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Chapter 5. Intelligent Interaction in Accessible Applications

Advances in artificial intelligence over the past decade, combined with increasingly affordable computing power, have made new approaches to accessibility possible. In this chapter we describe three ongoing projects in the Department of Computer Science at North Carolina State University. CAVIAR, a Computer-vision Assisted Vibrotactile Interface for Accessible Reaching, is a wearable system that aids people with vision impairment (PWVI) in locating, identifying, and acquiring objects within reach; a mobile phone worn on the chest processes video input and guides the user’s hand to objects via a wristband with vibrating actuators. TIKISI (Touch It, Key It, Speak It), running on a tablet, gives PWVI the ability to explore maps and other forms of graphical information. AccessGrade combines crowd-sourcing with machine learning techniques to predict the accessibility of Web pages.

Sina Bahram, Arpan Chakraborty, Srinath Ravindran, Robert St. Amant

Sparse Signal Reconstruction: LASSO and Cardinality Approaches

The paper considers several optimization problem statements for sparse signal reconstruction problems. We tested the performance of AORDA portfolio safeguard (PSG) package with different problem formulations. We solved several medium-size test problems with cardinality functions: (a) minimize L1-error of regression subject to a constraint on cardinality of the solution vector; (b) minimize cardinality of the solution vector subject to a constraint on L1-error of regression. We compared performance of PSG and IBM CPLEX solvers on these problems. Although cardinality formulations are very appealing because of the direct control of the number of nonzero variables, large problems are beyond the reach of the tested commercial solvers. Step-down from the cardinality formulations is the formulation with the constraint on the sum of absolute values of the solution vector. This constraint is a relaxation of the cardinality constraint. Medium and large problems (from SPARCO toolbox for testing sparse reconstruction algorithms) were solved with PSG in the following formulation: minimize L1-error subject to a constraint on the sum of absolute values of the solution vector. The further step-down in the sparse reconstruction problem formulations is the LASSO approach which does not have any constraints on functions. With the LASSO approach you do not know in advance the cardinality of the solution vector and you solve many problems with different regularization parameters. Then you select a solution with appropriate regression error and cardinality. Definitely, it is a time-consuming process, but an advantage of LASSO approach is that optimization problems can be solved quite quickly even for very large problems. We have solved with PSG several medium and large problems from the SPARCO toolbox in LASSO formulation (minimize L2-error plus the weighted sum of absolute values of the solution vector).

Nikita Boyko, Gulver Karamemis, Viktor Kuzmenko, Stan Uryasev

Open Access

Chapter 3. “Vision 2050” to the Rescue of a “Limited Earth”

Next let us consider the second paradigm—“The Limited Earth.” The problems caused by the fact that the Earth is limited are far-reaching. These include not only energy, resources, global warming, air pollution, water pollution, ground pollution, food, and water, but also—if we think broadly—such problems as the widescale spread of infectious diseases of people and livestock. The reason is that the probability of virus mutation and transmission increases along with the probability that wild animals come into contact with livestock, livestock with other livestock, humans with livestock, and so on. And in turn, the probability of contact on the limited surface of the Earth increases in proportion to the square of the population density.

Hiroshi Komiyama

Chapter 5. Generalized Linear Models and Extensions

The generalized linear model (GLM) is reviewed and the log-linear models are integrated in this family. For GLMs, maximum likelihood estimation, model fit, and model selection are discussed. In the GLM framework the analysis of incomplete tables is more straightforward. The quasi-independence model is defined and illustrated in


. Furthermore, the family of generalized log-linear models (GLLMs) is briefly presented and a GLLM is illustrated with a representative example in



Maria Kateri

Chapter 4. Log-Linear Models

The classical log-linear models are introduced for two-way and multi-way contingency tables. Estimation theory, goodness-of-fit testing, and model selection procedures are discussed. Characteristic examples are worked out in


and interpreted. Log-linear models for three-dimensional tables are illustrated through mosaic plots. Graphical models are shortly discussed. Finally the collapsibility in multi-way tables, in connection to Simpson’s paradox, is addressed.

Maria Kateri

Chapter 6. Association Models

The association models, appropriate for the analysis of ordinal contingency tables, are presented for two-way and multi-way contingency tables. Their features, properties, and the associated graphs are discussed. The models of uniform association (U), row effect (R), column effect (C), multiplicative row–column effect (RC), and the more general RC(


) model are illustrated with examples in terms of fit, presentation, and interpretation. They are all worked out in


, through functions provided for their fit and the construction of their scores’ plots.

Maria Kateri

Chapter 10. Further Topics

This epilogue chapter refers briefly to alternative methods and approaches in the analysis of contingency tables (latent class models, graphical models, and smoothing), not covered in the book. Furthermore, a bibliography on small sample inference, Bayesian inference, and the analysis of high-dimensional sparse contingency tables is discussed.

Maria Kateri

Chapter 7. More on Association Models and Related Methods

Advanced issues on association models are discussed in this chapter. These include exploring the rows and/or columns heterogeneity in a contingency table, the issue of merging categories of a classification variable, and the consideration of association models for generalized odds ratios other than the local odds ratios. The uniform association model for the global odds ratios is illustrated with an example in


. Correspondence analysis (CA) is also presented and connected to association models. For comparison purposes, CA is applied in


on one of the examples analyzed in Chap. 6 by association models.

Maria Kateri

Chapter 1. Introduction

Preliminary material on scales, distributions, and inferential procedures for categorical data is briefly presented. Classes of models, usually applied for categorical data analysis, are introduced and discussed. Finally, the outline of the book is presented.

Maria Kateri

Chapter 3. Analysis of Multi-way Tables

Issues discussed in Chap.2 for two-way tables are extended to multi-way contingency tables. Emphasis is given to clarifying the concepts of partial and marginal association. Further on, stratified 2 × 2 tables are analyzed by the Mantel–Haenszel and the Breslow–Day–Tarone tests. Types of independence for three-way tables are introduced. Graphs are presented for multi-way contingency tables while fourfold plots are used to visualize stratified 2 × 2 tables. All examples are implemented in



Maria Kateri

Chapter 9. Analysis of Square Tables

Special models for matched pairs of ordinal responses are presented in Chap. 9. Beyond the classical models of symmetry and quasi symmetry, the models of conditional symmetry, diagonal symmetry, and ordinal quasi symmetry are discussed in detail. The model of marginal homogeneity is tested as a generalized log-linear model and not only conditioning on quasi symmetry, as is usually done. Connections to rater agreement models and mobility table analysis are made.

Maria Kateri

Chapter 8. Response Variable Analysis in Contingency Tables

Logit models for binary, nominal, and ordinal responses are introduced in Chap. 8. In particular beyond the basic logit model for binary response, the baseline category logit, the cumulative logit, and the proportional odds models are presented. Also logit models for ordinal explanatory variables are considered as well as the logit analysis of stratified 2 × 2 contingency tables. Logit models are connected to association models and illustrated with examples, worked out in



Maria Kateri

Chapter 2. Analysis of Two-way Tables

Basic concepts of two-way contingency table analysis are introduced. Descriptive and inferential results on estimation and testing of basic hypotheses are discussed and illustrated in


. In particular the comparison of two independent proportions, the test of independence for 2 × 2 and




contingency tables, the linear trend test, and the Fisher’s exact test are presented. Special emphasis is given to the odds ratio for 2 × 2 tables, while the generalized odds ratios for




tables are treated in detail. Finally, graphical displays of categorical data (barplot, fourfold plot, sieve diagram, and mosaic plot) are derived using


for examples of this chapter and discussed.

Maria Kateri

Chapter 2. Food Sharing in Practice: The German Experience in Magdeburg

The sharing food trend is achieving again popularity at present in industrialised countries. The main reason seems correlated with food overproduction. ‘Food sharing’ communities have a basic aim: to avoid the waste of food by gifting food commodities to needful people or institutions. Indeed should some food be wasted along the food supply chain, this waste would also concern energy and efforts that have been invested in food-related activities. In industrialised countries such as Germany, the principal food waste source is identified with household consumers and retailers (up to 40% of all wasted foods), while the resting amount is reported to be caused during processes as production, agriculture, post-harvesting, and processing activities. In Germany, as indicated by a statistic from 2012, 11 million tonnes of food coming from food industries, trade, wholesale, and private households (60%) are wasted annually. The answer of German citizens is the sharing economy, and this project essentially relies upon the presence of physical distribution points and/or network platforms, empowered by information and communication technologies, with different applications. Nowadays, more than 200,000 ‘foodsavers’ are engaged in this no-profit and non-commercial project in the Germany/Austria/Switzerland area. This Chapter described some of the local implementation efforts in Germany and a Magdeburg-based experience in particular.

Alessandra Pellerito, Ralf Dounz-Weigt, Maria Micali

Chapter 3. Food Sharing and Durable Foods. The Analysis of Main Chemical Parameters

The current market of foods and beverages worldwide is obliged to face two counteracting factors: the intensive production flow of many food and beverage commodities, year by year, and the concomitant loss of remarkable amounts of globally produced products. Food losses may be also confused with ‘food waste’, but these words usually concern two different phenomena. Food losses concern the final destination (food and beverage consumers), while food waste is related to the management of food supply chains. From a general viewpoint, food loss is sometimes unavoidable, while food waste should be adequately contrasted. Both phenomena seem to depend mainly on anthropic behaviours. However, the distinction between perishable and non-perishable foods should be considered as a critical factor because of Parisi’s first law of food degradation. Apparently, food loss and waste cannot be predicted and adequately contrasted without a strong analysis concerning the nature of involved foods, even if the active subject—the food consumer—is the only aware player in this ambit. This chapter examines food products that can be easily collected because of their supposed long shelf life, with relation to the most observed and analysed chemical–physical features (for food safety evaluation).

Alessandra Pellerito, Ralf Dounz-Weigt, Maria Micali

Chapter 1. Food Sharing and the Regulatory Situation in Europe. An Introduction

The current food production in the industrialised world is apparently facing and interesting paradox: the intensive flow of many food and beverage commodities, year by year, on the one hand, and the concomitant elimination of unused portions of produced edible products. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, 88 million tonnes of food produced for human consumption are get wasted annually in the European Union, and associated costs exceed 140 billion Euros. Apparently, the greatest responsibilities for food waste are reported in countries with medium/high-income values if compared with developing nations. However, the genesis of wasted food appears questioned and extremely debated: food waste appears after harvest and during processing steps in developing countries and at the retail and consumer level in industrialised nations. Certainly, food waste is a phenomenon occurring in industrialised countries such as Germany: a notable part of food waste happens because of consumers’ behaviour, although food retailers may give a significant contribution. The remaining part appears to be localised in the food industry. Consequently, the recently observed ‘food sharing’ communities have been created with a basic aim: to save food and give it to suffering people ‘for free’. Could food sharing may be a solution? Organisations such as food banks and social supermarkets should be analysed and evaluated; specific regulations could be elaborated. Otherwise, recovered (and possibly degraded) products could be unsafe. This chapter explores the current situation and the regulatory definition of food sharing, with specific relation to different European countries.

Alessandra Pellerito, Ralf Dounz-Weigt, Maria Micali

Chapter 4. Food Waste and Correlated Impact in the Food Industry. A Simulative Approach

The phenomenon of food waste appears generated and highly relevant in many industrialised countries with reference to perishable products such as meat and poultry, fruits and fresh vegetables, beverage items, and milk/dairy foods. Other perishable or highly perishable food products—eggs, fish, prepared meals, bakery products—should be considered in this ambit. The higher the number of different items on the market and in the complete food supply chain, the higher the danger of wasted products because of the loss of acceptability requirements during shelf life. Consequently, adequate countermeasures against food waste should take into account the problem of perishability. On the other side, and by a regulatory viewpoint, foods on the market have to be safe, legal, and correspondent to the claim(s) reported on labels. From a practical and industrial perspective, food waste could suggest the reuse and recycling of foods and beverages, provided that certain and minimal safety requirements are maintained. This chapter shows a simulation concerning a particular food product—a melted cheese—in five versions. Recycling may be good enough when speaking of food waste countermeasures and price reduction, but there is no demonstration that needful people can effectively take advantage of this system because food recycling occurs usually in a few and limited areas. On the contrary, On the other hand, food sharing should be considered as a distinctive advantage for food consumers as part of a more complex and multi-operational strategy.

Alessandra Pellerito, Ralf Dounz-Weigt, Maria Micali

Chapter 4. Business Model Disclosure in Sustainability Reporting: Two Case Studies

This chapter provides an empirical analysis of the sustainability reporting practices of two multinational companies: the German IT company SAP, which operates in the software sector, and the Swedish retailer H&M, one of the most popular brands in the fast fashion industry. Both companies encounter different approaches/sustainability issues when explaining their commitment to sustainability. The aims of this chapter are twofold. On the one hand, it will provide an exemplificative illustration of how the business model tool can be used to interpret the information included in a company’s sustainability reporting, according to the proposal formulated in Chap. 3 of this volume. On the other hand, analyzing two leading companies, both of which provide benchmarks for their respective industries, will offer us insights on whether or not a business case can be made for sustainability, and how sustainability is implemented in the organization and integrated into the company’s value processes.

Laura Bini, Marco Bellucci

Chapter 3. Anchoring Sustainability Reporting to Value Creation

The additive approach proposed by the Triple Bottom Line represents the most widespread model for sustainability reporting. Its simple basic idea and its similarities to the traditional accounting system represent its main strengths. However, its implementation raises substantial challenges that limit its effectiveness, especially for companies with a genuine commitment to sustainability that decide to adopt a sustainable business model. This chapter proposes a different approach to sustainability reporting based on a company business model. The business model concept is largely used as a management tool and is increasingly proposed as a platform for external communication. Focusing on sustainability reporting, this work aims to show how companies can take advantage of a business model representation to provide stakeholders with relevant sustainability disclosures centered on value creation in a concise and reliable manner.

Laura Bini, Marco Bellucci

Chapter 2. Accounting for Sustainability

This chapter discusses the concept of sustainability and sustainable development, the potential role of enterprises in sustainability, and a framework for sustainability reporting. This section of the volume also analyzes the motivations for sustainability reporting from the perspective of both regulatory frameworks on non-financial disclosure and theories underlying voluntary social and environmental reporting, and the main guidelines—with particular reference to the Global Reporting Initiative and the Integrated Reporting Frameworks—that can support the construction of either a sustainability report or an integrated report.

Laura Bini, Marco Bellucci

Chapter 1. Introduction

Over the last two decades, sustainability reporting has gained prominence worldwide because of increased stakeholder demand for greater transparency. There has also been a substantial increase in research devoted to social and environmental accounting topics (Kolk 2004; Adams and McNicholas 2007; Manetti 2011; Gray 2010; Bini et al. 2018; De Villiers et al. 2014).

Laura Bini, Marco Bellucci

Chapter 3. The Itch to Stitch: Yarn Bombers and Their Motivations

This chapter turns its attention to the practice of yarn bombing. Beginning with an overview of the origins of yarn bombing, including some of the criticisms of the practice, the chapter then goes on to consider what motivates yarn bombers to do what they do. Drawing on interviews with ‘everyday’ yarn bombers, the chapter presents a thematic analysis of these motivations and, in doing so, demonstrates the intersections of the personal, community, and political logics of craftivism as they play out in the activities of yarn bombers.

Alyce McGovern

Chapter 2. Unravelling the Threads: Contemporary Craftivism and Its Origins

This chapter contextualises the practice of yarn bombing through a discussion of the broader craftivist movement within which it is situated. In a detailed thematic account of contemporary and significant examples of craftivism, the chapter establishes the long history of crafts as tools for activism and advocacy. Advancing the work of Greer (2008, 2014) and Pentney (2008), the chapter also proposes three logics of craftivist practice—personal, community, and political—to argue that craftivist acts, while driven by different motives and objectives, are inherently political, and should be understood as such.

Alyce McGovern

Chapter 1. Introduction

This introductory chapter sets the context for the book and its content. Beginning by detailing the foundations of the research project that culminated in the book, the chapter establishes craftivism and yarn bombing as important sites for criminological enquiry. The chapter also considers the potential benefits of participatory politics for the discipline, before outlining the structure and format of the book.

