

Petros Kostagiolas, Konstantina Martzoukou, Fivos Kakavitsas, Dimitris Niakas

Supporting the Process: Adapting Search Systems to Search Stages

Search engines have become indispensable tools for the information related tasks performed by a wide variety of searchers across the globe, and the information literacy of these search engine users varies widely. The more complex tasks performed using search engines, involving learning and construction, may consist of multiple stages, potentially affecting searchers’ feelings, thoughts and actions. However, despite recent advances in personalization and contextualization, current search engines do not necessarily support these stages. This conceptual paper discusses the potential impact of search stages on the desired functionality of search systems. First, it looks at process models in the context of information literacy, followed by the support of current search engines for the stages described in these models. Finally, the paper reconciles the information literacy and system perspectives by discussing novel stage-aware search systems.

Hugo C. Huurdeman, Jaap Kamps

Information Seeking Behaviour of Scholars Using Resource Discovery Systems

The purpose of this paper is to conceptualise how academics seek information relevant to their work or study in an academic library context. To accomplish our goals, we involved several stakeholders to better elicit their information seeking behavioural patterns. In this paper we perform a user test which allows us to establish customised information seeking models, which conceptualise the behavioural activity patterns of academic scholars from the information need stage until the termination of the search activity. We also propose suitable user requirements using personas as contextual settings, which might be helpful for informing the design and development of such systems.

Kärt Ots, Fernando Loizides, Sónia Sousa

Usability Evaluation of Information Literacy Programmes: The Case Study of “Orion”

This paper refers to an evaluation project conducted at the Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki during 2014. The project aimed to evaluate the information literacy programme Orion. Orion is a useful tool that constitutes a most vital part of the information literacy skills evolution. The project aimed to evaluate the usability of Orion, specifying whether or not the programme improves information literacy skills of students providing content and functionality excellence. Additionally, it is very important to measure the usability of the structure that the programme follows. The method applied was measuring effectiveness, efficiency, learnability, and satisfaction. Most users appeared to be positively inclined towards the service, but during task performance and as they became more acquainted with the system, they became more critical as they confronted difficulties; such as the terminology used in it.

Emmanouel Garoufallou, Anxhela Dani, Chrysanthi Chatzopoulou, Rania Siatri, Sirje Virkus, Fotis Mystakopoulos, Stavroula Antonopoulou

Reading Preference: Print vs Electronic


Paper or Electronic: Preferences of Slovenian Students

This paper presents Slovenia’s results as part of an international study investigating student preferences of class readings regarding format (print or electronic) and factors impacting these preferences and behaviours. Common beliefs are that digital media is about to prevail over print materials, but several studies have found the contrary: most students still prefer print format over digital for their academic readings. They feel their comprehension and retention is better in print, but they like the convenience and accessibility of electronic. This issue is relevant to both libraries and teachers and instructors. The main research question of this study is: What are students’ format preferences when engaging with their academic readings? Secondary questions ask about the factors that impact their behaviors. An online survey of 25 questions was distributed in spring 2015 to students in different disciplines and levels at three public universities. Results were obtained using descriptive statistical analysis.

Vlasta Zabukovec, Polona Vilar

Students’ Reading Behavior: Digital vs. Print Preferences in Portuguese Context

This paper presents and discusses data from a survey on students’ reading format preferences and behavior considering digital or print options. The questionnaire was administered in Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Portugal, and 262 complete answers were gathered, mainly from undergraduates. The analysis of the results will be contextualized on a literature review concerning youngsters’ reading format preferences. The importance of language and text dimension to determine the preference format is discussed. Format influence in the students reading behavior, including aspects such as ability to remember, opinions on access convenience, active engagement with the text by highlighting and annotating, and ability to review and concentrate on the text will be analyzed.

Ana Lúcia Terra

Reading Format Preferences of Finnish University Students

The reading format preferences of Finnish university students were studied as part of an international research project. The research material was compiled by a web based questionnaire sent to 18 universities in Finland and over 600 completed questionnaires were received. Printed class readings were preferred by a clear majority of informants, especially if the texts are long. However, only less than half of the informants would want all course materials in print format, often due to ecological reasons. Moreover, electronic publications are easy to store on a computer, and there is also a minority preferring electronic format, especially among students of technology. In most cases also informants with visual limitation preferred printed format to electronic, suggesting to the need for further develop the latter group.

