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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Conference on Information Systems for Crisis Response and Management in Mediterranean Countries, ISCRAM-med 2016, held in Madrid, Spain, in October 2016.
Information systems and technologies can play a key role in crisis management in order to support preparation, response, mitigation and recovery processes. Yet technology is not enough to guarantee a better management process, and therefore the conference does not only focus on engineering technologies, but also on their application and practical experiences.
The 12 full and 8 short papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from 36 submissions. They are organized in topical sections on mobile apps for citizens, modeling and simulation, development of information systems, information and knowledge management, collaboration and coordination, social computing, and issues in humanitarian crisis.



Mobile Apps for Citizens


Emergency Management and Smart Cities: Civic Engagement Through Gamification

Nowadays, an increasing amount of cities tend to improve their community life applying smart city principles. The basic idea is to connect citizens to each other, to services, infrastructures and political and non-political organizations to take advantage of a continuous collective collaboration. In this context, the Emergency Management (EM) process becomes a critical aspect. It can exploit the citizens and organizations collaboration to reduce the risks of emergencies and the response time, to act more efficiently and with a better awareness. In this paper, we describe the redesign of an Emergency Notification (EN) application that is part of a set of applications aimed at providing citizens and organizations with easy and immediate means to cooperate. The redesign is based on Gamification and the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) principles in order to improve the user experience and foster the civic participation. The new gamified design was evaluated through an exploratory focus group involving common citizens and practitioners.
Marco Romano, Paloma Díaz, Ignacio Aedo

Improving First Aid Skills: How Local Conceptions of Risk Influence User Engagement with the First Aid App in Israel and Malta

First Aid Apps enable the public to learn skills that could save their lives and increase their resilience. A comparative review of the adoption of the First Aid App by Red Cross National Societies revealed context specific factors influencing local app engagement. Drawing on these differences, this paper compares engagement in response to critical events in Israel and Malta. Whilst Malta has been consistently ranked as the second most natural disaster risk free nation, Israel has been plagued by a variety of ongoing conflict related crises. This paper discusses local attitudes to risk and their influence on community engagement with the app. The evidence indicates that local conceptions of risk not only influence app engagement but also the motivations for adopting the app, the development of the app and the ability to retain the public’s interest in the app.
Susan Anson, Maurice Said, Hayley Watson, Kush Wadhwa

Scenario-Based Evaluation of 112 Application “Pomoc”

In this paper evaluation of 112 application “Pomoc” (“Help” in English) is presented. Application provides functionalities of calling European emergency number 112 with automatically sending GPS-based (General Positioning System) location of calling person. Evaluation was realized in the form of scenario-based table-top exercise, where experts from the area of emergency and crisis management could observe potential benefits of using application “Pomoc” in simulated trains crash. Application has been developed during the EU 7th Framework Programme project SOTERIA, which deals with On-line and Mobile Communications for Emergencies (http://​soteria.​i112.​eu/​). Paper presents also possibilities and benefits, which were discussed during the exercise, of using social media in crisis and emergency situations. Application “Pomoc” is currently in prototype version, not integrated with 112 system yet.
Anna Stachowicz, Marcin Przybyszewski, Jan Zych, Patrycja Młynarek, Rafał Renk

Modelling and Simulation


SPRITE – Participatory Simulation for Raising Awareness About Coastal Flood Risk on the Oleron Island

Coastal flood is a major risk for the French Atlantic coast and its island territories, and its management is a key issue for local authorities. Good management of this risk requires understanding the need for a trade-off between occupant safety, attractiveness of the island, environmental development, costs minimisation and population satisfaction. But such a trade-off can be difficult to find and to understand, for both decision makers and the population. SPRITE is a serious game aiming to answer this problem by placing the player in the role of a decision maker and letting them explore various (more or less balanced) policies. The knowledge gained from playing SPRITE can benefit both decision makers, enabling them to make more informed decisions, and residents, helping them to understand the issues involved in territory management.
Carole Adam, Franck Taillandier, Etienne Delay, Odile Plattard, Mira Toumi

BDI Modelling and Simulation of Human Behaviours in Bushfires

Each summer in Australia, bushfires burn many hectares of forest, causing deaths, injuries, and destruction of property. Emergency management strategies rely on expected citizens’ behaviour which differs from reality. In order to raise their awareness about the real population behaviour, we want to provide them with a realistic agent-based simulation. The philosophically-grounded BDI architecture provides a very suitable approach but is little used due to the lack of adapted tools. This paper uses this case study to illustrate two new tools to fill this gap: the Tactics Development Framework (TDF) and GAMA BDI architecture.
Carole Adam, Geoffrey Danet, John Thangarajah, Julie Dugdale