Alyce McGovern

Chapter 5. Crafty Crimes: The Criminology of Craftivism

In this final chapter I reflect on the importance of creative endeavours in drawing attention to matters of social justice and consider what lessons criminologists can take away from broadening their horizons when it comes to examining the intersections between creativity, culture, and crime.

Alyce McGovern

Chapter 4. Craft Attack: The Framing of Yarn Bombing

This chapter focuses on the ways in which yarn bombers construct, or frame, their practice. Starting with a consideration of the legal framing of yarn bombing, the chapter explores some of the reasons why yarn bombing may not attract the attention of law enforcement in the same way other forms of graffiti do, before considering what yarn bombers had to say about the (street) art/graffiti divide. Following this, the chapter looks more closely at how yarn bombers conceptualise the practice in relation to themes of deviancy, subversion, risk, thrill-seeking, and carnival.

Alyce McGovern

Technology Model to Support the Initiation of Innovation Artefacts

The current paper proposes a technology model to support the process of creating innovative artefacts, where artefact is any project proposal, business plan, business solution, article with a high degree of innovation. The model is based on an advanced technology stack, in which the central role is played by semantic high-performance computing. Several functionalities are available both for academic researchers and business consultants, from validating the innovation degree of an idea, to supporting its development with useful bibliographical recommendations or building research proposals based on that idea.

Maria-Iuliana Dascalu, Elisabeth Lazarou, Victor Florin Constantin

Detection of the Patterns in the Daily Route Choices of the Urban Social Transport System Clients Based on the Decoupling of Passengers’ Preferences Between the Levels of Uncertainty

The ideas of data mining techniques were applied for the problem of municipal passengers transport system simulation and its results interpreting and generalization. The purpose of the presented work is to propose and justify the passengers flow model suitable for the detection of hidden patterns in the processes of flow forming with the application of the available sources for model identification. The patterns of the daily route choices detection are based on the decoupling of the general model between the sub-models according to the different levels of uncertainty of passengers intentions in route choice, and on the following joining of the computational results received for the sub-models. The availability of the approach was illustrated by the examples of the typical patterns in the destination stops choice and in hourly passengers’ flow from the departure stops. The model testing shows the high correlation of the simulated passengers’ flow with the results of the real observations.

Elena Krushel, Ilya Stepanchenko, Alexander Panfilov, Tatyana Lyutaya

The Algorithm for the Classification of Methods for Processing Multidimensional Heterogeneous Data in Application to Designing of Oil Fields Development

An algorithm of methods selection for processing multidimensional heterogeneous data based on the general properties of the data used and the methods included in the review is proposed in this paper. The algorithm is implemented in the form of software and a group of interpolation algorithms is compared by the example of the problem of constructing an oil field model for field development designing. It is shown that the proposed algorithm for selecting data processing methods works successfully for a group of data interpolation methods.

Alena A. Zakharova, Stepan G. Nebaba, Dmitry A. Zavyalov

On Approach for the Development of Patents Analysis Formal Metrics

Analysis and modeling of the cross-thematic states of the world prior-art is a voluminous task that includes many subtasks. In order to assess the prior art, build forecasts and carry out analysis, it is necessary to develop and construct cross-thematic relationships between patents within an array in many ways. The scientific result of the work was the first developed formal metric “belonging to the technological epoch” for assessing the cross-thematic states of the world prior art, as well as the technique and method of applying formal metrics. This paper presents the development of a software module based on the developed metric.

Alla G. Kravets

Artificial Intelligence: Issues, Challenges, Opportunities and Threats

The world is experiencing a period of instability in a range of pillar institutions in the international system. These instabilities and unsustainable systems may have serious implications for humanity. Catastrophic physical phenomena are on the rise, lately and many say that this is due to human disrespect to the environment. Urgently valuable and sustainable solutions are needed. One scientific approach to address these challenging questions is Artificial Intelligence (AI). Theories of AI are reviewed. Machine learning (ML), Neural Networks (NN) and Deep Learning (DL) are briefly presented. Certain criticisms of AI and DL are carefully analyzed. A number of challenges and opportunities of AI are identified. The future of AI and potential threats of it are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Deep Learning (DL) are relying mainly on data analysis without taking into consideration the human nature. Theories of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) seem to provide a useful tool in developing new AI theories answering this problem.

Peter P. Groumpos

HR Decision-Making Support Based on Natural Language Processing

This paper presents an overview and analysis of IT solution of text understanding being applied to a programming professional domain. Conclusions summarize the authors’ experience in NLP/NLU in the last years. Binary classification and logistic regression is used to solve typical problems. The results of practical research are presented. The paper develops the ideas of understanding texts in software development domain using standard text processing tools. The proposed solution is recommended for HR professionals who search suitable candidates for a job based on their blogs, online presence and code.

Anton Ivaschenko, Michael Milutkin

Big Data in the Stochastic Model of the Passengers Flow at the Megalopolis Transport System Stops

The problem of the passengers flow model development is proposed as the subsystem of the general municipal passengers transport system operation model of megalopolis. The specific features of the application subject (Volgograd city, Russia) were detected to simplify the big data simulation problem. The difficulties caused by the high dimensionality were overcome by means of the double time scaling in passengers’ flow estimation. The hour time scale was accepted to the computation of the hourly flow from each departure stop to the city district of destination without the pointing of the specific destination stop. The minute time scale was accepted to distribute the hourly flow between the destinations stops located in this district. The algorithms of the destination stops choice simulation were carried out. The follows examples of simulation results are presented: hourly passengers flow directed to the departure stops; daily variations of districts population caused by the inter-district passengers’ flows; influence of the of competition on the municipal transport system operation; destination stops choice variants according to the stops’ attractiveness scores designed by experts.

Elena Krushel, Ilya Stepanchenko, Alexander Panfilov, Elena Berisheva

Development the Methodology of Urban Area Transport Coherence Assessment

The present paper analyzes modern approaches to assessing the balance of urban infrastructure. The definition of transport coherence is given. The developed methodology of urban area transport coherence assessment is described. The method of localized assessment of transport provision has been tested in cities of various shapes and sizes: positive results and limits of the method applicability are analyzed by example of Volgograd, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Moscow, Elista, Astrakhan, Uryupinsk and Kamyshin. The features of application of technologies and data of OSRM and OSM are highlighted. Checking options for calculating the coefficient of coherence for cells was held. Verification of the results obtained by the four methods of calculating the average is performed by comparing the estimates of connectedness with the length of roads in the corresponding cells. For this, a method for calculating the local density of the road network has been proposed. It is proposed to use a transport plasmograph of the territory for a visual demonstration of the coherence of space and the possibility of assessing its main structural features. The paper describes the method of creating a plasmograph and provides examples of the analysis with its help of the territory of Novosibirsk and St. Petersburg. Conclusions are drawn about the possibilities of formalizing the infrastructure integrity of cities based on an analysis of their transport coherence and suggest promising areas for further research using the established methods for analyzing other types of infrastructure, as well as comparative analysis of cities.

Danila Parygin, Alexander Aleshkevich, Alexey Golubev, Natalia Sadovnikova, Maxim V. Shcherbakov, Oksana Savina

Networkalization of Network–Unlike Entities: How to Preserve Encoded Information

More than for twenty years network science with complex networks as its basic component has brought the idea to analyze a wide spectrum of entities through a focus on relations between the actors and has implemented the concomitant powerful instruments of the analysis. Some entities (objects, processes, and data) with their intrinsic web nature might be interpreted as networks naturally. Network ontology of another family, Network–Unlike Entities, e.g. spatial and temporal ones, is severely ambiguous and encounters with tough problems on the way to convert data into networks. We concentrate on separation the properties of data in line with their scale diversity – in the distance, time, and nature and suggested a 3 step algorithm (scale-based technique) to convert Network–Unlike Entities into complex networks. The technique was applied for networkalization of landscape and land use maps representing Olkhon district, Irkutsk region, Baikal Lake territory, RF. It was found that the technique with its coarse-graining and area-like connecting conserves natural information inherent to the entities and imbeds accordingly scale-free and small world properties into output networks, thus making them really complex in their structure.

Olga Berestneva, Olga Marukhina, Alessandra Rossodivita, Alexei Tikhomirov, Andrey Trufanov

The Evaluation Method of the Design Department’s Information Assets

The activity of the design department (DD) is currently one of the most significant areas in the field of nuclear energy, the defense and rocket, and space industries. This area characterized by large volumes of used economic, technological, industrial and other resources. One of the tasks of the DD is to evaluate information assets (IA) and protect them from threats. The objectives of this article are to develop a method for assessing DD’s IA, as well as discussing the possibility of using this method in practice and the risks to which the DD is exposed unless special measures are taken to evaluate IA and threat analysis. Studies related to the assessment of the importance of information IA, the development of a threat model, and damage prediction investigated. The specificity of DD and processing of IA has been determined. In this paper, it is proposed to use the set-theoretic model for evaluating the IA of the DD that takes into account their structure, attributes, and life cycle. To assess the damage caused by the threat, it proposed to use the method of ALE. For the first time, a method for evaluating the IA of DD proposed. This method implemented in software. The software implementation successfully tested in an enterprise that includes the DD. The investigated problem studied quite recently. Therefore, there are open questions such as the classification of information assets of the DD and their categorization (confidentiality stamping), analysis of the life cycle of IA and threats, determination of the criticality level of the DD’s IA, assessment of damage from the realization of the threat. The prospect for the development of the research is the development of a threat model for information systems of the DD.

Svetlana Kozunova, Alla G. Kravets, Natalia Solovieva

Use of Fuzzy Neural Networks for a Short Term Forecasting of Traffic Flow Performance

The method for a short term forecasting of the traffic in the urban road network and of the average vehicle speed is suggested. The author’s method is based on a regulatory approach to the calculation of the traffic capacity of the city road network. This method is completed with the methodology of forecasting the changes in the hourly traffic intensity. As the mathematical tool for the implementation of the forecasting methodology, the fuzzy neural networks are taken. It is suggested to make the forecast of short-term traffic intensity taking into account time of day, day of the week and season. On the basis of the data on the traffic capacity, the authors provide the relationships of an average speed change. The example of the calculation of transport flow performance is made in one of the motorways in the city of Volgograd.

Skorobogatchenko Dmitry, Viselskiy Sergey

Solving the Inverse Kinematics of Robotic Arm Using Autoencoders

In the modern era, robotics is an attractive field for many researchers since robots are involved in many aspects of everyday life due to the conveniences and solutions that they provide in various daily difficulties. For this reason, the inverse kinematics of robotic arms is a challenging problem that seems more appealing to researchers as years pass by. In this paper, a novel approach to solve this problem is assessed, which is based on autoencoders. In our implementation the goal is not only to find one random (of the infinite solutions) of this problem, but to determine the one that minimizes both the position error between the actual and desired position of the end-effector of the robotic arm and the joint movement. For the training of the Neural Network of the autoencoder, four different types of the loss function and their corresponding results are examined. A robotic arm with three Degrees of Freedom is used for the evaluation of our implementation and the accurate results demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed method.

Konstantinos D. Polyzos, Peter P. Groumpos, Evangelos Dermatas

Effective Quaternion and Octonion Cryptosystems and Their FPGA Implementation

An approach for effective hardware implementation of the proposed quaternion encryption algorithm (HW-R4) as well as modifications for known quaternion HW-QES and octonion HW-OES schemes are discussed. Instead of 3-D rotations as usually, 4-D transformations for encryption with quaternions and 8-D with octonions are suggested. Such size of transformation matrices increases the size of plaintext/ciphertext blocks and eliminates the need to calculate elements of rotation matrices. To speed up an encryption process the HW-R4, HW-QES, and HW-OES include mainly addition and shift operations with modular arithmetic. In our experiments, we used a product Intel (former Altera) OpenCL SDK (AOCL), which allows compiling OpenCL programs for FPGAs. The launch of the developed algorithms was carried out on two devices: the Intel Core i7 920 CPU and the Terasic DE5-Net FPGA (Stratix V). Experimental results show that the proposed algorithms and modifications are about 30–50% more effective in the encryption speed of signals than the original HW-QES/HW-OES. Additionally, HW-R4 is shown to be more effective in the encryption quality of images than the original QES. Our approach can also be used for robustness increasing when the Feistel network is added to the system.

Andrey Andreev, Mikhail Chalyshev, Vitaly Egunov, Evgueni Doukhnitch, Kristina Kuznetsova

Analysis a Short-Term Time Series of Crop Sales Based on Machine Learning Methods

The main goal of this article is to solve the problem associated with identifying sales seasons in time series in order to build the most accurate forecast of sales of various crops and provide decision support and improve the efficiency of business processes of agro-industrial companies. In this regard, the necessity of developing an algorithm that allows to form a time series of sales in accordance with the seasons available in it to improve the accuracy of existing sales forecasting methods is justified. This study provides a detailed description of the problem and its solutions in the form of an algorithm, as well as a comparison of the accuracy of building prediction models before and after its application, which confirms the consistency of the developed method for the formation of time series.

Mohammed A. Al-Gunaid, Maxim V. Shcherbakov, Vladislav N. Trubitsin, Alexandr M. Shumkin, Kirill Y. Dereguzov

Structural and Parametrical Model of the Physical Functional Principle of the Microelectronic Capacitive Pressure Sensor

In this paper it is shown that one of the most important problems of technical progress development is productions automation. The leading place in the world on production and the number of the granted patents is occupied by microelectronic sensors of pressure. The retrospective analysis of patent, scientific and technical literature was made by authors. Importance of initial design stages was proved. The solution of a formalization problem of the processes description of information transformation in microelectronic capacitive pressure sensors by means of model’s development on the basis of the theory of energy and information circuit models is proposed. The parametric structural scheme is developed. Mathematical dependences of its quantities and parameters on actual physical quantities are defined. The adequacy of model is proved. The developed model is intended for the automated synthesis of new technical solutions at a stage of search design and for predesign of sensors’ output parameters at a stage of outline design.

Mikhail Shikulskiy, Olga Shikulskaya, Irina Yu. Petrova, Gennady Popov, Issa Bogatyrev, Victor Samsonov, Alla Kachalova

Designing AI Futures: A Symbiotic Vision

The new “AI spring” of Machine Learning and Deep learning, backed by Big Data and immense computational power, is opening up potential for innovation of new drugs, medical diagnosis, social robots, ‘Robo-Nurse’ and virtual assistants, but there are also imponderable existential downsides and deep anxiety that AIs are going to take over our jobs, our interaction with societal institutions and our lives. With the accelerated integration of powerful artificial intelligence systems into core social institutions and in our everyday lives, we are confronted with an electronic world where digital bots or electronic ‘agents’ are already representing us in our interactions. We face a challenge of the untamed integration of AI to come up with possible human-machine futures that mitigate the impact of the instrumental models of AI tools and systems. How can we transcend ‘machine thinking’ to mold technological futures for the common good? We need to address questions such as, can we harness collective intelligence as a transforming tool for addressing unpredictable problems of complex social systems? What are the possibilities and limitations of designing creative intelligent systems that are shaped by purpose and judgment, transcending instrument reason of the causal model? The talk will explore these issues, drawing upon current AI narratives of the relations between society and the scientific project of AI and the challenges it poses for us to come up with possible symbiotic AI futures.

Karamjit S. Gill

Cryptographic Protection of Data Transmission Channel

Data transmission over the network is the most vulnerable stage of the information life cycle in the information system. The main way to protect data when transmitting over a communication channel is to hide its content. For this purpose, cryptographic means of information protection are used. Among the cryptographic means, encryption and digital signature are distinguished. There are different algorithms that allow performing encryption or digital signature. So which one is better? What algorithms should be used to make cryptographic protection the most effective? The study of the effectiveness of approaches to the construction of encryption algorithms is carried out. SP-network is recognized as more efficient than Feistel network. The study of the effectiveness of approaches to the construction of digital signature algorithms is carried out. The study took into account how the algorithm is used in conjunction with SP-network. Algorithm of the elliptic curve is recognized as the most efficient. As a result, the protocol of secure data transmission over the network is developed.

Arina Nikishova, Ekaterina Vitenburg, Mikhail Umnitsyn, Tatiana Omelchenko

Forecasting and Optimization Internet of Things System

Currently many methods and approaches related to the management of Internet of Things systems are associated with the collection of large amounts of information. The results of the rating assessment from the management point of view are limited. In many cases we need to involve modeling and optimization techniques in the management process. This paper shows how an integral assessment of the efficiency of Internet of Things systems is formed. The optimization model of the problem is developed and the procedures of expert evaluation of management decisions are formed. On the basis of the methods used, the results demonstrating their efficiency are obtained.