Terttu Kortelainen

The More they Tried it the Less they Liked it: Norwegian and Romanian Student’s Response to Electronic Course Material

In this paper we will present and compare survey findings from Romania and Norway taken from the “Multinational study on students’ preferences regarding print versus electronic resources for course readings”. This study was conducted in April 2015 and surveyed undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students of various subjects at different universities. The aim was to investigate students’ format preferences when engaging with academic readings and what factors impact their preferences and behaviors. The comparative study will show whether students’ reading format preferences vary or remain consistent across multi-national student populations. We also make comparisons with results from an earlier study of Romanian and Norwegian students’ attitudes towards using academic libraries. In particular, we look at the reasons given for preferring course readings in either electronic or print format, and we discuss what this could mean for collection development policies.

Ane Landøy, Angela Repanovici, Almuth Gastinger

Information Literacy in Higher Education


Perception of Information Literacy Among Faculty at the University of Graz, Tallinn University, and University of Zagreb

The way university academic staff perceive, promote, and practice information literacy (IL) becomes a topic of great importance to IL education. The tendency towards IL education as an integrated or embedded part of the curriculum and curriculum design where students have ongoing interaction and reflection with information, give academic staff an increasingly important role. A semi-structured interview was used as a method of collecting data on the perception of IL among academic staff at three universities in Europe. The following aspects of IL were explored: awareness of IL, attitudes towards IL, motivation for IL facilitation, IL experiences and IL requirements expected from students. Since the interviewed academics were from three different disciplines (business administration, information science, information systems), subject related differences in the perceptions of IL were investigated.

Valentina Kirinić, Christian Schlögl, Sirje Virkus

The Enactment of Information Literacy: An Exploratory Study Among Interdisciplinary PhD Students

This paper reports a practice-based study of the enactment of information literacy (IL) in a network of interdisciplinary PhD students. Previous research on this topic is scarce. The empirical material was produced through semi-structured interviews and work-place visits. It is concluded that the enactment of IL in the practice under study is a collectively sustained project that unfolds in dialogue with others and through interaction with material objects. This process comprises activities such as participation in seminars and conferences, which offer opportunities for discussions about work in progress, and is situated in socio-material practices shaped by historically developed conceptions of what it means to be an interdisciplinary researcher.

Ola Pilerot, Louise Limberg

Systemic Disturbances in Thesis Production Processes

This paper discusses disturbances in thesis production processes that lead to anomalies in information use such as insufficient referencing and plagiarism in theses made in Finnish universities of applied sciences. We develop discussion concerning systemic dynamics of these anomalies. Four different cases of information use which are the result of vague referencing or plagiarism, and the possible solutions are presented. The librarians’ role on the borderline between traditional intermediary positions and their potential for more interventionist ones are discussed. Librarians can contribute to the thesis production processes in which several cultures of information seeking and use meet and challenge each other. Thesis production and evaluation processes are not homogenous. Instead, elements of machine-like systems as well as those of individuals’ unique being-in-the-world contexts appear together forming colonies of information use practices that can ignore problems in references and information seeking or allow plagiarism.

Juha Kämäräinen, Erja Moore, Ilkka Mönkkönen, Jarmo Saarti

Evaluation of Information Literacy of Slovenian University Students

This contribution summarizes the results of the evaluation of information literacy (IL) of 677 higher education students enrolled in study programs of life sciences, health, technologies, and social sciences at six Slovenian faculties. The information literacy test (ILT) that was developed, verified and validated by the authors in a previous work served as the IL measuring instrument. Statistical analyses of ILT responses were performed in SPSS. The results suggest that, on average, Slovenian students’ IL is satisfactory and improves with years of education. On average, students know information sources and adequately evaluate the collected information. They possess skills to use the information in academic work and to synthesize data into knowledge. However, students are less proficient in advanced search strategies available in scientific and patent databases. The main deficit in students’ knowledge is evident in topics related to intellectual property rights and in ethical issues related to acquisition and use of information. Students that participated in an IL-specific study course significantly improved their ILT achievement, most significantly in topics where their pre-knowledge was lower.