Obtaining Optimal Bio-PEPA Model Using Association Rules: Approach Applied to Tuberculosis Case Study

The computational modelling has been applied in several works, which exert considerable positive impact, particularly in epidemiological field. However, modelling epidemics is very sensitive where selecting appropriate feature and model structure is challenging task for experts and epidemiologists. To overcome this limitation, we presented in previous work a methodology combining computational modelling and decision tree techniques. The approach has been validated on tuberculosis case study. Therefore, as comparative study, we propose here to apply association rules algorithms. The results indicate the epidemiological relevance of the extracted rules. Thus, the enhanced Bio-PEPA model demonstrates the robustness of the proposed approach.
Dalila Hamami, Baghdad Atmani

Optimization of Orchestration of Geocrowdsourcing Activities

In this paper, we describe a process that can be used to assess a global situation on a map using a combination of services and user operations. We want to understand how best to distribute a limited amount of human actions between different kinds of tasks in order to get the most reliable result. Since it is difficult to conduct experimentation, we have decided to use simulation to reach a result that could be applied on the ground. This simulation relies on a geolocalised corpus of tweets. It provides some hints about how to deploy an exercise on the ground that are discussed as a conclusion.
Kahina Bessai, François Charoy

Development of Information Systems


Visual Synthesis of Evolutionary Emergency Scenarios

During an emergency situation, decision makers are faced with the problem to quickly analyze large amounts of data related to the involved geographical area in order to grasp a comprehensive overview of the scenario of interest and manage the response activities. The success of those activities heavily depends on the availability of tools which allow them to extract and adequately represent relevant and timely information out of huge sets of (georeferenced) data. During the last 15 years researchers have long strived to define geovisual analytics methods and techniques, which support decision making in time-critical emergency response activities, such as evacuation planning and management. Such methods allow domain experts to visualize the status of the crisis, plan the evacuation and address people towards vacancies in emergency shelters. However, several issues remain to be addressed especially related to the need to make quick decisions in case of emergency scenarios which evolve differently from what one was expecting and from the devised emergency management plan. The research we are carrying out is meant to define an innovative paradigm for human-(geo)information discourse, which could expedite the analysis activities needed to make decisions on crisis management actions. The integrated visual system we describe in the paper allows domain experts, decision makers and any other emergency operator to analyze qualitative data about a geographical area, which may change vigorously with respect to both time and space and whose size represents a critical factor in the efficiency of management activities.
Monica Sebillo, Maurizio Tucci, Giuliana Vitiello

Modeling Emergency Care Process Taking into Account Its Flexibility

It is widely recognized that the development of business processes (BPs), in the healthcare field, has a deep need of BP flexibility. This is due to changes that take place frequently. Hence, flexibility is one of the most overriding concepts in Healthcare. Since the Emergency departments are very complex, the processes structure has to be dynamically adapted and changed, specifically when dealing with crisis and disasters such as terrorist attack, earthquake, and hurricane, which often affect a high number of people. In such cases, the execution of the established plans is often perturbed. To allow flexible emergency care (EC) processes modeling, we have chosen the AristaFlow BPM suite as well as jBPM BPMSs.
Asma Mejri, Sonia Ayachi Ghannouchi, Ricardo Martinho

Information and Knowledge Management


Coordination Mining in Crisis: A Tool and a Case Study

Crisis management systems are dynamic systems essentially build to support communication and coordination between heterogeneous, distributed and autonomous actors belonging to different organizations. In this paper, we are particularly interested in coordination. We show how the analysis of the interactions among the crisis actors can help discovering meaningful coordination patterns: organizational structures and interaction protocols. To do so, we use workflow mining techniques. Since workflow mining techniques are mainly focused on process (plan) discovery, we show how to extend them to be applied to the organizational and interactional dimensions. We use the Multi-agent paradigm to abstract these two dimensions in a uniform and coherent framework, and we provide a tool for their discovery. The contribution of this paper is three-folds: (i) a proposition of new log-file structure including Agent Communication Language performatives to capture interaction and relationships between actors; (ii) the design and implementation of a tool able to discover and analyze organizational structures and protocols; and (iii) the validation of this tool through a concrete example concerning the cooperative response of the Tunisian government to the terrorist attack of Bardo museum on March 18, 2015.
Chihab Hanachi, Manel Tahari, Meriem Riahi