Yakov Lvovich, Igor Lvovich, Andrey Preobrazhenskiy, Oleg Choporov

The Information and Analytical Platform for the Big Data Mining About Innovation in the Region

The article describes an information and analytical platform for collecting and processing big data for the study of innovative development processes of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The toolkit of the platform solves the problem of searching, collecting, processing and downloading data from the Internet for the analysis and prognostic modeling of innovation indicators of economic agents in the region. The results are used to assess the dynamics of changes in the innovative development of enterprises and the region as a whole. The objectives of the research are to select leaders who actively develop and implement innovations, benchmarking analysis of regional enterprises with leaders, develop recommendations for managing innovative development mechanisms, and increase the efficiency of innovative activities of enterprises in the region. It is proposed to create a set of tools for analytic processing of big data in the form of a convergent platform with horizontal scaling. To perform the procedures of loading large data into the cloud storage, the streaming architecture of the data search and integration subsystem is implemented with the possibility of parallel preprocessing of information. The components of the information and analytical platform have been developed and implemented.

Leyla Gamidullaeva, Alexey Finogeev, Sergey Vasin, Michael Deev, Anton Finogeev

Smart Contracts for Multi-agent Interaction of Regional Innovation Subjects

The main obstacle to effective interaction between innovation agents is high innovation transaction costs. The development of innovation requires the continuous interaction of participants at all stages of the innovation process, from idea to commercialization. The article discusses the creation of a safe and reliable way to support such interaction in regional innovation systems based on blockchain technology and smart contracts. This approach is recommended to exclude unfair and fraudulent actions on the part of participants. Another feature is the transfer of third-party functions to a smart contract to ensure safe communication. The smart contract will allow, on the one hand, to realize trustful and reliable relationships between the project participants themselves, and, on the other hand, between participants and stakeholders. The article discusses the possibilities of the Ethereum blockchain platform, with the help of which the main components of a smart contract were synthesized for concluding contracts for creating and introducing innovations, transferring intellectual property rights, using licenses, etc. The basis of the smart contract is a distributed registry of transactions and a database with descriptions of innovative objects.

Leyla Gamidullaeva, Alexey Finogeev, Sergey Vasin, Anton Finogeev, Sergey Schevchenko

A Multifactor Small Business Management Model

The previously existing system of industrial development USSR was aimed at the construction of industries and the arrangement of cities around them. Such cities, which have one or several city-forming enterprises, are called “monotowns”. A monotown is a complex structure in which the town and the city-forming enterprises are closely related. The constructed multifactor dynamic model in the article allows to organize the process of managing a small business by influencing all of its microindicators using the monotown’s mesoindicators. This approach lets the municipality at every moment influencing indicators of small business with its socio-economic indicators, contribute to the sustainable development of the urban economy.

Andrey N. Vazhdaev, Artur A. Mitsel

Theoretical Bases of the Application of Various-Color Graphs in the Solution of Intellectual Chemical Tasks

The paradigm of using artificial neural networks (ANN) for solving intellectual problems of chemistry and chemical technology is considered: classification, identification, design, modeling, optimization, and others. Using the example of studying the applicability of colored graphs in the neural network analysis of chemical structures at the site «structure-property-application» relationship, the possibility of identifying chemical structures when creating actual substances is shown. Artificial neural network learning to identify graphs is shown. The results obtained are mathematical software that allows solving creative problems and creating decision rules when choosing chemical-technological systems formalized in terms of graph theory and intended to support decision-making.

Ilya V. Germashev, Evgeniya V. Derbisher, Vyacheslav E. Derbisher

A New Approach to Reduce Time Consumption of Data Quality Assessment in the Field of Energy Consumption

This paper is devoted to solving the problem of reducing the time costs of the process of data quality assessment. The data describe energy resources consumption of various enterprises and institutions. The first part of the paper contains a review of recent data quality assessment studies was made. The analysis describes the problems of this process and the characteristics of the data, metadata and the algorithms used in it. The next part of the paper shows a new approach to reduce the time consumption of the process of assessing the data quality, which differs from the existing ones by the presence of a data-packaging and decision-making support using the oDMN+ notation. Finally, this paper presents an implementation example of the oDMN+ model for data on the energy consumption of the Volgograd hardware plant. The results showed that the use of data packaging and modeling the assessment process is a promising approach for modeling and reducing time costs in the process of data quality assessment for energy management systems used in the enterprises and institutions.

Alexander Sokolov, Maxim V. Shcherbakov, Anton Tyukov, Timur Janovsky

Tourism Cluster Enterprises Departments’ Resource Management Based on Mobile Technologies

In the conditions of modern management of hospitality facilities, the used approaches and tools for resource management play an important role. The article discusses the use of mobile technologies in resource management of the hotel’s housekeeping service. The mobile application «Mobile Housekeeping» is used to manage the resources of the hotel’s housekeeping service in addition to the automated PaRM web system. The automated system is based on a proactive methodology, the description of which is given in the article. In the mobile application “Mobile housekeeping” functionality is supported, which requires the operational use of the personnel of housekeeping service at any point of the hotel. The use of integrated software allows you to effectively manage the resources of the enterprise’s departments of the tourism cluster.

Alla G. Kravets, Aleksandr O. Morozov, Konstantin S. Zadiran, Gais Al-Merri, Ekaterina Trishkina

Adaptive Analysis of Merchant Big Data

There is proposed a method and technology for adaptive analysis of demand and supply of regional banking acquiring services based on Big Data processing. The paper introduces a new technology of acquiring services demand and supply monitoring and analysis using specifically designed and developed software solution. The proposed approach and its implementation become a basis for acquiring service marketing, locations perspective search and tariffs calculation considering the individual characteristics of sales and services business. The developed technique is implemented by software for decision-making support system pro-bated on model data of the St. Petersburg financial environment.

Oleg Surnin, Mariia Sigova, Pavel Sitnikov, Anton Ivaschenko, Anastasia Stolbova

Data-Driven Framework for Predictive Maintenance in Industry 4.0 Concept

Supporting the operation of the equipment at the operational stage with minimal costs is an urgent task for various industries. In the modern manufacturing industry machines and systems become more advanced and complicated, traditional approaches (corrective and preventive maintenance) to maintenance of complex systems lose their effectiveness. The latest trends of maintenance lean towards condition-based maintenance (CBM) techniques. This paper describes the framework to build predictive maintenance models for proactive decision support based on machine learning and deep learning techniques. The proposed framework implemented as a package for R, and it provides several features that allow to create and evaluate predictive maintenance models. All features of the framework can be attributed to one of the following groups: data validation and preparation, data exploration and visualization, feature engineering, data preprocessing, model creating and evaluation. The use case provided in the paper highlights the benefits of the framework toward proactive decision support for the estimation of the turbofan engine remaining useful life (RUL).

Van Cuong Sai, Maxim V. Shcherbakov, Van Phu Tran

Meta-design of Processes Based on Visualization Tools

Interactive visualization, used to represent and interpret input data, makes it possible to employ visual perception potential to search for and resolve internal contradictions in the studied data, the source of which in many cases is errors made during the development of the program. The purpose of visual analytics in this study is to identify contradictions in the design of an educational process, provided by the curriculum, and to form students’ meaningful variable and individual educational trajectories.

Alena A. Zakharova, Anton Krysko, Evgeniya Vekhter, Aleksey Shklyar

Method of Acquiring the Video Conference Using the Skill in Investigative Actions

The current law does not directly establish the possibility of remote investigative actions. However, it does not contain direct bans on the introduction of this progressive procedural form. Nevertheless, the practice of using information and communication technologies by an investigator in his work will inevitably lead to the need for detailed regulation of such improvements. The decision of the legislature on the full legal regulation of this problem is brewing. It is necessary to supplement the content of the training of the official’s persons, who will be in charge of criminal cases, at the expense of developing the skill to use the video conference system as needed during a number of investigative actions.

Evgeny Kravets, Svetlana Gladkova, Vladimir Shinkaruk, Vladimir Ovchinnikov, Nikolai Bukharov

Building a Company’s Maturity Management Trajectory Based on the Methods of Optimal Control of Letov-Kalman

The article proposes a solution to the problem of building optimal management of the maturity level of the company’s business processes. The level of maturity is described as a linear dynamic control system. This work is part of the solution to the problem of developing a system for managing the level of maturity of an enterprise’s business processes.A set of indicators of a company’s business processes maturity is described as a dynamic model of a control system in discrete time. It is shown that such a model adequately describes the behavior of a system of indicators of the maturity of a company’s business processes.When developing the model, the method of analytical construction of optimal regulators (ACOR) staged on Kalman-Letov’s interpretation is used. The constructed model shows plausible behavior in predicting the process of managing organizational maturity. Reproduces the effect of accelerated growth of controlled indicators identified in the model as a priority.

Mikhail Dorrer

Designing Zero-Energy Buildings Using Advanced Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Energy efficient buildings are able to provide effective solutions to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, support environmental-friendly energy management and facilitate significant energy savings. The concept of Zero-Energy Buildings is gaining a constant increasing focus. The use of Advanced Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (AFCMs) as a new modelling methodology to provide energy performance indicators in a quantified manner that will drive the appropriate integration of required renewable energy generation, in order to design a (nearly) Zero-Energy Building (nZEB) is considered. The new approach is used to calculate the energy balance of buildings in alternative climate contexts and thus to explore their energy efficiency in six use cases. Simulation results and observations show that AFCMs could provide valuable insight to design and development issues of nZEBs.

Theodor Panagiotakopoulos, Nikolaos Zafeirakis, Iliana-Vasiliki Tsoulea, Peter P. Groumpos

Making a Choice of Resulting Estimates of Characteristics with Multiple Options of Their Evaluation

The paper dwells on the analysis of the efficiency of different algorithms for numerical expert data processing. Five methods were chosen for comparison: (1) on the basis of mean values; (2) on the basis of mean values with regard to experts’ competence assessment; (3) by means of getting average values on the basis of the maximum likelihood estimation method; (4) by means of getting median values on the basis of the maximum likelihood estimation method; (5) by means of getting median values on the basis of the least squares method. A complex criterion, based on evaluation of the degree of experts’ opinion consistency, the degree of closeness of the obtained results to their true values and the degree of convenience of the obtained results for solving specific tasks, is chosen as an efficiency criterion. The paper presents procedures of estimation of the mentioned components of the complex criterion and derivation of a complex estimate on the basis of known estimates of individual components. The experiment showed that, in the context of assessment of importance of individual PC components under the process of information security provision, the best result of the expert data processing is obtained with the use of the maximum likelihood estimation method on the basis of mean values, and the worst result is obtained with the use of the classical processing method on the basis of mean values. It is proposed to apply a procedure of getting a resulting estimate on the basis of a balanced consideration of the estimates obtained through different methods.

Georgi A. Popov, Irina Yu. Kvyatkovskaya, Olga I. Zholobova, Anastasia E. Kvyatkovskaya, Elena V. Chertina

Decision Support System for the Socio-Economic Development of the Northern Part of the Volga-Akhtuba Floodplain (Russia)

In this paper we present a decision suppost system for the socio-economic development of the northern part of the Volga-Aktuba floodplain. It provides data, algorithmic and instrumental tools for searching, modeling, analyzing and evaluating the scenarios of the socio-economic development and the spatially localized and integral characteristics of the floodplain state. We show that mutual dependence of the floodplain hydrological and nature and socio-economic structures requires their target changes coherence in the effective scenarios of its development. The main role in these changes is played by hydrotechnical projects. Their implementation creates a new hydrological structure of this territory, contributing to its socio-economic development.

Inessa I. Isaeva, Alexander A. Voronin, Alexander V. Khoperskov, Konstantin E. Dubinko, Anna Yu. Klikunova

Modeling a Microgrid Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

The energy problem is among the most important issues in the global community over the last decades. Worldwide researchers have focused their attention and work to the increased use of renewable energy sources as a solution to the greenhouse effect. The reduction of the emitted pollutants, as well as managing, controlling and saving energy, are key research items. This paper attempts to cover part of the load of the studied microgrid, which consists of three buildings of the University of Patras using the method of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps. The goal is using renewable energy sources to cover 20% of their total load, aiming to decongest the network at peak times.

Vassiliki Mpelogianni, George Kosmas, Peter P. Groumpos

Modeling and Optimization of Proactive Management of the Production Pollutions in the Conditions of Information Asymmetry

On the basis of the constructed mathematical model, an analysis is made of which of the instruments for regulating industrial emissions of enterprises - environmental standards or quotas sold for industrial emissions of pollutants - allows minimizing the total costs of the strategy of environmental regulation. The necessity of taking into account the asymmetry of information support of the optimization process is shown. It has been proved that the environmental policy regulator, aiming to limit the aggregate level of emissions of a given pollutant by several enterprises, can minimize total costs by applying enterprise-specific environmental standards. The system of quotas sold for production emissions allows minimizing the total costs of the strategy of environmental and economic regulation only if the costs of the environmental audit are the same for all enterprises. It is established that in the event that the cost of implementing penalties varies between enterprises, the competitive market for emission allowances will not minimize the total costs of providing the total amount of emissions for a certain level, allowing a certain degree of non-compliance with environmental requirements.

Aleksey F. Rogachev, Maksim S. Lukashin

9. The Freshwaters: A Precious But Scarce Resource

Rivers are fundamental for the life in Spain. Most water consumption in Spain comes from surface resources [75% in 2018 (Data in this chapter from INE (2010–2018))]. Agriculture consumes about 15k hm3 per year. The ones that consume the most (2015 data) are arable lands (55%), fruit trees (17%), potatoes and vegetables (10%), and olive groves and vineyards (9%).

Francisco J. Tapiador

12. Natural Risks and Hazards

Spain’s natural risks and hazards are of relative importance due to both the low intensity and frequency and the high level of anthropization of the territory. With a few exceptions, the populationpopulation has tended to occupy the safest areas, with the most exposed areas having been abandoned or destroyed in a process of pure natural selection. The exception is the location of human settlementssettlements in areas prone to floods. The greatest dangers today are phenomena of low frequency, decades or centuries, which means the riskrisk tends to be forgotten.

Francisco J. Tapiador

7. Lithology: The Fourfold Scheme

There are three types of natural rocksrocks : igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. Spain contains a good representation of the three, and there are certain places which are archetypical of the planet, including several “type locations.” So, for instance, the Canaries have both AA and pahoehoe lava (Hawaii only has the latter); roads in the north of Castile have roadcuts revealing some neat strata from the Miocene; and metamorphic rocks characterize the landscape and the buildings of parts of Guadalajara (“black villages,” owing to the color of the slate used for roofing) and CáceresCáceres (shire of “Las Hurdes”). Lithology has played a very important role in the selection of construction sites, not only for tectonic reasons but also for other practical reasons. A good example is the location of Mahon in MenorcaMenorca . The southern shore, made up of limestone and sandstone and where freshwater could be found, was chosen for the settlementssettlements , while the northern, steeper and sheer rock, remained unoccupied.

Francisco J. Tapiador

8. Climates: A North-South Gradient

The climate of peninsular Spain is conditioned by its latitude, geographical position, and reliefrelief . The latitude situates it in the zone of temperate climate, with four marked seasons. Its geographical position, a peninsula surrounded by the sea, and the general circulation of the atmosphere mean that it is affected by the humidity coming from the ocean, especially from the Atlantic, while the relief generates barriers that affect the air masses. This, combined with the height of the Meseta, makes it possible to find a type of continental climate that does not appear in the other peninsulas of Europe (Italian and Balkan, more open to the influence of the sea).

Francisco J. Tapiador

13. The History on the Territory

To a certain extent, it remains true Reclus’ idea that “historyhistory is geography over time and geography is history in space,” so a narrative is required in order to accomplish one of the aims of this Geography, namely, describing the country in a concise way. In what follows, the historical origin of some geographical facts in present time is described, emphasizing the territorial component and offering the minimum data needed to place them in time.