Bojana Boh Podgornik, Danica Dolničar, Andrej Šorgo, Tomaž Bartol

Information Literacy and Information Culture in Higher Education Institutions in Estonia

Information culture is an important component of an organization. This paper focuses on the information culture of higher education institutions (HEIs) in Estonia and reports the results of a study that aimed to explore the relationship between information culture including information literacy, information management and satisfaction with job and leadership as well as self-reported individual performance. Factor analysis revealed three types of information culture: (1) integrated; (2) pro-active; and (3) informal. A significant correlation was found between information culture with integrated information sharing and use (type 1), and satisfaction with job and leadership as well as self-reported individual performance. It could be suggested that the construct of information culture consisting of values, norms and behaviours related to information sharing and use in organisations is a valuable construct in analysing information environments and relations with job satisfaction, leadership style and self-reported performance of HEIs in Estonia.

Liia Lauri, Mati Heidmets, Sirje Virkus

Two Years of Information Culture Development for Supporting Higher Education: Initiatives, Teacher’s Perceptions and Future Actions

Information Culture Development (ICD) is a holistic information literacy program that was established in 2013 and developed at CETYS Universidad in Mexico. ICD caters to all university stakeholders with different initiatives that are contained within ICD’s four axes: (a) curriculum and learning support, (b) information and digital literacies development, (c) research and scientific communication support, and (d) evaluation and communication of results. This article presents such initiatives and the instruments used to evaluate them. Moreover, it analyses recent interviews with eight academic staff that have known of and benefited from these initiatives, both for themselves and for their students. The data analysis offers a means of determining ICD’s role in supporting the development of an information culture and positively influencing teaching, learning and research practices in the university. Furthermore, academic staff insights help guide the program’s further development, by pointing toward the need for future actions and strategies.

Juan D. Machin-Mastromatteo

Scholarly Competencies


Learning Scholarly Information Competencies in the Community of Practice: A Case Study of Polish Critical Pedagogy Researchers

The present paper presents the findings of research conducted in 2014/2015. The aim of the research was to understand how members of a particular academic community learn scholarly information competencies, wherein learning was perceived as a social and cultural phenomenon and, especially, as a practice. The research methodology was based on semi-structured interviews with individual members of the community and focus-group interviews. The community under study consisted of Polish critical pedagogy researchers. My investigations drew on Schatzki, Lave, and Wenger for the theoretical and philosophical underpinnings of the qualitative data analysis. The research showed that being a part of the community of practice offers multiple opportunities to learn scholarly information literacy. However, at the same time, being inside and co-creating a community does not necessarily entail new scholarly information competencies since the group may hinder the inclusion of new practices.

Ewa A. Rozkosz

Creation and Implementation of Interactive Model for Training of Academic Authors: How to Publish Successfully Research Publications

Research reliability, innovation policy as requirements of program Horizon 2020 provoke processes of self-assessment, monitoring, result measurement including ethic and social impact. This article proposes matrix for competences’ assessment and quality improvement of authors of research papers. The model offers interactive tools for: information search, evaluation, investigation and management of research reports. It integrates interactive tool for training of publishers, authors, students or successful publishing in internationally influential scholarly journals. The model is oriented towards the target groups of researchers – professors, associate professors, assistants, graduate students, research teams from educational and cultural institutions The methodology consists of: (1) interdisciplinary science metrics’ modeling of the processes of distribution of research papers in scholar publications integrated in system of impact improvement of scientific publications; (2) informing, consulting, training of the target groups. The projected result is to obtain measurement and comparison of research based on the implementation of the model.

Ivanka Yankova, Rumelina Vasileva, Tzvetelina Dimitrova, Kamelia Nusheva

Information Literacy, Libraries and Librarians


Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes of Librarians in Developing Library Users’ Information Literacy

The objective of this study was to explore how Estonian librarians assess their information literacy (IL) and which knowledge, skills and attitudes they consider important in facilitating the development of IL of library users. The research strategy chosen was a multiple case study. Document analysis, semi-structured interviews, and expert interviews were the main data collection methods. The study results revealed that librarians needed knowledge and skills in pedagogy and andragogy, instructional design, information technology, foreign languages, marketing, information sources and databases as well as on the learning domain. They also highlighted social skills and found that personal characteristics and attitudes of librarians were very important in facilitating IL. The study participants expressed the view that all librarians and information professionals must be able to advise users individually to facilitate their IL, but not all should be required to deliver courses and lectures for a group of students or library users.