A Rule-Based Computer-Aided System for Managing Home Accidents in Childhood

Home accidents are one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. First aids can in these situations help to initiate early treatment, which in turn may prevent death. Measures to improve emergency and medical treatment in the early phase may therefore help to save lives and reduce suffering. Home accidents require immediate attention but in Algeria, the problem is that majority of hospitals is usually concentrated around the urban areas and rural areas lack of emergency centers. In such situations, the parents must provide first aid until help arrives or carry the child to the nearest emergency center. Unfortunately, the first aid knowledge level among the parents is lower than expected. Therefore, the study aims to assist parents to the most common first aid emergency situations. We proposed a web-based expert system for the management of home accidents in collaboration with the pediatric intensive care unit of Oran’s Hospital.
Baya Naouel Barigou, Baghdad Atmani, Fatiha Barigou

Collaboration and Coordination


Building City Resilience Through Collaborative Networks: A Literature Review

Cities are interconnected and interdependent systems rather than isolated entities that face risks. Building resilient cities requires not only the government will, but also the involvement of different city stakeholders such as citizens, emergency services, academic, educational and scientific entities, and public and private organizations. Collaborative networks are relationships and partnerships between different stakeholders which provide opportunities to share information, knowledge, and to negotiate shared goals and issues. The involvement of the city stakeholders in collaborative networks during the emergency management phases (mitigation and preparation, response, and recovery) can contribute to improving city resilience. We carried out a literature review for obtaining an overview of the academic research that analyzes the contribution of collaborative networks and information systems to improving city resilience. Based on the literature review, this study suggests five resilience principles (collaboration and networking, learning, training and preparedness, awareness and commitment) that can improve through collaborative networks. Furthermore, specific examples of disasters and emergencies in which these principles have been implemented towards building resilience are illustrated.
Raquel Gimenez, Leire Labaka, Josune Hernantes

Towards Integral Security Concepts for Government Buildings Through Virtual Facility Reconstruction

This paper presents VASCO, a Virtual Studio for Security Concepts and Operations. It is based on an innovative multifunctional ICT platform that enhances security design and strengthens security measures for government buildings. VASCO enables security professionals to virtually reconstruct government buildings, their surrounding environment and overlay their existing security means. The security community can validate actual solutions and search for the best practices by simulating diverse types of threats in high-resolution, realistic though virtual environments. Responding to an emergency, which involves a multitude of affected stakeholders and actors necessitates the involvement of a number of state owned agents and organizations. The need for making decisions using a common operational view, sharing information, exchanging data and planning coordinated actions is prerequisite. VASCO is a solution aiming to provide an important leap from present-day security planning methodologies and tools, to more sophisticated and efficient security solutions.
Georgios Leventakis, George Kokkinis, Athanasios Sfetsos

Work Practice in Situation Rooms – An Ethnographic Study of Emergency Response Work in Governmental Organizations

This paper presents ethnographic accounts from multiple studies on situation room work in governmental organizations. The purpose of this paper is to make visible aspects of the work practice and provide triggers for future discussions regarding how such work practices could be supported with improved information technology. The findings show the collaborative nature of situation room work and how a variety of information technologies are embedded and intertwined in the practice. Assembling, monitoring, exploring, converging, and consolidating are key activities in a general work pattern in situation rooms.
Jonas Landgren, Fredrik Bergstrand

Mediation Information System Engineering Applied to the Crisis Simulation

Decision makers have to face an increasing number of disasters, natural or human-made, which complexity can be various (e.g. from a flood in a specific area to a CBRN accident), and across geographical and policy borders. To face the unexpected, practitioners commonly use simulation tools and train themselves on various situations. However, while simulation has become a cornerstone of the crisis management topic, plenty of simulation tools have been implemented for a lot of different applications and it is sometimes hard to choose the right set of tools to use together to better solve particular crisis situations. To avoid a waste of time and resources, and to foster the reuse of existing crisis simulation tools, this paper proposes a platform to (i) identify simulation tools, (ii) support interoperability among the tools by inferring simulation workflows that invoke the tools and (iii) execute those simulation workflows to improve crisis responses.
Aurélie Montarnal, Anne-Marie Barthe-Delanoë, Sébastien Truptil, Frédérick Bénaben, Audrey Fertier