Francisco J. Tapiador

5. Underwater Spain: The Hidden Country

The continental shelf of Spain is the underwater surface beyond the coast to a depth of 200 m. It is an area of great fishing and ecological importance. In the peninsula, it is relatively narrow and is minimal in the Canary IslandsCanary Islands . Its narrowness has led to the search for distant fishing grounds, such as those of Newfoundland, exploited by Basque fishermen since centuries ago. The European interest in exploiting the Saharan bank and in reaching fishing agreements with Morocco and Mauritania is due to the need to provide an outlet for a large fishing fleet that is increasingly efficient in its catches.

Francisco J. Tapiador

24. Heritage: A Treasure Chest

Spain has a significant natural and historical heritage that has only recently been given the value it deserves. Spain contains 43 UNESCO World Heritage Convention sites. These are places deemed of great importance for the culture of humanity following the UNESCO’s stringent set of criteria. Those sites are of mandatory study to anyone interested in the Geography of Spain.

Francisco J. Tapiador

25. Education: A High-Quality System

The level of education is high. The literacy rate in the country is 97%. This figure is the highest ever recorded and a triumph worth celebrating considering the statestate of the country less than a hundred years ago.Basic education is free. Traditionally, the supply of public schools has not been sufficient to provide schooling for the entire populationpopulation , so all democratic governments have chosen to subsidize private schools to provide enough places for all. The system consists of the statestate paying an agreed amount to these schools in exchange for offering free education to all social strata under educational parameters similar to those of the public schools, permitting, on the other hand, the religious bias of these centers.

Francisco J. Tapiador

15. The Settlements: A Historical Mosaic

Why are cities where they are and have the form they have? Why are villages sometimes in the middle of great plains and other times in places difficult to access? In Spain, this is a question that arises naturally when observing the great differences that exist between some settlementssettlements and others. The reasons behind this distribution and the differences are both environmental and historical.

Francisco J. Tapiador

31. Conclusion and Outlook: A Bright Future for a Great Country

The Spain of c. 2020 is very different to that described in the geography handbooks of the 1960s, 60 years ago. The world is now connected, all the information generated by humankind is within the immediate reach of the population, communications are fluid, and society has become more urbanized (even in the countryside), more tolerant, more open, and much more knowledgeable.

Francisco J. Tapiador

22. Industry: The Importance of Catalonia

A third of industrial employment is in large companies (more than 250 employees), which represent only 0.4% of industrial companies, but which invoice 55.5% of sales. 84.9% of industrial companies had fewer than ten workers in 2018 (Official data from the Spanish administration (INE 1998; INE, Anuario Estadístico de España, 2002–2018; INE, Inebase, 2018a; INE, España en cifras, 2018b)). The autonomous communities contributing more than 10% of the sales figure in 2015 were CataloniaCatalonia (23.6%), Andalusia (11.2%), the Valencian Community (10.7%), and the Basque CountryBasque Country (10.0%).

Francisco J. Tapiador

14. The State and the Institutions: Solid Ground

The historical milestones briefly collected in the previous chapter have created a statestate with a particular structure, based on a diverse territory and some national particularities. But in a sense the Spanish state is not very different from other European countries, especially from those in southern Europe. One significant aspect is that the country functions quite independently of political upheavals, which demonstrates the solidity of the structure.

Francisco J. Tapiador

4. The Relief: A Mountainous Country

In essence, and in spite of the portrayal of the country in traditional geographies, captivated by the ample, more accessible plains, Spain is a mountainous country. Mountains cover large areas of the territory, and this feature has conditioned the country’s development, economy, ideas, politics, administration,administration and cultural heritage. Accessibility has consequently suffered in historical times, and anfractuosity still hinders communications in many parts of the territory, especially in wintertime. Railways and roads are difficult to construct and maintain, an issue if there are flat, easier areas competing for resources that has created several unbalances in regional development. On the brighter side, however, difficult communications and historical isolation have helped preserve some natural areas. Trees in flat areas have historically been cut down for the navy, railroads, and lumber or to make room for cereals and other crops. The idyllic account of a country covered by a continuous canopy in Roman times contrasts with the actual reality of mountains becoming the refuge of valuable species such as oaks.

Francisco J. Tapiador

23. Tourism: The Key Player

This economic activity enabled the development of Spain in the 1960s and 1970s, and its territorial effects have been highly marked. Tourism is today a fundamental economic sector around which the balance of payments and the services sector gravitate. It also affects the dynamics of the food sector, agriculture (mainly wine and oil), and construction and housing. Tourism in Spain is mainly coastal, but inland tourism is starting to develop.

Francisco J. Tapiador

30. Verifying the Hypothesis: The Uniqueness of Spain

The initial hypothesis of this book ( Sect. 2.1 ) was that Spain presents an unusual combination of natural and anthropic elements. Several climates suitable for human activities in a relatively small space, a long coastline, a shared culture of more than 2000 years, and a wide diversity in various fields (environmental, cultural, economic) have achieved a particular mix which, working together as an unit, can optimally exploit the initial and boundary conditions of the country to maximize the well-being of its inhabitants. Naturally, any country looked at in sufficient detail is almost by definition unique, but only a few are able to satisfy human needs as fully as Spain does. It is not just about singularity, it is about variety. Countries such as Portugal or Ireland are also spaces that allow people to achieve happiness, but their more monolithic character offers fewer options for different types of people. On the contrary, the flexibility and variety of lifestyles in Spain are so broad that its capacity to accommodate human variety is enormous.

Francisco J. Tapiador

21. Primary Sector: A New Countryside

The agrarian system was of great importance in Spain until recent times. During the dictatorship, and due to the disastrous autocratic economic policy, its role remained predominant. The reforms of the developmental period did nothing to change the situation. The entry into the European Common Market and the subsequent inclusion in the EU significantly modified the agricultural sector, moving from a policy of subsidies to limit surpluses to a policy of giving priority to certain crops.

Francisco J. Tapiador

3. General Data About Spain

This chapter provides general data about the country: location, basic physiographic information, and the administrative divisions with the official names.

Francisco J. Tapiador

16. Population: Sudden Ongoing Changes

The Spanish populationpopulation is about 47 million people (2018). Such significant growth in the population was not predicted in the last century, but is a consequence of a large wave of immigration in recent years (about six million residents are not Spanish nationals, two million of these are from the rest of the Europe and 2.2 from Latin America). Even so, the number is insufficient to maintain the welfare statestate enjoyed by the country, given the very low birth rate of Spanish women, and it will be necessary for the population to increase considerably to ensure the sustainability of the healthhealth system and pensions. In fact, the number of immigrants is very low in relation to other European countries such as France or Germany.

Francisco J. Tapiador

28. Geopolitics: Waning Influence

Spanish geopolitics has four axes: Hispanic America, the USA, the Muslim world, and the rest of Europe. Formerly a world power, Spain is now a small country highly dependent on the EU in terms of its economy and militarily dependent on NATO.

Francisco J. Tapiador

19. Economy: A Service-Based Specialization

The Spanish economy has three major agents: MadridMadrid , Catalonia,Catalonia and the Basque CountryBasque Country . These three communities are those where the financial and economic centers are concentrated and generate the largest proportion of the gross domestic product (GDP).Consumption in Spain is robust, and there is a large middle class with significant purchasing power and spending culture. The number of civil servants is comparable to that of other European countries. These, together with other public employees and an enormous number of small entrepreneurs, make the economy dynamic. On the other hand, the inequality index in Spain is high.The GDP of Spain was 1163 · 109 euros in 2017. GDP per capita is 25,000 euros, with great regional differences, from 33,800 in MadridMadrid to 17,200 in Extremadura.

Francisco J. Tapiador

10. The Tree Cover: The Remains of Green Spain

Today, forestsforests occupy about 30% of the territory of Spain, but before the Phoenician settlementssettlements began on the south and east coasts, most of Spain was covered by forests. In this respect, the country contrasts with other European regions, such as the great steppes of Russia, where trees have historically been absent because the climate is too dry to support them (but not dry enough to become a desert). In Spain, however, the process has been one of progressive destructions of a preexisting forest mass of an enormous wealth and varietyvariety . Fortunately, the destruction was not total, and now, the green cover is a major asset of the country.

Francisco J. Tapiador

20. Trade: Foods, Cars, and Machinery

The most important imports are those of the primary sector, followed by those of basic industrial goods, as a consequence of the bias of the economy towards services and the possibility of purchasing basic products abroad at more competitive prices. In terms of individual products, the main exports are motor vehicles and tractors, machinery and mechanical appliances, and electrical machinery and equipment. Major imports are machinery and mechanical appliances, motor vehicles and tractors, electrical machinery and equipment, and fuels and mineral oils. The ranking has been stable over the last 20 years, reflecting a structural trend.

Francisco J. Tapiador

11. Biodiversity: A Lively Country

The varietyvariety of fauna and floraflora of the Spanish natural spaces is enormous. Many of the species are endemic and some are relicts, which notably increases their geographical interest. There are an estimated 60,000 different species of flora and fauna, including 770 terrestrial vertebrates. The biological treasure of such biodiversity is a valuable resource that often goes unnoticed by the specificity of its study but which represents one of the most important geographical values of Spain. This chapter lists extensively the resources in order to gauge its importance (A detailed analysis of the geographical importance of this biodiversity is very much needed, but outside the scope of a synthesis. This chapter will be subject to extensive development in the fully fledged follow-up of this work, but at present, I can only comprehensively list and map the more geographically-important species).

Francisco J. Tapiador

6. The Geological History: A Unique Event

Most of Spain’s geological historyhistory was already well described in geological literature of the late nineteenth century, but until the beginning of the twenty-first century, there were a number of controversies. These have been resolved, thanks to the advance of physical and chemical analyses. Although details are important for a total knowledge of the environment, Geography, as a science of synthesis, is more interested in knowing what might have a more direct relationship with human activities, so often only relates what is relevant to explaining the location of an element.

Francisco J. Tapiador

18. Infrastructures: An Efficient Network

One of the historical problems for the country’s economic development has been a poor transport network. The 1960s boom in the sector encountered bottlenecks generated by this factor, limiting growth. Since the 1980s, however, public effort to create infrastructures across the country with the territorial balance of the whole in mind has achieved a fluid network that allows for rapid exchanges (Data in this chapter from AENA (Air traffic data, 2018) and INE (Anuario Estadístico de España, 2002–2018), INE (Inebase, 2018), INE (España en cifras, 2018)).

Francisco J. Tapiador

1. The Art and Science of Describing a Country

What is Geography? In short, Geography is the science that seeks to explain why a particular element is where it is on Earth and what its relationship is with humans. The dictionary definition is precise: “Geography is the scientific study of the features of the earth’s crust and the atmosphere, and of human activity as it affects and is affected by these, including the distribution of populations and resources and political and economic activities.” The first part of the definition is almost entirely covered by earth physics and environmental sciences, but no other science is concerned with the additional human component of location and with the feedback between natural and anthropic factors shaping the territory.

Francisco J. Tapiador

29. Strategic Analysis: A SWOT Approach

In terms of strategy, the geographical, political entity called “Spain” presents several strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) on the road towards creating happier citizens in a sustainable, peaceful, and democratic society.

Francisco J. Tapiador

2. Spain: A Privileged Land, Strong in Its Diversity

This chapter introduces the hypothesis of Spain as a diverse, singular country endowed with particular conditions for human life to flourish, an idea that permeates the narrative of the book.

Francisco J. Tapiador

26. Science and Technology: Below Potential

Public research is carried out mainly under the auspices of the CSIC, in public research centers (OPIs) and universities. Research at private universities is minimal. Companies began to invest in research and development especially in the 1990s and to avoid depending on foreign technology, but the orientation of their research is generally far from the international parameters of growth.

Francisco J. Tapiador

27. Domestic Politics: New Scenarios

In spite of having produced one of the most advanced constitutions early in 1812, today’s Spain is a young democracy. After the first period (“the Transition”), a long phase of stability followed, a situation currently being challenged from the left and by the Catalan and Basque nationalists. Constitutionalism, the idea of perfecting the Constitution of 1978, has been under attack by those pursuing a radical political agenda, those seeking for a people’s republics in some regions, and sectors that would welcome the disintegration of the country. The long period of a two-party political system has evolved towards a more pluralistic scenario with four major national parties and several regional parties.

Francisco J. Tapiador

17. Society: Inclusive and Progressive

The Spanish society of 2019 is unlike that of the last century. The development of communication networks has multiplied knowledge of the outside world and of others, and a period of economic growth together with a freedom and tolerance environment made new ideas flourish.Today it can be said that there is no social norm of behavior or appearance, except in official events or acts of protocol, such as the reading of a doctoral thesis, and today it is common to find oneself in formal meetings with people dressed in many different ways. Urban fashion follows international trends, and fiction series and social networks have a noticeable effect on behavior.Concepts of social acceptability have varied greatly since the last century and patterns are highly segmented, which has made social life easier by making it increasingly difficult to know other people’s ideas and thresholds of tolerance. This has led to people being more careful in social interaction and therefore more educated to avoid offense.

Francisco J. Tapiador

Kapitel 2. Das Interview als soziale Situation

Die in Interviews entstehende reale oder empfundene soziale Situation ist neben der Reaktivität ein weiteres besonderes Kennzeichen der Befragung, welches sie deutlich von anderen Datenerhebungsverfahren unterscheidet. In diesem Kapitel schildern wir, welche Einflüsse und Interaktionseffekte in dieser kommunikativen Situation wirksam werden und welche davon zu Verzerrungen führen können. Man unterscheidet theoretisch unterschiedliche Fehlerarten (vgl. Groves & Lyberg 2010) – relevant sind hier vor allem die so genannten Beobachtungsfehler (observational errors), die sich zusammensetzen aus Einflüssen der Untersuchungsanlage, der Interviewsituation, der Interviewenden und Befragten sowie Merkmalen des Fragebogens. Bis auf den letzten Bereich, der in Kapitel 3 diskutiert wird, gehen wir auf alle Aspekte im Folgenden ausführlich ein.

Wiebke Möhring, Daniela Schlütz

Kapitel 1. Die standardisierte Befragung als wissenschaftlich-empirische Methode

In diesem ersten Kapitel setzen wir uns mit den Grundlagen der standardisierten Befragung auseinander. Wir beginnen mit einigen Grundsätzen guter ethischer Forschungspraxis und gehen dann auf die Befragung als quantitativ-standardisierte Erhebungsmethode sowie den Forschungsprozess ein. Anschließend machen wir uns Gedanken über die Güte medien- und kommunikationswissenschaftlicher Befragungen und darüber, wie man die Befragten auswählt.

Wiebke Möhring, Daniela Schlütz

Kapitel 5. Varianten der Befragung: Längsschnitt-Designs und situative Befragungen

In diesem Kapitel stellen wir Befragungsvarianten vor, die in der Medien- und Kommunikationsforschung für spezifische Fragestellungen eingesetzt werden: Zunächst befassen wir uns mit Längsschnittdesigns, also Studien, die mittels wiederholter Messungen längere Zeiträume in den Blick nehmen und so in der Lage sind, verlässlich Veränderungen zu messen und kausale Beziehungen nachzuweisen (was sonst nur mit experimentellen Designs möglich ist, vgl. Koch, Peter & Müller 2019). Darunter fällt das Panel (siehe 5.1) sowie seine spezifische Form, die Tagebuchstudie (siehe 5.2). Im Gegensatz zum Panel, bei welchem die Befragungszeitpunkte meist größere Abständen haben (z. B. drei sog. Wellen in 6 Monaten) arbeitet das Tagebuch mit kontinuierlich gereihten Erhebungszeitpunkten (z. B. 14 Tage am Stück).

Wiebke Möhring, Daniela Schlütz

Kapitel 3. Die Formulierung des Fragebogens

In diesem Kapitel geht es darum, wie man einen „guten“ Fragebogen formuliert, indem man möglichst reliable und valide Fragen stellt (zu den Gütekriterien Validität und Reliabilität vgl. Kapitel 1.3), wie man Fragen also so stellt, dass man eine verwertbare Antwort erhält. Wir befassen uns dafür zunächst mit allgemeinen Kriterien sinnvoller Formulierung und wenden uns dann den unterschiedlichen Arten von Fragen, ihren Vor- und Nachteilen sowie Einsatzmöglichkeiten zu. Neben der Frage spielen dabei insbesondere Art und Inhalt der Antwortvorgaben eine Rolle sowie abschließend die Anordnung der Fragen im Fragebogen.