Jaana Kulbin, Sirje Virkus

Building an Information Literacy Program for High School Students of Greece in Close Cooperation with a Local Special Library

This paper investigates the context in which a special library of academic standards could contribute to the work of Secondary Education teachers towards the strengthening of their students’ information skills as a preparation for their smoother transition to University-Level research environment. We describe the collaboration of the scientific library of Eugenides Foundation with two different nearby public schools, for the creation of a project on astronomy. Concerning our research methods, we followed the model of action research, as we needed active participation and dynamic reflection of the learners during the learning process. Despite the various limitations, the outcomes of the whole effort were very positive and led us to the conclusion that close collaboration between high school teachers and the librarians even of an Off-Site library can build on students’ low level information skills in order to reach a high level learning experience.

Hara Brindesi, Maria K. Diakonou, Sotirios Tsantilas, Sarantos Kapidakis

Public Libraries and Their Roles Within the Context of e-Government Literacy

Advancements in management approaches introduced the e-government model through developing information technologies. Additionally, roles of public libraries and librarians were identified in order to increase e-government use. Furthermore, trainings on e-government literacy become a significant part of public library services provided with traditional services. This study aims to reveal how roles and responsibilities of public libraries and librarians are conceptually defined and evaluated in the scope of e-government literacy. In this regard, similar cases are also examined and evaluated. According to results obtained from the literature review and statistics, it is emphasized that public libraries and librarians in Turkey can play an active role in order to provide efficient use of e-government services. It is also recommended in the study that public libraries should be well structured between the government and the society to which they belong.

Şahika Eroğlu

Information Literacy in Different Context


Understanding the Field of Critical Information Literacy: A Descriptive Analysis of Scientific Articles

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of critical perspectives in information literacy whose importance has been recognized by a number of authors in the field. This paper is a preliminary report on a research project that aims to describe the field of critical information literacy (CIL) based on a comprehensive descriptive statistical analysis of the qualities of CIL literature. The analysis was undertaken on a sample of 102 full-text scientific and professional articles. The sample was created based on a preliminary analysis of Google Scholar, SCOPUS and WOS databases. The authors present findings on the established authorship, publication and research patterns in the field.

Denis Kos, Sonja Špiranec

How Do Home Educating Families’ Experiences of Information Literacy Relate to Existing Models?

In this paper the researcher discusses the findings of a small research project which explored the information literacy experiences of five home educating families and shows how these findings can be related to existing research on information literacy. The research was constructivist with a grounded approach to data analysis and involved in-depth interviews with family groups. This paper suggests that models of information literacy that focus on the situated and the transformative have resonance for the experiences of home educating families.

Jessica Elmore

Prismatic Realities: Multidisciplinary and Interdisciplinary Cultures and Implications for Information Literacy in Visual Studies: The Case of History of Photography

The specialized field of history of photography (HP) is continually evolving, and its capability to use an historical image as explanatory lens, challenges students navigating the scholarly literature, with implications for information literacy and scholarly communication. How is HP constructed, or mediated via different disciplinary perspectives? Within the domain of visual studies, finding the best way to introduce users to the disciplinary cultures that animate HP is imperative for helping them appreciate the complexity and influence on scholarly communication within the wider scope of visual studies and literacy. Too often the first recourse is fine arts literature and not the richly layered literature appearing in other disciplines—therefore this diagrammatic, and graphical presentation is proposed to inform their information needs and strategies. Predicated upon a definitional conceptual model of disciplinary culture and disciplinary formation informing information literacy, this presentation can be applicable to other humanities disciplinary instruction.

Jean-Pierre V. M. Hérubel

Exploring the Information Literacy Experiences of ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) Learners: A Discussion of Methods

The paper shares the early stages of doctoral research; discussing the research questions, methods and pilot study findings. The full research will be a longitudinal case study of three community ESOL classes in England. ESOL learners are adult migrants who are learning English and are typically very different from the higher education student who is the focus of much information literacy research. The paper discusses the challenges of the pilot study and looks forward to the full data collection which will use a range of participatory methods.

Jessica Elmore


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