Social Computing


Analyzing and Visualizing Emergency Information in a Multi Device Environment

The information shared by people through social networks and ad-hoc collaborative applications can help emergency operation centers to understand better the situation and orchestrate a more efficient response. However, collecting and analyzing data generated by citizens is a challenging task due to the quantity and the heterogeneity of sources, not all of them equally reliable and precise. In this paper, we propose a multi device environment called emerCienMDE to allow emergency operators to gather, analyze and visualize these data interacting with different devices, such as tabletops, vertical displays, desktop computers or tablets. The environment is based on an ecology of participants that distinguish among different types of citizens, depending on their trustworthiness and skills. An exploratory focus group carried out with several emergency experts pointed out interesting findings about the integration of the citizen generated information into crisis centers being aware of the source and level of trust.
Paloma Diaz, Teresa Onorati, Sergio del Olmo Pueblas

Which Centrality Metric for Which Terrorist Network Topology?

Recently, an exponential growth in the use of social network analysis (SNA) tools has been witnessed. SNA offers quantitative measures known as centralities which allow the identification of important nodes in a given network. In fact, determining such nodes in terrorist networks is a way to destabilize these cells and prevent their criminal activities. Identifying key players is highly dependent on structural characteristics of nodes. Therefore, many approaches rely on centrality metrics to propose various disruption strategies. Indeed, knowledge of these measures helps in revealing vulnerabilities of terrorist networks and may have important implications for investigations. It is debatable how to choose the suitable centrality measure that helps effectively to destabilize the terrorist network. In this paper, we aim to answer this question. We first provide an analytical study where we identify 6 topologies of terrorist networks and discuss the appropriate metrics per topology. Secondly, we provide the performed experimental analysis on five data sets (with 5 different topologies) to prove our analytical conclusions.
Imen Hamed, Malika Charrad, Narjès Bellamine Ben Saoud

Issues in Humanitarian Crisis


Towards an Agent-Based Humanitarian Relief Inventory Management System

Natural disasters have reached unpredictable intensity around the world during the last two decades. Therefore, rapid response to the urgent relief in an efficient way is necessary for alleviation of disaster impact in the affected areas. Humanitarian Supply Chain Management plays a crucial role for disaster response management. Warehouse and inventory management is a key activity. Its effectiveness and efficiency are challenging issues during emergency response. In fact, by ensuring appropriate fast and well organized distribution of emergency relief supplies, damages would be mitigated and more lives saved. This paper draws first a literature review to better define humanitarian supply chain management and highlight inventory management characteristics and needs in a post-disasters context. An agent-based model and a simulator are developed in order to enable decision makers find efficient scenarios to respond effectively to urgent requests following a disaster. First simulation results are discussed.
Maroua Kessentini, Narjès Bellamine Ben Saoud, Sami Sboui

Knowledge Management for the Support of Logistics During Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR)

Knowledge Management can be essential for handling disaster information, creating knowledge bases that can cover very complex events and can vary in size and type. The challenge is to establish mechanisms for the correlation of data coming from various sources to support the Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR). We propose a method for multi-source information correlation using an approach based on the sudoku principles to determine which record pairs have to be considered, for comparison. This paper presents a system which can aid in early warning and provide decision support for disaster response and recovery management through the integration of heterogeneous data sources form different organizations.
Francesca Fallucchi, Massimiliano Tarquini, Ernesto William De Luca

Sentiment Analysis of Media in German on the Refugee Crisis in Europe

Since the summer of 2015, the refugee crisis in Europe has grown to be one of the biggest challenges Europe has faced since WW2. The development of this humanitarian crisis are the topic of discussions throughout Europe and covered by media on a daily basis. Germany in particular has been the focus of migration. Over time, in Germany and the neighboring German speaking countries a shift could be observed, from the initial hospitable Willkommenskultur (welcome culture), to more reserved and skeptical points of view. These factors - Germany as the prime-destination for migrants, as well as a shift in public perception and media coverage - are the motivation for our analysis. The current article investigates the coverage of this crisis on traditional and social media, employing sentiment analysis to detect tendencies and relates these to real-world events. To this end, sentiment analysis was applied to textual documents of a data-set collected from relevant and highly circulated German, Austrian and Swiss traditional media sources and from social media in the course of six months from October 2015 to March of 2016.
Gerhard Backfried, Gayane Shalunts


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