Wiebke Möhring, Daniela Schlütz

Kapitel 4. Modi der Befragung

In den vorherigen Kapiteln wurde immer wieder darauf hingewiesen, dass es für die Auswahl der Fragenformulierung, der Fragenpräsentation, der Fragenbogenlänge, aber auch für die Auswahl der zu befragenden Personen eine wichtige Rolle spielt, in welchem Modus die Befragung durchgeführt wird. Diesen Befragungsmodi widmen sich die folgenden Abschnitte.

Wiebke Möhring, Daniela Schlütz

Open Access

Chapter 6. Conclusions

The European history of collective actions started roughly three decades ago. While collective litigation proved to be one of the most successful export products of American legal scholarship, it has been very likely also one of the legal transplantations that generated the most heated debates. This process, not devoid of scare-mongering and legislative hesitation, has resulted in a landscape where 17 out of 28 Member States have adopted a special regime for collective actions. This evolution is crowned with the Commission’s recent proposal for a consumer collective action.

Csongor István Nagy

Open Access

Chapter 5. European Models of Collective Actions

Aside from some general legal requirements, EU law contains no “federal” legal framework for Member States’ collective action regimes. Member States have procedural autonomy in the application of EU law, that is, they are free to determine the structure and way of application and enforcement, with the proviso that national law must not discriminate between the application of EU and domestic law (principle of equivalence) and “must not be so framed as to make it virtually impossible or excessively difficult to obtain reparation (principle of effectiveness).”

Csongor István Nagy

Open Access

Chapter 4. Transatlantic Perspectives: Comparative Law Framing

Not surprisingly, collective actions’ regulatory contexts in the US and in Europe differ considerably. US law features a large array of legal institutions which catalyze the operation of class actions but are completely missing in Europe (e.g. contingency fees, no or one-way cost-shifting, super-compensatory damages such as punitive and treble damages, pre-trial discovery, jury trials). In fact, notwithstanding their independent nature, these legal concepts are quite often associated with class actions.

Csongor István Nagy

Open Access

Chapter 2. Why Are Collective Actions Needed in Europe: Small Claims Are Not Reasonably Enforced in Practice and Collective Actions Ensure Effective Access to Justice

It is probably very easy to agree with the tenet that “[r]ights which cannot be enforced in practice are worthless.” Small claims face hurdles that may prevent individual enforcement and lead to sub-optimal litigation. While the practical non-enforceabilty of small value claims is often conceived as a question of effectiveness, it also has serious human rights and rule of law implications.

Csongor István Nagy

Open Access

Chapter 3. Major European Objections and Fears Against the Opt-Out System: Superego, Ego and Id

This chapter presents and analyses the objections against class actions and inquires why the appearance and reception of collective actions, especially the notion of “representation without authorization”, have sparked furious opposition in Europe. It addresses and refutes the major arguments and fears against the opt-out system (unconstitutionality, European traditionalism, technical difficulties and abusive litigation), inquires whether these are genuine scruples or pretexts veiling a deeper aversion against class actions. It is argued that the headspring of Europe’s instinctive resistance against American class actions and the subconscious reason why it is so difficult to reconcile the “Copernican turn” of class actions with European traditionalism are the taboo of party autonomy and the state’s entrenched prerogative to enforce the public interest. An inquiry into the deep layers reveals that the European reaction may be traced back to the peculiar European thinking about the relationship between the market (or private enterprise) and the public interest and the continental notion that the enforcement of the public interest is the inalienable prerogative of the state.

Csongor István Nagy

Kapitel 5. Inventur, Inventar und Bilanz

Im Rahmen dieses Kapitels schaut sich der motivierte Einzelunternehmer Sommerweizen nochmals die Zusammenhänge zwischen Inventur, Inventar und Bilanz an. Er hat diese zwar schon einmal im Rahmen seines Selbststudiums bei der Buchführung betrachtet, ist aber gerne bereit, die Thematik zu wiederholen, um sicher zu gehen, dass er alles richtig verstanden hat und die relevanten Fachbegriffe sicher beherrscht. Im Anschluss wird er sich anhand von Kontrollfragen und Übungen einen Überblick über seinen aktuellen Kenntnisstand verschaffen.

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 4. Einführung in die Grundlagen der Bilanzierung

Im Rahmen dieses Kapitels wird zunächst auf die allgemeinen Grundlagen zur Bilanzierung eingegangen. Carlo Sommerweizen informiert sich zunächst über die unterschiedliche Zielsetzung von Handels- und Steuerbilanz. Die Aufgaben der Bilanzierung und die Adressaten des Jahresabschlusses sind Themen, mit denen sich der motivierte Autohändler im Vorfeld auseinandersetzt. Um möglichst umfassend informiert zu sein, schaut er sich noch einige Spielregeln zur Bilanzierung an und mögliche Fehlerquellen, die bei der Jahresabschlusserstellung relevant sein können. Alle Informationen festigt Carlo Sommerweizen im Rahmen von Kontrollfragen und Übungen.

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 6. Zugangs- und Folgebewertung in der Handelsbilanz

Carlo Sommerweizen setzt sich nun endlich mit der Bewertung von Bilanzpositionen auseinander. Zunächst benötigt er noch Grundlagenwissen im Hinblick auf die Möglichkeit der Erfassung von Gütern oder Schulden in der Bilanz. Er beginnt mit wichtigen Begriffsdefinitionen und schaut sich im Anschluss die abstrakten und konkreten Bilanzierungsvoraussetzungen an. Auch beschäftigt sich der motivierte Autohändler kurz mit der Bewertung von Verbindlichkeiten, ohne sich im Detail zu verlieren. Im Anschluss an seine Recherche wird sich Sommerweizen anhand von Kontrollfragen und Übungen einen Überblick über seinen aktuellen Kenntnisstand verschaffen.

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 8. Bewertung des Anlagevermögens

Carlo Sommerweizen beschäftigt sich in diesem Kapitel nun endlich mit der Bewertung von Anlagegütern. Nicht nur die Zugangsbewertung und der Abgang interessieren den motivierten Unternehmer, sondern auch die planmäßigen und außerplanmäßigen Abschreibungen, welche anhand von Beispielen kurz erläutert werden. Auch die Erfassung der Geringwertigen Wirtschaftsgüter (kurz: GWG) in der Buchführung mit den steuerlich eingeräumten Wahlmöglichkeiten interessiert ihn sehr. Da für ihn überwiegend die handelsrechtlichen Regelungen von Bedeutung sind, schaut er sich in diesem und auch in den folgenden Kapiteln nur in Einzelfällen, wie z. B. bei den Geringwertigen Wirtschaftsgütern, die steuerlichen Vorschriften an. Im Anschluss an seine Recherche wird sich Sommerweizen anhand von Kontrollfragen und Übungen einen Überblick über seinen aktuellen Kenntnisstand verschaffen.

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 2. Von der Buchführung zur Bilanz

Carlo Sommerweizen erinnert sich noch an sein Selbststudium im Rahmen der Buchführung. Er weiß, dass er stets alle betrieblichen Geschäftsvorfälle nach den Grundsätzen der ordnungsgemäßen Buchführung zu erfassen hat. Nun geht er hier einen Schritt weiter und führt die über das Wirtschaftsjahr hinweg gesammelten Daten zu einer Bilanz und einer Gewinn- und Verlustrechnung (GuV) zusammen. Die Bestandteile des Jahresabschlusses wertet er im Anschluss, also nach Erstellung, mit Hilfe von ausgewählten Kennziffern aus, um zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt sinnvolle Entscheidungen im Interesse seines Unternehmens treffen zu können. Carlo Sommerweizen wird auch in diesem Themenabschnitt Lernkontrollen und Übungsaufgaben bearbeiten, um von seinem neu erworbenen bzw. aufgefrischten Wissen lange Zeit Gebrauch machen zu können.

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 9. Bilanzierung ausgewählter Positionen des Umlaufvermögens

Carlo Sommerweizen widmet sich in diesem Kapitel ausgewählten Sachverhalten zur Bewertung des Vorratsvermögens und der Forderungen. Er geht bei seiner Recherche auch auf mögliche Bewertungsmethoden wie Verbrauchsfolgeverfahren (LiFo- und FiFo-Verfahren) sowie dem Durchschnittswertverfahren ein.Alle behandelten Themen werden anhand von Kontrollfragen und Übungen vertieft und gefestigt.

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 3. Gewinnermittlungsmethoden

Carlo Sommerweizen wiederholt in diesem Kapitel einige ausgewählte Gewinnermittlungsmethoden, die dazu dienen, den betrieblichen Erfolg (Gewinn oder Verlust) zu ermitteln. Er schaut sich den Betriebsvermögensvergleich, die Einnahmen-Überschuss-Rechnung und die Schätzung an. Obwohl er sich im Rahmen seiner Studien zur Buchführung mit diesem Thema schon einmal auseinandergesetzt hat, wiederholt er dieses, um sicher zu sein, dass er auch nichts falsch verstanden hat.

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 1. Carlo Sommerweizen e. K. – ein motivierter Unternehmer stellt sich vor

Carlo Sommerweizen ist ein motivierter und mittlerweile erfolgreicher Unternehmer aus dem Rheinland. Er betreibt ein gut gehendes Autohaus mit angeschlossener Werkstatt (Firma: „Carlo Sommerweizen e. K.“). Nachdem sich Sommerweizen bereits mit den Grundlagen des Steuerrechts und auch der Buchführung vertraut gemacht hat, möchte er nun einen Schritt weitergehen und sich mit den wesentlichen Kenntnissen im Rahmen der Jahresabschlusserstellung beschäftigen. Er weiß noch aus seiner Schulzeit, dass es stets wichtig ist, nicht nur neue Dinge zu erlernen, sondern auch die bisher erworbenen Kenntnisse wieder aufzufrischen und gegebenenfalls zu aktualisieren. Auf seiner Reise durch die Jahresabschlusserstellung begleiten ihn neben seinem Steuerberater auch einige Freunde und Bekannte, die ihm hilfreiche Hinweise und Beispiele liefern. Sommerweizens Ziel besteht darin, in einfachen und nachvollziehbaren Schritten zu erfahren, aus welchen Bestandteilen ein Jahresabschluss besteht, wie ein solcher erstellt wird und welche Auswertungen aufgrund des gesammelten Zahlenmaterials möglich sind.

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 14. Grundlagen des Jahresabschlusses nach IFRS

Carlo Sommerweizen möchte sich abschließend noch ein wenig mit dem spannenden Thema IFRS auseinandersetzen. Er hörte davon, dass es sich hierbei um internationale Jahresabschlüsse geht und er recherchiert ein wenig zu diesem Thema, um zumindest ein Grundlagenwissen zu erwerben.

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 10. Bilanzierung von Abgrenzungsposten

Die Rechnungsabgrenzungsposten werden benötigt, um den Grundsatz der periodengerechten Abgrenzung anwenden zu können. Wie Carlo bereits gelesen hat, muss der bilanzierungspflichtige Unternehmer stets dafür Sorge tragen, dass er das Ergebnis nur der letzten 12 Monate (also des abgelaufenen Geschäftsjahres) ausweist. Die Erfassung aller hierüber hinausgehenden erfolgswirksamen Buchungen würde zu Ergebnisverzerrungen führen.

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 7. Umsatzsteuer und Vorsteuer – allgemeine Anmerkungen

Carlo Sommerweizen hat sich bereits im Rahmen seiner Recherche mit den Betriebssteuern und auch der Buchführung mit dem spannenden Thema Umsatzsteuer beschäftigt. Er schaut sich im Rahmen dieses Kapitels daher nur noch einmal die wichtigen Aspekte an, die für Zwecke der Bilanzierung relevant sind. Im Anschluss an seine Recherche wird sich Sommerweizen anhand von Kontrollfragen und Übungen einen Überblick über seinen aktuellen Kenntnisstand verschaffen.

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 15. Aufgaben – Mix

Im aktuellen Kapitel werden zahlreiche Übungsaufgaben (inkl. Lösung) zwecks Übung und Festigung der Kenntnisse dargestellt. Es gibt keine bestimmte Reihenfolge hinsichtlich der behandelten Thematik. Zur Lösung sollten Sie die Steuergesetze und das HGB zur Hand haben bzw. diese im Internet abrufen können. Taschenrechner und hohe Motivation sind auch sehr hilfreich. Gutes Gelingen und viel Erfolg!

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 12. Bilanzierung von Rückstellungen und Verbindlichkeiten

Im aktuellen Kapitel schaut sich Carlo Sommerweizen die Bilanzierung von Rückstellungen und Verbindlichkeiten an. Beide Positionen befinden sich auf der Passivseite der Bilanz. Diese schaut sich Carlo Sommerweizen gemeinsam mit seinem Steuerberater etwas genauer an.

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 13. Veröffentlichung von Jahresabschlüssen

Die Offenlegung- oder Publizitätspflicht von Unternehmen ist geregelt im Publizitätsgesetz. Diese Verpflichtung gilt für bestimmte Rechtsformen und ist gesetzlich verankert.

Karin Nickenig

Kapitel 11. Bewertung des Eigenkapitals

Nun schaut sich Carlo die Passivseite an. Er beginnt mit dem Eigenkapital (Passivkonto). Bevor er sich die Gliederung dieser wichtigen Position innerhalb der Bilanz verinnerlicht, liest er sich zunächst die wichtigsten Definitionen durch.

Karin Nickenig

Chapter 7. Investigation of Rainfall-Induced Landslides at the Hillslopes of Guwahati Region, Assam

Landslides constitute a major hydrogeological hazard component of the natural disasters that affect most of the hilly regions around the globe. The impact of rainwater infiltration in causing landslides is widely recognized. A landslide study has a two-way approach; local scale (slope stability analysis) and regional scale (landslide susceptibility and hazard assessment). For any of the above-mentioned approach, the determination of infiltration capacity, hydraulic conductivity and characterization of the soil strength behaviour under different wetting and seepage conditions are the first and foremost steps. Hillslopes mostly consist of residual soils in unsaturated condition, thus rendering the conventional soil mechanics approach to be inadequate for the assessment of the stability of such slopes. To assess the potential susceptibility to rainfall-induced landslide, an effective modelling of the changes in water content and matric suction in response to rainfall infiltration is essential. Local scale approach gives a framework to address the slope stability and the effect of the various parameters in detailed manner. To address the uncertainty issues, probabilistic methods are developed. Models based on infinite slope stability model coupled with a hydrological model, within a grid-based GIS framework, is developed to evaluate the stability condition of a region. The simulation results of such models can be used to generate landslide susceptibility and hazards map of a particular region.

Chiranjib Prasad Sarma, Arindam Dey, A. Murali Krishna

Chapter 13. Extended Application of Cement-Based Grouting to Gravel/Boulder Ground Improvement

The off-the Pacific Coast Earthquake Japan in 2011 resulted in serious damage on various structures and highlighted some new geotechnical engineering issues. This notified us that new ground improvement techniques are still required that can be applied under special execution condition to achieve retrofits ground improvement. As one of these techniques, this paper deals with a new cement-based grouting which is applied to gravel/boulder ground improvement. We first review conventional cement grouting, and introduce the new technique, then two experimental studies are shown. From these, the detail of the grouting practice is confirmed, and adaptability of the grouting is discussed based on the gravel/boulder size and plasticity of grouting material.

H. Ishii

Chapter 1. The 2017 July Northern Kyushu Torrential Rainfall Disaster—Geotechnical and Geological Perspectives

In July 2017, localized and torrential rainfall caused many landslides, debris flows, and flooding of rivers resulting in devastating damage to several areas of the Fukuoka and Oita prefectures of Kyushu, Japan. The authors conducted an extensive investigation of the damage covering several cities, towns, and villages of the Fukuoka and Oita Prefectures. The areas suffered from the disaster have many complicated geologies and geomorphologies, which exacerbated the damage. In this research, the authors focused on the landslides and debris flows that occurred in the Otoishi River basin. The characteristics of slope failures are analyzed, and the failures are classified focusing on the geological features. Finally, the slope failure mechanism is discussed.

H. Hazarika, S. Yamamoto, T. Ishizawa, T. Danjo, Y. Kochi, T. Fujishiro, K. Okamoto, D. Matsumoto, S. Ishibashi

Chapter 2. Disaster Management in India and Characterization for Geohazards

Lives and properties of many people across the world are at significant risk due to various disasters including Earthquakes, Landslides, Floods, Cyclones, Droughts, Tsunamis, Fire and Industrial Disasters. In the Year 2005, the Government of India enacted Disaster Management (DM) Act, accordingly, there is a paradigm shift, from relief-centric response to proactive prevention, mitigation and preparedness approach towards disasters. In this article, the present scenario of disaster management in India is discussed. For effective disaster mitigation and management, the sites need to be classified. For this, geotechnical engineering plays a crucial role. The severity of damage during a disaster such as an earthquake is much controlled by local geological and geotechnical characteristics. Thus, geotechnical characterization of sites is important and the same is discussed using field and laboratory tests. Some of the results from the author’s research group are presented.

B. K. Maheshwari

Chapter 5. Spatial Distribution of Strength—Comparison Between Indian and Japanese Embankments

The spatial distribution of N value inside the earth-fill dams and river dikes are identified by the sounding tests, and compared between in Japan and in India. In this research, the Swedish Weight Sounding (SWS) and the dynamic cone penetration (DCP) tests are employed as the test methods, and the spatial correlation structure of the ground can be identified with very short interval tests. Consequently, high resolution of the spatial distribution of N value could be visualized based on the survey results. Simultaneously, the difference between Japanese and Indian embankments of the river dikes and earth-fill dams has been clarified.

S. Nishimura, K. Imaide, T. Ueta, T. Hayashi, K. Inoue, T. Shibata, B. Chaudhary

Chapter 11. Instability of Composite Breakwater Subjected to Earthquake and Tsunami and Its Countermeasures

Many breakwaters collapsed during the past earthquakes and subsequent tsunamis mainly due to their foundation failures. However, their failure mechanism has not been well understood. To the end, physical model tests were conducted to understand exact failure mechanism of breakwater subjected to an earthquake and subsequent tsunami. Furthermore, countermeasures are developed for breakwater foundation which can make the breakwater resilient against earthquake and tsunami-induced damage. Gabion and steel sheet piles were used as reinforcing elements for the foundation. Effectiveness of the developed reinforcing model were judge by performing shaking table tests and tsunami overflow tests.

B. Chaudhary, H. Hazarika, A. Murakami, K. Fujisawa

Chapter 6. Integrating Rainfall Load into Remedial Design of Slopes Affected by Landslides

Early warning systems mitigate landslide risk by providing sufficient lead time to implement actions in order to protect persons or property. However, landslide risk cannot be mitigated effectively by early warning system alone because in the majority of cases it is not possible to transfer settlements and infrastructures within the given lead time. Therefore, slope remediation measures are suggested for sites with landslide activity. For slopes prone to rainfall-induced landsliding, it is important to correct the existing slope with respect to rainfall load. However, rainfall loads are not integrated into the design process of remedial measures and the destabilising effect of rainfall is not quantified. This study provides a procedural method for integrating rainfall load into the design of slope remedial measures. The method combines rainfall–landslide relation model with remedial slope design.

G. L. Sivakumar Babu, Pinom Ering

Chapter 12. Ground Modification Techniques to Improve Liquefaction Resistance in Indo-Gangetic Soils

Liquefaction is a well-known seismic hazard during which soil starts behaving like a fluid and is no longer be able to support structure due to the reduction in its shear strength. Deep ground modification techniques can be very effective in reducing liquefaction potential by vibration/displacement/stabilization of loose granular soil. In this paper, the efficacy in mitigating the liquefaction potential of soil by different methods of ground improvement, by comparing SPT and eCPT values of the soil before and after the soil improvement, are discussed.

J. T. Shahu, Mamata Mohanty

Chapter 3. Shear Strength Behaviour of Gravel–Tire Chips Mixture

In this study, a series of experimental programs were conducted to examine physical properties and mechanical behaviour of Gravel–Tire Chips Mixture (GTCM). The effect of gravel fraction in the mixture, confining pressure and relative density on drained shear strength and dilatancy behaviour of GTCM have also been investigated. In addition, a series of vibratory tests have been performed on GTCM with different gravel fractions according to JGS-0162. An empirical correlation has been proposed to estimate the maximum and minimum void ratio of gravel–tire chips mixture. Outcomes revealed that gravel fraction in GTCM along with confining pressure are the main parameters controlling skeleton as well as compaction behaviour of GTCM. For GTCM specimens with GF < 55%, the tangent modulus is minimally affected by the level of axial strain and gravel fraction in mixture. Furthermore, the effect of relative density on dilatancy behaviour and enhancing the shear strength of GTCM reduces with decreasing gravel fraction in mixture.

S. M. K. Pasha, H. Hazarika, N. Yoshimoto

Chapter 8. Evaluation of the Risk Distribution of the Debris Flow Occurred Using Numerical Simulation Subjected to Rockfall

The Hiroshima torrential rain and sediment disaster that occurred from 19 to 20 August 2014, brought a huge disaster to the private house on the alluvial cone. It was conducted a debris flow disaster focusing on this alluvial cone. In this survey, it was found that in the hornfels distribution area, there are many stones and gravels and the matrix content is small, so the alluvial cone becomes steep and the debris flow does not reach relatively far. In other words, from the viewpoint of disaster prevention and disaster prevention, it is important to think about land use while keeping in mind that the slope of the alluvial cone in the range where the debris flow in the upper part of the alluvial azimuth falls directly differs from geology. Although prediction analysis has been tried from such a disaster case, it has not yet been reflected in the design. It is desirable to predict highly accurate predictive analysis, but first of all, it was calculated by a simple calculation method as much as possible.

Y. Isobe, H. Inagaki, H. Ohno

Chapter 4. Elastic Modulus Estimation Using a Scaled State Parameter in the Extended Kalman Filter

The Elastic Modulus of soil is an important property both from a strength and settlement perspective. Back analysis using observation data in an EKF could prove troublesome considering the large difference in magnitude of the covariances of the observation noise and the state vector noise. A simple scaled formulation is developed wherein the Kalman Filtering is done with respect to a new scaled state parameter. The domain is subdivided into blocks and only a simple two-block case is considered. The Elastic Modulus is considered constant inside a block. The EKF using the scaled state parameter is successful in estimating the state of only one of the blocks.

M. C. Koch, A. Murakami, K. Fujisawa

Chapter 10. Design of Waterfront-Retaining Walls Subjected to Waves and Earthquakes: A Review

This article discussed the various possible forces that can act on the waterfront-retaining wall during the earthquake and the available methodologies to compute them. The wave forces acting on the waterfront-retaining structures can be branched into non-breaking waves, breaking waves and broken waves. Hydrodynamic pressure due to seismic shaking plays a vital role in the stability and must be considered from both seaward and landward sides if the backfill is permeable. Various guidelines available for the design of waterfront-retaining wall and their limitations are discussed. The recent modified pseudo-dynamic method overcomes limitations of the pseudo-static method and considers the effect of time, amplification and damping properties in the analysis. Consideration of excess pore pressure variation with time in the analysis is challenging and needs further research.

D. Choudhury, B. G. Rajesh

Correction to: The International Political Economy of Health

The original version of this chapter was revised.

Jappe Eckhardt, Kelley Lee

FIR Filter Design Technique to Mitigate Gibb’s Phenomenon

A unique methodology employing a linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) low pass filter (LPF) was proposed with an attempt to mitigate passband and stopband ripples due to Gibb’s phenomenon. The three regions of the filter response in the frequency domain are approximated using trigonometric functions. The proposed filter model achieved a sharp transition of 2π, fairly flat passband and a stopband attenuation of 40 dB. Our algorithm suppressed the oscillations near the edge of the transition region as well as in the passband region, reducing the Gibb’s phenomenon from the conventional passband ripples from 18% to as low as 2%. Thus a threefold satisfactory performance was achieved in all the three bands namely passband, transition and stopband. Our proposed linear phase FIR LPF was effectively used to filter out power line interference and higher unwanted frequencies from the real time electroencephalogram signals.

Niyan Marchon, Gourish Naik

Dynamic Analysis of an Integrated Reformer-Membrane-Fuel Cell System with a Battery Backup and Switching Controller for Automotive Applications

Fuel cells have been considered as an ideal source of energy in the future power generation applications due to its pollution-free nature, noise-free operation and better efficiency. Direct storage of hydrogen in specially designed tanks for automobiles running on fuel cells is not a viable option due to several drawbacks associated with safety and space limitations. To overcome the challenges of direct onboard storage of hydrogen, storing hydrocarbons rich in hydrogen and suitably reforming it to produce hydrogen using several reforming techniques seems to be an acceptable option. Using available gas purification techniques such as palladium membrane-based gas separation, pure hydrogen gas can be extracted from a mixture of other gases and can be fed to the fuel cell for generating power. In this work, a mathematical model of the battery system is analyzed along with a switching controller operating based on an energy management policy. The switching controller switches between battery and fuel cell to ensure a delay-free delivery of the power to the external load. A case study on the dynamic behavior of the integrated system under set point changes in the power demand is analyzed in the presence of a battery backup and a switching controller.

P. S. Pravin, Ravindra D. Gudi, Sharad Bhartiya

Deposition of ZnO Thin Film at Different Substrate Temperature Using RF Sputtering for Growth of ZnO Nanorods Using Hydrothermal Method for UV Detection

The growth properties of ZnO Nanorods was studied on different seed layers by the deposition of Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film on SiO2/Si substrate by RF sputtering at two different conditions, i.e., one at room temperature and another at 400 °C substrate temperature. Surface morphology of the seed layer was studied by X-Ray Diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Low cost hydrothermal method was employed for the growth of ZnO Nanorods on both the seed layers. The structural properties of ZnO nanorods were characterized by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The FESEM images showed the proper alignment and orientation of ZnO nanorods grown on both the seed layers. The I-V measurements were carried out at room temperature under dark light and Ultraviolet (UV) light source. In order to examine the UV detection, MSM (Metal–Semiconductor–Metal) photodetector was fabricated and responsivity was measured for the nanorods grown on both seed layers. The better responsivity and contrast ratio of ZnO nanorods based UV detector was observed in case of 150 nm seed layer deposited at 400 °C.

Basavaraj S. Sannakashappanavar, C. R. Byrareddy, Sanjit Varma, Nandini A. Pattanshetti, Aniruddh Bahadur Yadav

Chapter 5. Calculus of Residues and Applications to Contour Integration

The inspiration behind this chapter is the desire to obtain possible values for the integrals $${\int _{C}} f(z)\, dz$$ , where f is analytic inside the closed curve C and on C, except for a inside C. If f has a removable singularity at a, then it is clear that the integral will be zero. If $$z =a$$ is a pole or an essential singularity, then the answer is not always zero, but can be found with little difficulty. In this chapter, we show the very surprising fact that Cauchy’s residue theorem yields a very elegant and simple method for evaluation of such integrals.

Hemant Kumar Pathak

PLS-Based Multivariate Statistical Approach for Soft Sensor Development in WWTP

Multivariate Statistical Process Control is a projection method of projecting a high- dimensional model space with a number of measured variables to a low-dimensional space. The different methods include Principal Component Analysis, Principal Component Regression, Partial Least Squares Regression, Finite Impulse response, Autoregressive exogenous input and autoregressive moving average, etc. The advantage of using Multivariate Statistical Process Control is that it identifies low-dimensional quality process data while reducing the variability in the process and increasing the product quality. The paper aims to find the low- dimensional information-rich space for soft sensor design using Partial Least Squares-based Multivariate Statistical Process Control technique for the controlling variables in a Wastewater Treatment Plant. The input considered here is the stored data of the actual process variables obtained from the plant. This is carried out using the 14 days data for the three weather conditions, dry rain and storm available from the benchmark model. The performance of the applied method is verified using scatter plot and R-squared.

Barasha Mali, S. H. Laskar

Development of a GUI to Detect Glaucomatic Diseases Using Very Deep CNNs

One of the deadliest diseases in human beings is the glaucoma, which is the second largest disease in the world, which leads to the loss of vision in the human eye, thus making the life of human miserable and the whole world would be dark without vision. Recently, (DL) Deep Learning is playing a lot of important role in the image processing applications. This DL can be clubbed with CNNs (Convolution Artificial Neural Networks) along with a hardware Raspberry Pi and the hybrid combination of the threesome could be used for the automated detection of the glaucomatic case in the disease-affected human beings in the eyes. In this write-up, the previously mentioned hybrid threesome is being used and developed for the glaucoma detection. The DL frameworks (CNN + ANN + MATLAB) can be used as a hierarchical representation of the fundus images to distinguish b/w glaucoma and non-glaucomatic images for the disease detections. The model is trained with standard datasets available on the net. The VGG19 architecture is used with transfer learning to achieve high accuracy. A graphical user interface is used to diagnose the condition of test images and give a graphical analysis of the patients. The entire program is run on a Raspberry Pi 3B with a 5” LCD touch screen as a stand-alone device with the power input.

G. Pavithra, T. C. Manjunath, T. N. Kesar

Chapter 8. Spaces of Analytic Functions

In this chapter, we shall put a metric on the set of all analytic functions on a fixed region $$G\subset \mathbb {C},$$ and “compactness”, “converge”, “normality”, “uniform continuity”, and “equicontinuity” in this metric space is discussed. We shall alsoEquicontinuity discuss Hurwitz’s theorem, Montel’s theorem and Montel’s theorem among the applications obtained is a proof ofRiemann mapping theorem the Riemann mapping theorem.

Hemant Kumar Pathak

Chapter 12. Canonical Products and Convergence of Entire Functions

In this chapter, we Canonical product discuss Canonical products of entire functions, Jensen’s formula, Poisson–Jensen formula, growth, order and exponent of convergence of entire functions, Hadamard’s three-circle theorem, Borel’s theorem, and Hadamard’s factorization theorem.

Hemant Kumar Pathak

Simultaneous Exploration and Coverage by a Mobile Robot

In this paper, we propose a problem of simultaneous exploration and coverage for a mobile robot, combining the problems of area coverage with exploration and mapping. The primary task here is to completely cover an initially unknown region. Here we combine the advantages of online and off-line coverage path planning algorithms by using the exploration as an aid. The robots perform intermittent exploration during coverage in order to update the map of the environment, which in turn is used to generate the coverage path. We illustrate and demonstrate the problem using the off-line version of Spanning Tree Coverage algorithm with a frontier-based exploration strategy. The simulation results demonstrate that the robot successfully achieves complete and non-repetitive coverage.

P. M. Mohammad Minhaz Falaki, Akshar Padman, Vishnu G. Nair, K. R. Guruprasad

Chapter 13. The Range of an Analytic Function

In this chapter, we Range of an analytic function shall invest the range of an analytic function. We initiate a generic problem of this type in the following way: Let $$\mathscr {F}$$ be a family of analytic function, in a region G which satisfy some property P. What can be said about f(G), the range of f, for each f in $$\mathscr {F}$$ ?.

Hemant Kumar Pathak

Chapter 10. Analytic Continuation

From the results in Sect. 4.3 of Chap. 4 (see, for instance, Theorem 4.11 ) it follows that if two functions are analytic in a domain D and if they coincide in a neighborhood of any point $$a \in D$$ , or only along a path-segment terminating is a point $$a \in D$$ , or only at an infinite number of distinct points with a limit point $$a \in D$$ , then the two functions are identically the same in D. It follows that an analytic function defined in a domain D is completely determined by its values over any of such sets of points. This remarkable feature of analytic functions is extremely helpful in the study of analytic function from a general view point by virtue of what is known as “analytic continuation”.

Hemant Kumar Pathak

Chapter 7. Conformal Mappings and Applications

In the proceeding chapter, we have discussed some special types of bilinear transformations. As noted earlier that these transformations are the most powerful tools for transforming circular regions in the z-plane into circular regions or half-planes in the w-plane. In this chapter, we deal with more general situations in which we shall answer more abstract questions for determining whether and in what manner a given finite portion of an analytic surface could be represented on a portion of a plane (This well-posed problem was treated for the first time by Riemann (1826–1856) in his integral dissertation of Göttingen in 1851, which is indeed a decisive turning point in the history of Conformal Representation.).

Hemant Kumar Pathak

PLX-DAQ-Based Wireless Battery Monitoring System for Obstacle Avoidance Robot

Most mobile robotic systems draw power from batteries which have a limited power life. Monitoring the status of the battery power on the robot is therefore important for autonomous robotic systems. The wireless system for monitoring lead–acid battery of obstacle avoidance robot has been developed. The system employs sensors, microcontroller ATMEGA 328, and Bluetooth module. The parameters such as voltage and current of battery are checked by the battery monitoring system during discharging of the battery. The varying discharging voltage and current values of the battery are detected using voltage divider circuit and Hall Effect current sensor, respectively. Battery voltage and current data will be transferred in real time to the microcontroller, and then it will be transmitted to display device using Bluetooth communication. In this work, monitored battery data will be displayed on Microsoft Excel of laptop Personal Computer (PC) with Parallax Data Acquisition tool (PLX-DAQ). The real-time data of voltage and current will be indicated by the system in the tabulated form along with graphical display.

M. V. Sreenivas Rao, M. Shivakumar

Chapter 1. Complex Numbers and Metric Topology of

In this introductory chapter, we give a brief introduction of the complex number system, geometrical representation of complex numbers, the notion of point at infinity, Riemann sphere, and metric topology of $$\mathbb {C}$$ . All these notions are meant to convey the need for and the intrinsic beauty found in passing from a real variable x to a complex variable z.

Hemant Kumar Pathak

Chapter 6. Bilinear Transformations and Applications

In this chapter, the reader is introduced with bilinear transformation, also called Möbious tranformation, which deals with more general situations in which we shall answer more abstract questions for determining whether and in what manner a given finite portion of an analytic surface could be represented on a portion of a plane. This chapter also deals with fixed points of bilinear transformations, elliptic, hyperbolic, and parabolic transformations along with some special bilinear transformations.

Hemant Kumar Pathak

Chapter 4. Singularities of Complex Functions and Principle of Argument

In this chapter, we discuss singularities of analytic functions, zeros and poles of meromorphic functions, argument principle, Rouché’s theorem and some of their applications.

Hemant Kumar Pathak

Design and Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controller on MPSoC FPGA for Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

In this paper design of fuzzy logic controller (FLC) on system on chip field programmable gate array (SoC FPGA) for Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger (STHE) is described. STHE is interfaced with Compact Reconfigurable Input Output (CRIO) based FPGA through data acquisition (DAQ) card. For designing controller on chip, National Instruments (NI) CRIO-9101 is reconfigured with FLC code. Interfacing is carried out with NI analog input-output device embedded with NI CRIO-9012 microcontroller and NI CRIO-9101 FPGA module. A graphical program is developed for real-time control of the process plant using CRIO based FPGA. FPGA acts as a standalone processor instead of PC for controlling the STHE. The fuzzy logic controller designed on FPGA is compared with benchmark controller in real time temperature control of STHE. It is demonstrated that the controller proposed outperformed conventional controller.

Rajarshi Paul, C. Shreesha

Chapter 11. Harmonic Functions and Integral Functions

In this chapter, we shall study harmonic function, Harnack’s inequalityHarnack’s inequality, and the Dirichlet problemDirichlet problem will be solved. The Dirichlet problem consists in determining all regions G such that for any continuous function $$f: \partial G \rightarrow \mathbb {R}$$ there is a continuous function $$ u :\overline{G} \rightarrow \mathbb {R}$$ such that $$u(z) = f(z)$$ for $$z \in \partial G$$ and u is harmonic in G. Alternatively, the Dirichlet problem consists in determining all regions G such that Laplace’s equation isLaplace’s Equation solvable with arbitrary boundary values.

Hemant Kumar Pathak

Multi-robot Coverage Using Voronoi Partitioning Based on Geodesic Distance

In this paper we propose Geodesic-VPC, a “partition” and “cover” strategy for a multi-robot system using Voronoi partitioning based on geodesic distance metric in the place of the usual Euclidean distance. Each robot is responsible for covering the corresponding geodesic-Voronoi cell using a single-robot coverage strategy. The proposed partitioning scheme ensures that Voronoi cells are contiguous even in the presence of obstacles. We demonstrate that if the single-robot coverage strategy is capable of providing a complete and non-repetitive coverage, then the proposed Geodesic-VPC strategy provides a complete and non-repetitive coverage. We use spanning tree-based coverage algorithm as the underlying single-robot coverage strategy for the purpose of demonstration, though any existing single-robot coverage algorithm can be used.

Vishnu G. Nair, K. R. Guruprasad

Secure Communication Using a New Hyperchaotic System with Hidden Attractors

Objectives of the paper are to (i) develop a new hyperchaotic system having hidden attractors and (ii) to show the applications using the new system in the form of secure communication. New system proposed in the paper has a stable equilibrium, hence considered under the class of the hidden attractors dynamical system. Dynamical characteristics of the novel system is confirmed using some numerical means like phase portrait, Poincaré map and Lyapunov spectrum plot. The applications of the new system are shown by encrypting and decrypting a sinusoidal signal and sound wave. Secure communication is achieved by designing a proportional integral (PI) based sliding mode control (SMC). MATLAB simulation results validate and ensure that the objectives are satisfied.

Jay Prakash Singh, Kshetrimayum Lochan, Binoy Krishna Roy

Chapter 2. Analytic Functions, Power Series, and Uniform Convergence

In this chapter, we introduce the notion of analytic function, power series, and uniform convergence of sequences and series. Finally, we conclude the chapter with discussion on elementary complex functions.

Hemant Kumar Pathak

Manhattan Distance Based Voronoi Partitioning for Efficient Multi-robot Coverage

In this paper we address the problem of area coverage using multiple cooperating robots. One of the main concerns of using multiple robots is of avoiding repetitive coverage apart from complete coverage of the given area. Partitioning the area to be covered into cells and allotting one each cell to each of the robots for coverage is a simple and elegant solution for this problem. However, the spacial partitioning may lead to additional problems leading to either incomplete coverage or coverage overlap near the partition boundary. We propose a manhattan distance based Voronoi partitioning scheme of $$2D\times 2D$$ 2 D × 2 D gridded region, where D is the size of the robot footprint. We show that the proposed partitioning scheme completely eliminates coverage gaps and coverage overlap using illustrative results.

Vishnu G. Nair, K. R. Guruprasad

Chapter 3. Complex Integrations

In this chapter, we derive results which are fundamental in the study of analytic functions. These results constitute one of the pillars of mathematics and have far-ranging applications. Notice that many important properties of analytic functions are very difficult to prove without use of complex integrations. For instance, the existence of higher derivatives of analytic functions is a striking property of this type. There occur real integrals in applications that can be evaluated by complex integration. We now turn our attention to the question of integration of complex valued function.

Hemant Kumar Pathak

Chapter 15. Function Theory of Several Complex Variables

In this chapter, we discuss essentially the difference between theory of functions of one complex variable and theory of functions of several complex variables. The purpose of this chapter is not to teach this subject; instead, it is to let the reader understand complex analysis better through some of the main theorems on complex analysis of several variables. The mainPoincaré theorem two theorems of functionHartogs theorem theory of several complex variables—Poincaré Theorem and Hartogs Theorem—are discussed.

Hemant Kumar Pathak

Tracking Control and Deflection Suppression of an AMM Modelled TLFM Using Backstepping Based Adaptive SMC Technique

Manipulators are widely used in all areas of science and technology. Effective trajectory tracking and quick deflection suppression are the two main aspect of research for a flexible manipulator. The paper reports aperiodic signal like trajectory tracking control for a planar assumed modes modelled two-link flexible manipulator (TLFM). The aperiodic chaotic signal is used as a desired trajectory for the TLFM. Thus, designing of a robust controller for the aperiodic signal tracking control is a challenging task. A backstepping based adaptive SMC technique is designed for the considered problem. In adaptive SMC, the gain of the switching control law is estimated online. The effectiveness of the considered controller is compared to an available backstepping controller. It is found that the designed backstepping based adaptive SMC perform better in terms of smaller tracking time, quick tip deflection suppression and lesser, smoother control efforts. Proposed trajectory strategy is validated on a two-link flexible manipulator in MATLAB simulation environment.

Kshetrimayum Lochan, Jay Prakash Singh, Binoy Krishna Roy

Chapter 14. Univalent Functions and Applications

In this chapter, we discuss univalent functions and their associated property. To effect this, first we shall introduce the class $$\mathscr {S}$$ and discuss some related theorems. Then we shall state Bierbach’s conjecture and finally the chapter culminates with the proof of “ $$\frac{1}{4}$$ - theorem” with an interesting application.

Hemant Kumar Pathak

Chapter 31. Judicial Governance of the Long Blur

In a recent issue of Futures, I concluded an essay on the futures of the courts and law with an ancient Chinese poem which I first heard read by the Chief Justice of the Courts of Singapore, Yong Pung How. The poem said that one of the signs of a well-governed polity is that “the courts of justice are overgrown with grass” (Dator 2000). I have also been known to argue passionately that, while some polities are closer to being democratic than others, no current system is democratic; that true democracy lies in the future, most likely as enabled by some forms of electronic direct democracy (Dator 1999).

Jim Dator

Chapter 4. Tourism in Hawaii 1776–2076

Well, you have heard from the weather forecasters (also known as meteorologists) and now you are going to get something from a climatologist. The speakers before me—economists all—gave you their versions of what happened last year and what might happen next year concerning tourism in Hawaii. I was relieved to see that there was not only no agreement among the panelists about what might happen, but also no agreement on what had happened! That warmed my heart because I am going to share with you a much bigger picture—some thoughts about tourism in Hawaii from 1776 to 2076.

Jim Dator

Chapter 3. As If I Virtually Said This to Pepsi

Perhaps because I live on an island which has more frequently been shaped by sudden, unexpected, and catastrophic events (volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, truly massive landslides, and countless tsunamis) than by slow, predictable forces of change—and surely because, as a longtime professional futurist, I have come to understand quite well that social and environmental change is proceeding at a rate so rapid and unprecedented as to defy the ability of most people and institutions to comprehend it by conventional tools and paradigms—I have come to see that is better to believe that the future is approaching us, rather than that we are moving into the future.

Jim Dator

Chapter 30. Courts of the Twenty-first Century: A View from Hawaii

I am truly honored to have been invited to participate in this exciting and important Technology Renaissance Courts Conference 1996. I have had the opportunity of working with judiciaries, primarily in the United States, but also in Japan, Korea, and Micronesia, for 30 years, and while I have been a frequent visitor to some neighboring South and Southeast Asian countries, and have often changed planes in Singapore, this is the first time that I have had the opportunity to discuss issues of law, justice, technology and the future with a primarily Singapore audience.

Jim Dator

Chapter 5. Alternative Futures at the Manoa School

This essay explains and illustrates how the Hawaii Research Center for Futures Studies [] (and the “Manoa School” of futures studies more broadly [Christopher B. Jones, “The Manoa School of Futures Studies,” Futures Research Quarterly, Winter, 1992, pp. 19–25]) conceives of and uses “alternative futures” (sometimes called “scenarios”). Our use is not unique; it is similar to the way some other futures groups use scenarios. But it also contrasts significantly from most uses of scenarios, and especially from “scenario planning.” [Peter Bishop, et al., “The current state of scenario development,” Foresight, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2007, 5–25, and Timothy Chermack, et al., “A review of scenario planning literature,” Futures Research Quarterly, Summer 2001, pp. 7–31.] We notice considerable confusion within the futures field about the meaning of these terms, and hope that this essay will help make clear to others our use. We are not interested in “correcting” others’ usage, or in establishing a uniform terminology so much as helping people understand the sometimes very different meanings of the same terms.

Jim Dator

Chapter 32. Governing the Futures: Dream or Survival Societies?

Constitutional representative government, often mistakenly called “democracy”, was one of the greatest inventions of the eighteenth century. It rivals other eighteenth century inventions such as the sextant, the steam engine, the cotton gin, smallpox vaccination—and the guillotine—all of which changed the world in important ways. But all of them also have been superseded by vastly more powerful inventions, while constitutional representative government persists as a strange relic from the past, in more or less the same form, and certainly on the basis of the same mindset from which it originally emerged.

Jim Dator

Chapter 7. The Last Supper of the Dinosaurs

I grew up in a small town in Central Florida called “DeLand.” My grandfather was the town undertaker and also owned the town’s main furniture store. He inherited both from his father, whose father before him had been one of the founders of the town, having moved to Florida to recover his health which had been lost while he was a Union Army prisoner in the notorious Confederate prison called Andersonville.

Jim Dator

Chapter 10. Valuelessness and the Plastic Personality

We have been taught to value advancement, hard work, sacrifice, self-control, and unswerving loyalty to principle. These values, which were so necessary during the period of industrialization, are still those of our parents, teachers, and preachers today, and thus are the values into which we are socializing our youth. But many of the youths themselves do not accept these as the only valid orientations. They recognize that to please adults, and to “succeed” in the world as they have been taught to perceive it, they must believe, or pretend to believe, as their parents do. But among themselves it is often another matter. Value-conflict between parent and child is nothing new, of course. But the present situation is qualitatively as well as quantitatively different. We are said to be a youth-centered culture now, and if so, it is highly appropriate that we are, because youths possess the plastic personalities and role orientations which we all must learn to have in order to survive in the future. Instead of socializing our youths into the rigid and outmoded roles of the past, we should encourage them to maintain and develop their natural flexibility.

Jim Dator

Chapter 9. Can We See the US of the Year 2230 in the Japan of 1992?

I want to begin my remarks today in a way very uncharacteristic of me: I want to look backwards before I look forwards.

Jim Dator

Chapter 33. Communication Technologies and the Futures of Courts and Law

In order to forecast alternative futures of law, lawyers, courts, and judges it is necessary to understand their alternative pasts and presents, and to determine what aspects of the pasts and presents might continue to influence the futures, and what novelties might arise creating new conditions. This paper looks at the way judicial systems have been shaped by communication technologies in the pasts and might be shaped by current and emerging communication technologies in the futures. For most of our existence, homosapiens, sapiens lived as nomadic hunters and gatherers in small, face-to-face groups. We are biologically and in many ways psychologically evolved for that kind of life, and not for the world in which we now live. Agriculture and cities—civilization—is only a few thousand years old for anyone, and still new for many. Industrial and information societies are mere recent eye-blinks in human history. Alfred North Whitehead said that civilization is a race between education and disaster. It is also a race between biology and our built environment, and the cultures we have created within it. including the cultures of law.

Jim Dator

Chapter 17. De-colonizing the Future

Nonetheless, I am going to start at “the end,” with “talk about relationships of a political nature.” This is a call to de-colonize the future. You will see soon enough, I hope, that I fully agree that “personal” reform is as important as “political programs”. I just don’t believe that we can—or should—start at one “end” and neglect the other. That isn’t the way to do it partly, because the relationship is not linear. It is cyclical and symbiotic.

Jim Dator

Chapter 19. Sea Level Rise and the Future of the Pacific Islands

Humans have successfully survived, subdued, conquered, and flourished for thousands of years without worrying much about the future. When once the world was vast and humans few, and when once nature was mighty and humans puny, there was not much need (much less possibility) to worry about the future. Whatever was to come had already happened—“As it was in the beginning is now and ever more shall be, world without change, ah me.”

Jim Dator

Chapter 27. The Honolulu Electronic Town Meeting

This a preliminary report on a recent experience with an old idea—the use of modern electronic communication technologies to increase citizen participation in governmental decision making. A more critical and in-depth evaluation of the exercise will be undertaken later, but I hope this presentation will generate not only helpful and critical comments from readers, but also information about similar exercises elsewhere. Although I have been involved with the project from the beginning, the lion share of the credit must go to Professor Ted Becker of the Political Science, Department of Political Science, University of Hawaii.

Jim Dator

Chapter 6. Some in Power, Some in Pain: A Symphonic Meditation on Humanity and Space

I preface my thoughts with a poem by Wallace Stevens (1978), entitled Men Made Out of Words:

Jim Dator

Chapter 16. The WFSF and I

I first became aware of the World Futures Studies Federation while I was in my first years of teaching futures studies, at Virginia Polytechnic Institute (now Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, usually simply called Virginia Tech) in 1966 or ‘67. Of course the WFSF had not been created then. But in order for me to develop a curriculum for a futures studies course, I had done a great deal of library research, ferreting out books and articles that seemed, somehow, to deal with the futures. I had compiled them into a rather large bibliography, arranged by various categories. I had also been persuaded, I think by David Greene of the British Archigram Group who happened to be at Virginia Tech the same time I was, to send my bibliography to the newly created Bulletin of the World Future Society that had recently been organized by Ed Cornish in Washington, DC. My bibliography was published as a supplement to the World Future Society Bulletin in April 1969.

Jim Dator

Chapter 25. Universities Without “Quality” and Quality Without “Universities”

Today I will talk about universities and quality. My title is intended to stress that neither is absolute or eternal. Each changes with changing times, needs, and possibilities. What is deemed poor quality at one place and time might be impossibly high quality at another. Quality has the characteristic that Marshall McLuhan alleged was a saying of the Balinese: “We have no art. We do everything as well as we can” (McLuhan and Fiore 1967).

Jim Dator

Chapter 26. Uncertain Futures of Science and Religion

The pages of history are full of the names of scientists who were persecuted, arrested, or killed for their scientific work that ran counter to current religious or ideological beliefs. Many still are. The American Association for the Advancement of Science maintains a contemporary Directory of Persecuted Scientists, Engineers, and Health Professionals.

Jim Dator

Chapter 18. Looking for Europe from the Outside

I was asked to give my “Perceptions of Europe from ‘Outside’”. I will do my best, but let me assure you that “Europe” is very, very hard to see, from the outside, certainly; but I am discovering that it seems equally as hard to see from the inside.

Jim Dator

Chapter 24. “New Beginnings” Within a New Normal for the Four Futures

Since the mid-1970s, it has been a hallmark of the “Manoa School of Futures Studies” to insist that it is not possible to “predict” “The Future”, but that instead “Alternative Futures” can and should be “forecasted”, and “Preferred Futures” envisioned, designed and invented, on a continuing basis (Dator 1979, 2009b).

Jim Dator

Chapter 36. Structure Matters for Crime and Justice

I will speak on two themes today.

Jim Dator

Chapter 34. On the Rights and Rites of Robots and Artilects

From the very earliest times, humans have often given names to and found special meanings to natural objects such as trees, rocks, water, mountains, and to objects in the sky such the sun, moon and stars, or groups of stars. At the same time, we have created objects out of stone, wood, mud and metals, and given names and special meaning to them as well. Various religions have holy objects that are believed to have special powers and that need to be treated in special, reverential ways. Many humans develop a close interrelation with certain animals such as dogs, cats, and horses. We often love our dog more than our children, or our horse more than our wife. Even in modern times, many of us give our automobiles, motorbikes, or bicycles affectionate names. We talk to them, pat them, show them that we care and appreciate them.

Jim Dator

Chapter 8. Time, the Future, and Other Fantasies

“Time” and “The Future” would seem to be two of the most central concepts for futures studies, but in fact, “time” was barely discussed by the founders of futures studies, and has seldom been problematized subsequently. I have reviewed what I consider to be the founding texts of futures studies, in English (In chronological order: Wells 1913; Heilbroner 1960; Polak 1961; Toffler 1965, 1970; Bell 1966; Flechtheim 1966; de Jouvenel 1967; Kahn and Weiner 1967; McHale 1969). The only one to consider time seriously to some extent was John McHale in the opening chapter of his book, The Future of the Future, cited above, titled, “Time’s Arrow”. Indeed, McHale prefaced his book with this poem he wrote:

Jim Dator

Chapter 35. Mortgage Banking for the New American Empire, and Other Futures

It is great to be talking with people for whom the immediate past has been so good, and the immediate future looks so rosy. Sure, I know you have your doubts and uncertainties, but compared to almost everyone else, these have been good times for you that you hope and perhaps expect will continue.

Jim Dator

Chapter 38. One Trump and Il Duce Wild

Regardless of who won the presidential election—whether Clinton or Trump—American national government would be at a stalemate now. Indeed, I believe a good case can be made that if Clinton had won, things would be far worse than they are now. Yes, the US government is in utter chaos. Long-standing policies and institutions have been or soon will be gutted. People and nations that have been admiring friends and allies for 65 years have been insulted. The day after Trump’s inauguration, millions of women all over the world marched defiantly but peacefully in pink pussy hats of protest. All in all, the nation seems to be in the midst of a transformation at least unparalleled since the US Civil war in the 1860s.

Jim Dator

Chapter 28. Bright Future for Democracy?

Lady Viqar-Un-Nisa Noon, Mr. Mazharul Haq Siddiqui, Mr. Ross Masood Husain and especially my beloved friend, Dr. Raja Ikram Azam, and all the members and supporters of the Pakistan Futuristic Institute are to be most heartily congratulated for convening this regional conference of the World Futures Studies Federation to consider one of the most important, and perplexing, questions facing the world today: the future of democracy in developing countries. In my brief remarks today, however, I would like to expand the scope of that inquiry to make problematic the future of democracy anywhere in the world. I frankly am very doubtful that democracy has a bright future anywhere, unless there are more meetings like this, where the participants are willing and able to look frankly into the future, with all its tsunamis and whirlwinds of change rather than only, or merely, projecting past battles and circumstances into the future. It is also necessary for us to try to see clearly the new, as well as the old, forces and trends which are working against, as well as for, the creation of viable democracies. And finally, we need to be willing and able to look beyond the forms and structures of so-called democratic governments of the past and present and the social systems within which they are situated, and see what new, and hopefully more truly, democratic forms and structures might be envisioned and invented to take the place of those which emerged in response to historical and political pressures of the past which may, or may not, be as important, or important at all, in the future.

Jim Dator

Chapter 14. Orienting Hawaii to the Future: Multi-mode Adult Education

Unlike any other state in the union, studying the future has become a legitimate statewide activity in Hawaii. Largely since 1969, when Governor John burns authorized the creation of an advisor committee to convene a conference on Hawaii 2000, many citizens of the state have been engaged in a great variety of activities with the intent of encouraging and enabling them to gain control over their personal and collective futures.

Jim Dator

Chapter 23. Korea as a Conserver Society

In the Spring 2012 Issue of Social Business Emeritus Professor Stan Shapiro revisited the pioneering work of the Canadian Conserver Society Project with which Dr Jim Dator had been involved. Ten years before, in 2002, Shapiro had also published a lengthy evaluation of this project in the Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, in which he emphasized the renewed necessity of a Conserver Society for the twenty-first Century. He again stressed numerous ways businesses can make money in a Conserver Society. He compared the work of the Conserver Society with the recommendations of the World Business Council on Sustainable Development Report, “Sustainable Production and Consumption: A Business Perspective” (Geneva, Switzerland, April 1996), further reinforcing the point that businesses now should embrace and not run from the Conserver Society perspective.

Jim Dator

Chapter 29. Inventing the Future of Courts and Courts of the Future

(I appear in rabbit ears and dark glasses, beating a toy drum)

Jim Dator

Chapter 39. Moving Towards Visions of Nonkilling Futures

I have known, admired, and loved Glenn Paige (and his wife Glenda) for more than 40 years. They have both been a huge inspiration for me in many ways. For many years, Glenn was a very active member of the World Futures Studies Federation, of which I am also a member, offering many talks and symposia primarily on leadership at our regional and world conferences. He also introduced discussions about the possibility of a nonkilling world at those conferences. While I had various concerns about his views on leadership, I have always had nothing but instant and continuing 100% support of his views on the possibility of a nonkilling world.

Jim Dator

Chapter 15. Considering Hawaii’s Future

I very much appreciate this extraordinary, indeed unique, and, I suspect, ground breaking, opportunity to address this joint session of the Legislature of the State of Hawaii. Not only has your invitation to me been a great source of personal satisfaction, but it further reinforces my frequently-voiced contention that the leaders and citizens of this State are eager and able to show to the world how better to live humanly in a multiplistic society. This State, through its leaders, is, I believe, bravely opening the doors to a new faith-affirming era, that faith being that you can and must rise above the petty jealousies and fears of his near and distant past, and daringly face the necessity of creating a profoundly new, more human, and freer world.

Jim Dator

Chapter 12. Political Futuristics: Toward the Study of Alternative Political Futures

In this brief paper, I wish to indicate what I mean by “political futuristics” and to show how it fits into the scientific study of politics and relates to the investigation of utopia from modern viewpoints.

Jim Dator

Chapter 22. Energy: A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Future

In my talk today, I want to spend a little time at the beginning explaining my own personal odyssey concerning the future of energy, not to brag—indeed, you will soon see that I have been a complete failure—but to ask why anyone thinks we will respond to the apparent challenges now any better than we did in the 1970s when energy was, for a brief while, our obsession, and mine.

Jim Dator

Chapter 37. Newt and I and W

I first met Newt Gingrich when he was still teaching history at Georgia Western University. He and I were involved in the activities of the Committee for Anticipatory Democracy that Alvin Toffler created in the mid 1970s. Then for several years after he was first elected to Congress as a Republican from Georgia in 1978—and being a Republican in Georgia was unthinkable at the time—I would visit with Newt whenever I was in Washington, and it was mutually convenient.

Jim Dator

Chapter 21. Assuming “Responsibility for Your Rose”

Humans were once a tiny part of nature, no more consequential than any of the other flora and fauna of Earth and substantially less numerous or powerful than most. However, over the millennia, and especially over the last several hundred years, and most especially the last few decades, humans have become the dominant species on Earth (Turner 1990; Willis 1998; Smil 2002; Williams 2003). We have transformed what was once a “natural” environment of which we were only a small part, into a largely and increasingly “artificial” environment of our own creation.

Jim Dator

Chapter 13. The Pedagogy of the Oppressed: North American Style

In his introduction to Paulo Freire’s Pedagogy of the Oppressed, Richard Shaull says:

Jim Dator

Chapter 2. Futures Studies as Applied Knowledge

At the present time, futures studies is to modern academia and societal decision making what Science was to academia and societal decision making in the late Middle Ages. Because of this, I am no more likely to get most successful academicians, politicians, and business persons to take futures studies seriously (and thus to help them and their organizations to think and act more helpfully about the future), than Copernicus was in getting the powers that were in his time to recognize that the earth isn’t the center of the universe. Because futures studies is not like other established fields in academia, it is constantly being misunderstood and misused.

Jim Dator

Chapter 11. We Do Everything as Well as We Can

If all goes well today, I would like to help some of you heighten your ability to look at the present and future environment through more open eyes of love.

Jim Dator

Chapter 20. Korea as the Wave of a Future: The Emerging Dream Society of Icons and Aesthetic Experience

A familiar perspective on social change suggests that over the past several thousand years, human settlements have changed in size and complexity from hunting and gathering, to agricultural, to industrial, and most recently to information societies. Some theorists have recently suggested that the world may be moving into dream societies of icons and aesthetic experience. Evidence is presented here that indicates that South Korea may be leading the transition as it implements policies to base their economy on popular culture, perhaps eventually replacing “Gross National Product” as a measure of socioeconomic success with “Gross National Cool”.

Jim Dator

Radiation Hardened by Design Sense Amplifier

This paper presents a fully symmetrical radiation hardened sense amplifier is designed in and 32 nm FinFET Double gate PTM technology to tolerate single node upset and multiple-node upset.circuit. A 9 pC charge is used at critical node of the sense amplifier to analyse Single Event Transient. The Experimental results on sensing delay, input offset voltage, power comparision and critical charge demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Avinash Verma, Gaurav Kaushal

GaAs-SiGe Based Novel Device Structure of Doping Less Tunnel FET

Tunnel field effect transistors (TFETs) are a new approaching transistors with similarities of MOSFET. Tunnel FET (TFET) has believable usage in the forward generation ultra-low power applications as an alternative of the conventional FETs. In this paper, we have designed a state of the art device structure of hetero material based electrically doped TFET (EDTFET) for raising the DC/RF performance and reducing the ambipolarity. In this concern, high band gap material(GaAs) is used instead of silicon in drain-channel region and low band gap material (SiGe) in source region for reducing ambipolarity and improving RF performance which is not much significant. Therefore, for further betterment in device performance a live metal film is installed in source-channel interface with gate-underlapping as a proposed structure.

Shivendra Yadav, Chithraja Rajan, Dheeraj Sharma, Sanjay Balotiya

A Realistic Configurable Level Triggered Flip-Flop in Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata

Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a likely candidate for future low power nano-scale electronic devices. Recently, configurable QCA designs are studied due to its low device cost, low power consumption and efficient utilization of device area. In this direction, a design of level triggered configurable flip-flop (LTCFF) is proposed which can be configured to D, T and JK flip-flop. A realistic version of the proposed LTCFF is also implemented using a universal, scalable and efficient (USE) clocking scheme. The performance of the proposed LTCFF is evaluated in terms of area occupied, no. of cells and delay which shows significant improvement over existing designs. The design flexibility of LTCFF is further tested realizing n-bit Counter/Shift Register. Moreover, the single stuck-at faults of the proposed LTCFF are tested with the help of its control inputs. All the proposed designs are verified using QCADesigner simulator.

Mrinal Goswami, Mayukh Roy Choudhury, Bibhash Sen

Compact Modeling of Drain-Extended MOS Transistor Using BSIM-BULK Model

The charge based compact model for Drain-Extended MOS (DEMOS) transistor is presented in this work. Proposed model accurately predicts the special effects of quasi-saturation, present in high voltage MOSFETs. Modeling methodology used in this paper includes the drift resistance model based on intrinsic drain current, and low voltage BSIM-BULK model. Developed model along with the BSIM-BULK compact model can be used for the modeling of low voltage bulk MOSFETs to DEMOS transistors. Proposed model results are validated with Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) DEMOS data. The model is accurately capturing the impact of drift region on DC I-V characteristics and their derivatives.

Shivendra Singh Parihar, Ramchandra Gurjar

Performance Modelling and Dynamic Scheduling on Heterogeneous-ISA Multi-core Architectures

Heterogeneous-ISA multi-core architectures have emerged as a promising design paradigm given the ever-increasing demands on single threaded performance. Such architectures comprise multiple cores that differ not just in micro-architectural parameters (e.g., fetch width, ROB size) but also in their Instruction Set Architectures (ISAs). These architectures extract previously latent performance gains by executing different phases of the program on the core (and ISA) best suited to it, as opposed to executing the entire program on a single ISA. In such a computing paradigm, maximum performance is only extracted when we ensure that at every point in the program’s execution, the program runs on the core best suited to it. In this work, we propose a migration framework that practically and accurately decides when to migrate the program across different cores (and ISAs) to extract maximum performance gains. Under the covers, this framework combines a regression based performance modelling technique with a greedy scheduling algorithm. Our performance modelling technique leverages hardware performance counters prevalent in all major processors today to accurately estimate the performance of the program on different ISAs to within an error of 6%. Putting it together with our greedy scheduler enables our framework to achieve single thread performance speedups of 29.6% with respect to a baseline single ISA heterogeneous architecture.

Nirmal Kumar Boran, Dinesh Kumar Yadav, Rishabh Iyer

Delay Efficient All Optical Carry Lookahead Adder

Carry look ahead adders (CLA) are the fastest of all adders and achieve high speed through parallel carry computations. This method does not require the carry signal to propagate stage by stage. In this paper, an efficient all-optical realization of CLA is proposed using Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates. Experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed design over similar existing designs.

Sayantani Roy, Arighna Deb, Debesh K. Das

User Guided Register Manipulation in Digital Circuits

Retiming is a widely used optimization technique in any electronic design automation (EDA) tools. Retiming primarily moves registers in digital circuit to improve the timing of the circuit. Retiming does not always produce the desired result due to various factors. As a result, the designer sometimes needs to insert register(s) into specific location(s) or delete or move register(s) from specific location(s) in order to break critical paths. This task has to be done along with register balancing i.e. the designer also needs to add or delete or move registers in all parallel paths as well to keep the functionality of the design unchanged. Manual register balancing in all parallel paths is complex and error prone due to the complexity of the design. So, this task has to be automated. The proposed method in this paper automatically inserts or deletes or moves register(s) to or from user specified location(s) and also does the register balancing in all parallel paths automatically. A Python based implementation has also been presented for the proposed method.

Priyanka Panigrahi, Rajesh Kumar Jha, Chandan Karfa